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A Kali in Every Woman: Motherhood and the Dark Goddess Archetype
Article of the Month - October 2002 by Nitin Kumar Email the author

Wherever there's a woman in any home
doing her work
screening her smiles with her veil,
she is You, Ma;
she is you, Black Goddess.

Carefully rising with the light of dawn
to attend with softened hands
to household chores,
she is You, Ma;
she is You, Black Goddess.

The woman who gives alms, makes vows, does worship, reads scriptures
all correctly and with a smile
who drapes her sari over the child on her lap
soothing its hunger with a lullaby,
she is You, Ma;
she is You, Black Goddess.

She can't be anyone else;
Mother, sister, housewife
all are You.

- Ramprasad (c.a. 1718-1775)

Goddess KaliIt is well established in the canons of Indian thought that every woman mirrors in herself the divine feminine. The above piece of poetry goes further and specifically informs us that every female has in herself the Goddess Kali. At first appearances this comes as a surprising shock, not in the least because of Kali's horrific demeanor. Envisioned as totally naked, the visual tales of her terrible form do not end with her dense black color or with the skirt made up of decapitated hands she adorns in her middle, making a mockery of all conventional images of reassurance a goddess is associated with. Further frightening is the necklace she vulgarly hangs around her neck. This is no ordinary necklace. It is made up of heads she has severed from the torsos of beings who were once as much living as you and I are at this moment. And the horrors of horrors, she stands in an arrogant gesture of triumph, one leg placed haughtily over the chest of Shiva, one of the most powerful deities of the Hindu pantheon, and who also happens to be her husband.

The truth behind the mystery of Kali, it seems, is to not be found by a conventional appraisal of her physical appearance. Rather a faithful analysis of the deep symbolism underlying this mighty Goddess is required to penetrate her innermost essence.

Traditional opinion is unanimous in accepting the figure lying under Kali's feet as being that of her husband. Here is what the same poet has to say about this aspect of her iconography:

It's not Shiva
At Mother's feet.
Only liars say that.

The ancients wrote clearly that
while killing demons,
saving the gods from their fix,
Ma stepped on a demon child
fallen to the ground.
At the touch of Her feet
the demon boy changed;
suddenly he was Shiva
On the battlefield.

As a good wife
would She ever
put Her feet
on Her husband's chest?
No, she wouldn't.
But a servant is different:
Ramprasad pleads-
place those fear-dispelling feet
on my lotus heart.

In this striking example, Ramprasad the greatest of Kali's devotees ever, saves her against the accusations that she deviates from the path of a true Hindu wife by subjugating her spouse. In a glorious moment of poetic imagery he establishes in the goddess a power that is capable of transforming a villainous demon into Shiva, the purest of all gods. Why transform this evil being into her husband? She could have changed him into any 'pure ' soul, why grant him the status of her spouse? Why indeed? This may lead us to theorize that by meditating upon the benevolent goddess we, who are the wickedest among all, can achieve this positive transformation. This suggests that in addition to approaching the goddess as a child, she can also be courted as a husband. It must however be stressed here that there is no sexuality involved in this purely emotional process. Beginning her worship as a child we may ultimately evolve into her husband. This process mirrors the rhythmic pattern each of our lives follow, i.e. starting off as a child to our mother and gradually developing into husbands to our wives. Accepting that duality exists in nature, such a hypothesis indeed projects the male in an extremely positive light. But it is the female of the species who comes out with honors here, by resolutely establishing that when they are wives and when they progress to being mothers, Kali forms an integral part of their characteristic buildup.

This positive affirmation does not however explain Kali's blackness as complementary to her motherhood. Things fall into place when we recall how creation manifested itself at the beginning of the world, when nothing material existed. This primordial state was dark. As is Kali, as is the womb, dark and mysterious. Esoterically speaking black is not a color, but the absence of color. It is what remains when all colors merge into each other, or in other words the fount which has the potentiality to give birth to all the colors of life. Another poet says in this context:

Kali in the Birth-Giving Posture

Is my Mother Kali really black?
People say Kali is black,
But my heart doesn't agree.
If She's black,
How can she light up the world?
Sometimes my Mother is white,
Sometimes yellow, blue, and red.
I cannot fathom Her.
My whole life has passed trying.

She is Matter,
Then Spirit,
Then complete Void.

- Kamalakanta Bhattacharya (1769-1821)

It is interesting to note here that in Egypt too, blackness is associated with a positive symbolism, standing for the mothering darkness of germination. Hence every woman by virtue of being a potential mother and possessing the dark, cavernous womb which grants her this capability, is a Kali.

 

 

KaliStrangely enough, scarcely having crossed one hurdle in the positive interpretation of the Kali icon as a creative matrix, we are confronted with another contradictory feature, here namely the necklace of skulls ornamenting her beautiful neck. Indeed it is a symbol of death. Believers in reincarnation maintain that before it is invested with a physical body the soul of a man is free and fully alive since it exists in the spiritual world, which is it's true sphere of existence. When it is conceived in the mother's interior, its death begins. The womb is thus the symbol of the tomb. Or for those of us, who prefer to be cremated, there are the fires which surround Kali, our archetypal mother. Thus our physical birth is in a way our spiritual death.

Equally enigmatic is the short skirt encircling her tender waist. The amputated hands which are strung together to form this garment represent for her devotees the ultimate act of devotion. This act consists in severing of all attachment to karma and meditating upon Kali as the ultimate refuge. The path to salvation in this belief lies not in following the karmic way but rather giving up one's complete self in the worship of the Goddess. As Ramprasad says:

Oh my Mind, worship Kali
any way you want-
just repeat the mantra
given to you
day and night.

The Goddess KaliThink that you're prostrating
as you lie on your bed,
and meditating on the Mother
while you sleep.
When you go about the town, imagine
you're circumambulating Kali Ma.
Each sound that enters your ears
is one of Kali's mantras,
Each letter of the fifty
around Her neck
bears Her name.

Ramprasad says, astonished,
The Goddess Full of Brahman is in every creature.
When you eat,
think that you're making an offering
to Kali Ma.

Kali contains within herself all our actions and the results which ensue thereof. Our hands are the instruments through which we carry out our karma, believing ourselves to be the masters of our own destinies. The goddess allows no such misconception, as she is the giver of life and also its terminator. It is in her that all acts originate and it is into her that they finally dissolve. This is the symbolism implied behind the carelessly flaring skirt, hobbling with the dynamic goddess, and arguably the earliest mini skirt in history.

Thus even the humblest acts we perform during the course of our daily lives is to be viewed as an offering to the Great Mother who is indeed our sustenance and nourisher, both spiritually and materially. Rightly then, one of Ramprasad's poems is entitled 'Satisfy Every Level of Our Hunger O Mother!' It runs like this:

O Mother of the Universe!
You who provide basic sustenance
And subtle nourishment of all creatures!
Please feed us, Holy Mother!
Satisfy every level of our hunger!

I know the mother always feeds her hungry child,
Regardless of its foolishness or carelessness.
Goddess Kali, grant the child who sings this song
Your supreme blessing of total illumination.
Today is the most auspicious day!
Please, Mother, do not delay!

Goddess Kali, my pangs of hunger for reality
Are becoming unbearable.
Mother! Mother! Mother!
You are the longing and the longed for!
You cannot refuse your child's earnest prayer!

The question however remains of Kali's nudity. It is Jesus who points us in the correct direction regarding this issue. In the 'Gospel of Thomas,' he says, in reply to a disciple's question about when he would come again: "When you strip yourselves without being ashamed. When you take off clothes and lay them at your feet like little children and trample on them."

Kahlil Gibran, the Lebanese-American philosopher, elaborates:

Your clothes conceal much of your beauty, yet
they hide not the unbeautiful.

And though you seek in garments the freedom
of privacy you may find in them a harness and a chain.

Would that you could meet the sun and the
wind with more of your skin and less of your raiment,

For the breath of life is in the sunlight and the
hand of life is in the wind.

Forget not that modesty is for a shield against
the eye of the unclean.

And when the unclean shall be no more, what
were modesty but a fetter and a fouling of the mind?

And forget not that the earth delights to feel
your bare feet and the winds long to play with your hair.

(From 'The Prophet')

Ramprasad concedes that ordinary mortals like himself (and us) could be bedazzled by these stark truths. He expresses similar sentiments, and at the same time grants them the high ground of abstract philosophy:

O sublime Goddess! O naked oneness!
What is the meaning of your nakedness?
Are you shameless, Divine Lady?
Yet even when discarding
royal silks, and golden ornaments
for earrings, bracelets, and anklets
fashioned from human bone,
you retain the dignity of bearing
suited to the daughter of a king.

What wild customs you follow, Ma Kali,
trampling on the chest of your noble husband.
You are the naked intensity of divine creativity,
while your consort is naked transcendence.

O Mother of the Universe,
this child is terrified by your naked truth,
your unthinkable blackness, your sheer infinity.
Please cover your reality with a gentle veil.
Why have you thrown away the necklace of pearls
that enhances your divine beauty
Wearing instead this awesome garland of heads,
Freshly severed by the sword of non duality?

Truth is not complicated. An innocent child is untrained in the manners of the world but this does not deprive him from living a zestful and complete life, albeit his/her mother forms an integral part of his unified circle of existence. This is what prompted Wordsworth to say that 'the child is the father of man.' A child is imbued with the quality of intuitive wisdom, which is the undifferentiating intelligence that existed before the world was created. Kali's nudity exhibits this free state of archetypal bliss, of which ecstasy is a characterizing attribute.

Conclusion

Elizabeth U. Harding an intrepid Kali adventurer and fan, describes in her memoirs how laborious and stressful it is to reach the inner sanctum of Kali at the Dakshineswar Temple at Calcutta, owing to the regular galore of devotees who generally swarm her temple. After having reached the inner hall housing the sanctum sanctorum this is what she says:

Mahakali or Kali

"Out of sheer awe and admiration one's voice automatically turns into a whisper - yet, there is nothing intimidating about this place.

Ushered into the presence of the deity our voices automatically drop to a whisper, as a tribute of respect to the divine presence. Finally face to face with Kali herself, this is what transpires in the author's mind:

But when one finally stands before Kali, time seems to stand still. Everything stops. The people, the noise - all is mysteriously gone. One stares with wide eyes, forgetting even to blink. All one sees is Kali and nothing else. Overwhelmed with feeling one whispers, 'I love you.' And from within she replies, 'You do so much more for I am the source of your being!'"

This is the spirit in which to approach Kali. The Great Goddess herself will then reveal her mysteries for all of us, solving in the process, the eternal questions of life.

 


References and Further Reading

  • Cooper, J.C. An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Traditional Symbols: London, 1999.
  • Gibran, Kahlil. The Prophet: New Delhi, 2002.
  • Harding. Elizabeth U, Kali The Black Goddess of Dakshineswar: Delhi, 1998.
  • Hixon, Lee. Mother of the Universe (Visions of the Goddess and Tantric Hymns of Enlightenment): Wheaton, 1994.
  • McDermott, Rachel Fell. Mother of My Heart, Daughter of My Dreams (Kali and Uma in the Devotional Poetry of Bengal): Oxford, 2001.
  • Mcdermott, Rachel Fell. Singing to the Goddess (Poems to Kali and Uma from Bengal): Oxford, 2001.
  • Tresidder, Jack. The Hutchinson Dictionary of Symbols: Oxford, 1997.
  • Walker, Benjamin. Encyclopedia of Esoteric Man, London, 1977.

We hope you have enjoyed reading the article. Any comments or feedback that you may have will be greatly appreciated. Please send your feedback to feedback@exoticindia.com.


This article by Nitin Kumar
Editor
http://www.exoticindia.com


Viewed times since 2nd Oct, 2008

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Article Reviews

  • Regarding Ramprasad (c.a. 1718-1775), I do not think Kali needs any "saving" from being other than a good Hindu wife. Perhaps it is Ramprasad himself, or (Hindu) men in general, who need be saved from misconceptions about what it means to be a good man &/or husband, in service and expression of the feminine that is embodied within women, wives, and themselves.

    And as to this constant theme of being a child, and subservient to the Great Mother....pfui. Any good mother (any good parent) knows that her job is to help her child grow into a self-sufficient, aware, and grounded adult. Indeed, as our source, Kali is us. I don't think she needs us prostrate, as I am sure she is powerful enough to prefer us alert, aware, and responsible with/to the power (and everything else) that is our source, and nature.

    I think all the supposed "mystery" serves more modern masculinist visions of the "unattainable" and therefore allows for experts to take over our lives to "save" us from our miserable selves. The Feminine must be honorably approached, but is there for creation. She is fluid, rich , and fertile....none of which is served by inaccessibility.

    How "expert" and "priest" (and Christian?) to support confusion that allows for ill-conceived thought and resulting behaviours! We know what our mothers want from us....and no amount of "oh, poor little me" whining can hide that. I think the Goddess is quite happy to have us understand that if we listen, pay attention with the consciousness inherent in her creation, we know what there is to know.

    The womb is terrifying only to those who are estranged from their own nature.
    - fuckingtwat
    25th Aug 2012
  • Jai Maha Kali Di!!!!!! You have and always will protect me from evil's harm!!! Bless you dear Ma!!!
    - Dallas
    28th Jan 2012
  • The only form I know of Ma Kali is that of a compassionate mother. She is always there when her children need her and uses all her powers to protect them, love them and be there for them. Infinite compassion and love for her children is what I always see in her.
    - Annapoorna Sengupta
    3rd Sep 2006
  • Om Shri Kali Ama...I Love You!
    - Mandy
    16th Mar 2006
  • about time someone realizes kali is a defination of what a women should be strong, and loving to her childern. me being a kali find it refreshing
    - kali
    28th Feb 2006
  • Jai! Mata Kali

    Thank you for another fine article on Kali. However, I think the one from August 2000 is better. I love Kali and have a beautiful statue on Her on my altar. For those genuinely interested in Kali, I strongly recommend a book called Singing to the Goddess: Poems to Kali and Uma from Bengal by Rachel Fell McDermott. It includes poetry by Ramaprasad and others.

    http://www.pandorasbazaar.com
    - CP
    31st Oct 2005
  • thank you for this article, it was really interesting and gave me more insight on my unusual name. It was also really cool to see other kalis.
    - kali
    25th Jul 2005
  • Hi KALI, I also have never met anyone with my name so I was very surprised to type in Kali on the web and get all this awesome news about my name thanks be well! Kali
    - Kali D. Payton
    19th Feb 2005
  • I've never met anyone with my name or ever seen it in a "baby names" book that tells its meaning, so I was glad to find this article. She is very interesting to read about, and now I can tell my friends where my name comes from.
    - Kali
    13th Jan 2005
  • i need



    by ayo

    - kanyi
    8th Jan 2005
  • very nice
    - dave
    28th Oct 2004
  • pls send me the photo ok kali
    - dave
    28th Oct 2004
  • beautiful!
    - Gita
    16th Oct 2004
  • - Angel 4 U -
    - Angel 4 U
    30th Jun 2004
  • When will we get past the fact that Kali as Divine Mother is a Blackwomen the first women. No excuse for her blackskin neither should their be an excuse for Jesus's blackskin or Krisna or Nityananda or Buddah's blackskin this is the color of the original people from whom come all people of the planet we should honor this not with ego but with supernal reverance.
    - Will
    4th May 2004
  • THANK YOU FOR YOUR EXCELLENT AND BEAUTIFUL WORK.
    - VALÉRIA PACHECO
    6th Apr 2004
  • As has been aforementioned, thank you. I'm currently a student at University High School, and was recently given a research assignment. I was permitted to explore anything of intrest concerning Asia, so naturally I wanted to learn more about a topic that was empowering to women. Again, thank you so much. This has been a great help, both scholastically and spiritually.
    - Leslie
    1st Apr 2004
  • i hate the fact that ppl show mother cali as the evil one and try to erase her from the world. wat bad did she do ?she hates men,she killed evil gods and godesses...this a symbol to all men that every woman ugly or pretty has a heart and strength to stand up for her right.
    - Yentl
    5th Jan 2004
  • this article was very nice, and educated me about Kali.
    - Ashu
    2nd Jan 2004
  • Excellent...thank you so much.
    - chris
    27th Dec 2003
  • Thank you for such a touchingly beautiful article on my Beloved Kali Ma...infinite blessings from Her to the writer and to you all at Exotic India for such a moving explanation of the One I love....
    - Marie
    30th Sep 2003
  • 7/23/03 Every time this article about Maha Kali Maji is read, another level of Her Truth is revealed to this child's heart.
    The Divine Mother has given you a great
    gift...continue to use it well! All the Best...

    the_homies_0869@yahoocom
    - michael jasionis
    23rd Jul 2003
  • i found this article interesting and am looking for the hindu goddess of witchcraft if any one knows her name then email me at punkskaterab@hotmail.com
    - almaas (punkskaterab@hotmail.com)
    10th Feb 2003
  • Namaste Nitir,
    Once again you shed light for this Westerner seeking knowledge and understanding of the great Gods and Goddesses. When I first saw Shri Kali's image I was in complete shock! Never had I seen such a figure. This article has helped to put her image in perspective. Your knowledge is immense and I appreciate the way you share it so that one who is not literate in Eastern tongue can understand easliy. Thank you for your work. Your site is the most comprehensive on Dieties I have found. The images are gorgeous. Keep up the excellent work.
    Om Namaha Shivaya
    Sarah Strickling
    - Sarah Strickling
    27th Jan 2003
  • un pensierino per te....
    questo sito scoperto per caso è veramente bellissimo!
    un abbraccio
    Adi Shakty K.
    - gobinde K.
    4th Nov 2002
  • Regarding Ramprasad (c.a. 1718-1775), I do not think Kali needs any "saving" from being other than a good Hindu wife. Perhaps it is Ramprasad himself, or (Hindu) men in general, who need be saved from misconceptions about what it means to be a good man &/or husband, in service and expression of the feminine that is embodied within women, wives, and themselves.

    And as to this constant theme of being a child, and subservient to the Great Mother....pfui. Any good mother (any good parent) knows that her job is to help her child grow into a self-sufficient, aware, and grounded adult. Indeed, as our source, Kali is us. I don't think she needs us prostrate, as I am sure she is powerful enough to prefer us alert, aware, and responsible with/to the power (and everything else) that is our source, and nature.

    I think all the supposed "mystery" serves more modern masculinist visions of the "unattainable" and therefore allows for experts to take over our lives to "save" us from our miserable selves. The Feminine must be honorably approached, but is there for creation. She is fluid, rich , and fertile....none of which is served by inaccessibility.

    How "expert" and "priest" (and Christian?) to support confusion that allows for ill-conceived thought and resulting behaviours! We know what our mothers want from us....and no amount of "oh, poor little me" whining can hide that. I think the Goddess is quite happy to have us understand that if we listen, pay attention with the consciousness inherent in her creation, we know what there is to know.

    The womb is terrifying only to those who are estranged from their own nature.
    - Christine Masterson
    17th Oct 2002
  • Again, thanks for shedding the light of wisdom on a questionable matter for the American mind. I have a young friend whose father named her Kali, and I feel this article will help her become at peace with her name. I am forwarding it to her.
    - Parandfir
    16th Oct 2002
  • Thank you so much for compiling this wonderful article! I am a westerner currently living in India, involved with a divine Indian man who is a 'student of Kali'...your article has given me a much deeper understanding and I want to know more! Again, many thanks.
    - Belinda
    16th Oct 2002
  • Laura's Song

    A young woman in Granada
    Waits forever for her lover
    And she whispers to the blooming
    Orange planted by her father
    "In this soil - my mother's tears...
    In this weal - the lizards moan...
    In this heart - my sweetheart's dreams...
    In this world - I am alone.
    Life is but my lover's joke...
    Maybe weeping is the cure,
    Let me weep in papa's garden
    Where love is pure..."

    As the dawn breaks - brilliant maze of dew
    Virgin grass blades not yet bent by you!

    Those flowers are my children
    They shall bloom when I am gone.
    They shall own this little orchard
    They shall fall upon my bones
    Life is just my lover's secret
    Maybe tears are the cure
    Let me shed them...
    In this soil
    Where love is pure.

    As the dawn breaks, brilliant maze of dew
    Virgin grass blades not yet bent by you.
    - Lev Kamensky
    16th Oct 2002
  • Namaste', Thank you once again for a great compilation article on Kali. It made my day. Love,
    - Trishula
    15th Oct 2002
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