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Books > Hindu > The Bhagawad Geeta (Set of 15 Books)
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The Bhagawad Geeta (Set of 15 Books)
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Chapter I & II

About the Book

The Gita is one of the most widely translated and commented upon scriptures of the world. It was Sankara who for the first time lifted it out of the mass of Mahabharata Literature and gave it recognition as an Upanisad. The Gita is a revelation to humanity by Lord Krsna through Arjuna-a-friend and disciple-at a critical moment of his life. It teachers man the Goal Supreme to be attained, as well as the means of attaining it. It is a Universal Scripture containing various strands of teachings suited to different men at their stages of development.

The significance of the first Chapter named Arjuna-visada-yoga literally meaning ''Arjuna's Spiritual conversion through sorrow describes the conditions under which man opens up to the Voice of the Spirit. It is often a mighty crisis or a grave tragedy which opens our eyes to the Spiritual Reality within us.

Preface

As detailed--- under "Mahabharata in Brief," on return from their long sojourn of 13 years in forest and incognito pandava-s claimed their kingdom back, as assured by Dhrtarastra at the time of their departure. Duryodhana who enjoyed the empire without a rival all these years refused to surrender even "enough land which can be carried on the tip of a needle, without war."

War, thus, became inevitable and pandava-s approached their mother Kunti for permission. Kunti had a unique personality with exemplary forbearance. She desired no worldy pleasures nor kingdom. She even implored upon Lord Krsna to grant her the boon of adversity, which retains one on the path of righteousness, and she may have Lord's rare vision always enabling her to be out of the cycle of rebirth----Samsara Cakra (Srimad Bhagavat I-viii-25). But two incidents had hurt her too deeply to be cured even after a lapse of time-One was the sadistically vain effort by Duryodhana to disrobe het beloved daughter-in-law Draupadi in the presence of all the' courtiers in the assembly and-two the vainglorious effort by Duryodhana, Duhsasana, Karna and Sakuni etc., to arrest Lord Krsna; when he went to Hastinapura as a Raja- duta (royal emissary) of pandavas-s with• a proposal of reconciliation, against all cannons of righteous behaviour on the part of akin worth, his salt. 'Kunti thought that such villians need to be put to death before they perpetrate further sinful felonies on-the society. She, therefore, granted permission.

In the entire Gita, Dhrtarastra the blind king speaks only once i.e., the first verse in Chapter I with which the Song Divine begins and the first words "Dharma-ksetre, Kuruksetre'' have special significance. Kuru-ksetra means the land of the Kuru-s, because King Kuru ruled over it. It is called Dharma-ksetra because gods are said to have performed holy sacrifice, and king Kuru, too, did lot of tapascarya, there.

Another significant and noteworthy point here is that both groups of cousins had King Kuru as one common ancestor and as such both should be known as kaurava- having common lineage; but the blind King Dhrtarastra uses the term "Mamakah)" for his own sons, while Pandava-s for his brother Pandava's sons. By considering them Pandava-s and differentiating them from Kaurava-s (the epithet reserved for his own sons), he is subtly trying to eliminate their claim to Kuru Kingdom and thus betraying his partial attitude right from first verse in the Gita. Ironically in the entire Song Divine, the sons of Pandavas are dubbed as Pandava-s, whereas sons of Dhrtarastra, instead of being called Dhartarastra-s are analogued as Kaurava-s.

The significance of the first chapter depicting Arjuna's grief is meant to show the conditions under which a man generally listens to the "Voice of the Spirit" within. Often it is a mighty crisis or a grave tragedy which opens our eyes to the Spiritual Reality within us.

In this revised Edition diacritical marks are used for Transliteration of Samskrta words in the verses as well as commentary. Non-English words have been italicised. Transliteration as well as word meanings have been added to Gita Dhyana Sloka.-s too. In the 'free translation' section where the entire text is italicised, to distinguish Samskrta words, 'normal' fonts are used. In the 'word-for-word meaning' section, for the benefit of readers not knowing Devanagari, transliteration of Samskrta words is added. This will help readers to identify and pronounce the words correctly.

The English plural sign's' has been added to untranslated Samskrta words after a hyphen (-) to show that it is not elemental to the words e.g., mantra-s, Yeda-s, Rasi-s etc.

Macrons are used on the last letter e.g., 'a, i' of such words as mantra-s, Yeda-s, Rsi-s etc., to lengthen the quantity of sound to keep up with the prolonged sound in pronunciation, although grammer rules do not require so.

The commentary on Gita (chapter-wise) has been reprinted repeatedly to meet continuous demand resulting in numerous inaccuracies, rendering some concepts almost unintelligible. Besides its readability was poor in small print. Both these aspects are taken care of in the revised layout, the credit for which is due to Shri Vishwamitra Purl who with consistent perseverance and devotion scrutinised the entire book very minutely to identify misprints, missing words and lines; added diacritical marks and word meanings, improved the get up; and pursued steadfastly, the suggested changes improvements, with the Acarya of Sandipany Mumbai for approval .

An "Alphabetical Index" in Devanagri of the first line of verses, and "Glossary of Terms used," "Index to Topics," ''the Essence of Gita;" "Appellations of Arjuna" and "Names of Sri Krsna" are added to the volume containing Chapter-I of the present series. An "Alphabetical Index" in Roman letters, the beginning of first line in case of verses with two lines, and of first and third lines of verses having four lines is being appended at the end Chapter xviii of the series. Gita (chapter-wise) is being printed afresh in the revised format.

To be true to the Samskrta text in transliteration, we have used "brahmana" for the first Varna instead of the commonly used word "brahmin." It need not be confused with the term "Brahman" of the Yedantin-s.

A key to the transliteration and pronunciation is added in the beginning of the book.

We are pleased to bring out the present revised Edition of the original-, commentary given by H. H. Svami Chinmayananda whom we all reverentially refer as Pujya Gurudeva. This is our humble offering at His holy feet with a prayer that may His words and guidance inspire us to carry on His work in all spheres of activities such as this---publication of scriptural thoughts for the benefit of the society.

Contents Chapter III, IV, V, IX, XII, XIII, XIV

 

  Chapter - I  
1 Preface to the Revised Edition  
2 Index to Topics referred to the Gita V
3 The Essence of Gita -  
  Direct Guidance For Your Problems IX
4 The Appellations Of Arjuna -  
  as defined in the Gita xv
5 The Names of Sri Krishna-  
  as employed in the Gita XVII
6 Glossory of the Terms in the Gita  
  A. Terms and their Meanings XIX
  B. Terms denoting multifarious meaning XXXVI
7 Prayerful Meditation -  
  Dhyana Shloka-s 1
8 Mahabharata In Brief 27
9 General Introduction to the Bhagawad Gita 45
10 Arjuna's Grief - Introduction . 57
11 The Scene of Kuruksetra - Verse-I ... 61
  Chapter-II  
12 Our Six Schools Of Philosophy -  

Preface

The commentary on Gita (chapter-wise) has been reprinted repeatedly to meet continuous demand resulting in numerous inaccuracies, rendering some concepts almost unintelligible. Besides these mistakes which have now been eliminated, its readability was difficult in small print which is now enlarged.

In this revised Edition diacritical marks are used for Transliteration of Samskrta words in the verses as well as commentary. Non-English words have been italicised. In the 'free translation' section where the entire text is italicised, to distinguish Samskrta words, 'normal' fonts are used. In the 'word-far-word meaning' section, for benefit of readers not knowing Devanagari, transliteration of Samskrta words is added. This will help readers to identify and pronounce the words correctly.

The English plural sign's' has been added to untranslated Samskrta words after a hyphen (-) to show that it is not elemental to the words e.g., mantra-s, Veda-s Rsi-s etc. Macrons are used on the last letter e.g., 'a, i' of such words as mantra-s, Veda-s, Rsi-s etc., to lengthen the quantity of sound to keep up with the prolonged sound in' pronunciation, although grammer rules do not require so.

An "Alphabetical Index" and "Glossary of Terms used" is added to the volume containing Chapter-XVIII and "Index to Topics," "Appellations of Arjuna" and "Names of Sri Krsna" to the volume containing Chapter-I of the present series. Gita (chapter-wise) is being printed afresh in the revised format.

A key to the transliteration and pronunciation has been added in the beginning of the book.

Chaper VI

Introduction

With this chapter we are coming to the close of a definite section in the scheme of thought in the Geeta: this is the opinion of some of the well- known critics and students of the Lord's Song. According to them, the entire eighteen chapters of the Geeta can fall into three definite sections, each of six chapters, and they group themselves to expound the implications and significances of the sacred Vedic mantra Tattvamasi- 'That thou art! The first six chapters together constitute, in their contents and explanation, the philosophical significance indicated by the word 'Thou' (tvam). In the general scheme of thought developed in that section, the contents of chapter six constitute a fitting conclusion.

In Chapter II, in a language almost foreign to Arjuna, in quick strokes, Lord Krishna painted the philosophical perfection which is the theme of all the Upanishads. He concluded that chapter with a vivid and expressive picture of a saint of perfection and mental equipoise. Naturally, the interest of a seeker is excited and he seeks to find means and methods by which he too can grow within himself into those divine heights of self-control and equipoise.

The Geeta is personally and specifically addressed to Arjuna, a confused average man, at a moment when he felt completely confounded by the problem that was facing him. Naturally, the highest methods of subtle meditation, of the mental drill by which each can renounce all his preoccupations, etc., are not easy methods which can be practised with confidence. At the same time, it will not be true to say that Vedantic methods are meant only for a few; if it is immediately useful only to the few, there must be in Vedanta preliminary techniques by which everyone can steadily grow to become fit to enter the Hall of Perfection.

That there are graded lessons for the spiritual unfoldment, is not really understood by the modem lip- Vedantins. It is this general ignorance that has brought the misconception in Hinduism that the study of the Vedas is the guarded preserve of some rare ones. And Vedanta would have been an incomplete science if it did not contain upasana methods for purifying the students' inner equipments.

Krishna, as a true teacher, understood Arjuna's mental debility and intellectual incompetency at that particular moment to start right away the arduous lines of pure meditation and clear, detached thinking. In order to bring him to the level of perfection, various lower methods of self-integration were to be prescribed in the treatment of Arjuna, Thus in Chapter III we found an exhaustively scientific treatment of the Karma- Yoga-the Path of Action.

Activities in the outer world, however noble they may be in their motive, cannot but leave deep ulcerations and painful restlessness in the bosom of the worker. To mitigate the 'reactions' of actions. (karma- phalam), as a balm to soothen the bleeding mental wounds, new methods of maintaining the mind in quietude and ease had been expounded in Chapter IV under the title 'Renunciation of Action in Knowledge'. By constantly maintaining in the mind the awareness of the greater principle that presides over all human endeavours, it is the theory of Krishna that the worker can, even in the thick of activities, maintain a healthy and well-ventilated inner life.

Naturally, the limited intellect of Arjuna got extremely confused since his teacher argued in the beginning for 'action', and in the conclusion for 'renunciation of action'. In Chapter V, therefore, the 'Way of Renunciation' is explained, and the technique of guaranteeing immunity to our mind from reactions even while it is engaged inactivity is explained. The 'yagna-spirit' -the spirit of self-dedicated activity for the benefit of the larger majority and not for any self-arrogating profit-is the antiseptic that Krishna prescribes for a mind and intellect that are to work in the world. In chapter IV, an unavoidable treatment is prescribed for the mind for curing its own pox of painful' impressions of the past' (vasanas).

In Chapter V. the Way of Renunciation is explained under two different categories, which show the two methods of achieving the same goal: Renunciation of (a) our sense of agency in activities, and (b) our unintelligent anxieties arising out of our thoughtless preoccupations with the fruits of our action. The chapter exhausts these two techniques and explains how, by the renunciation of our attachment to the fruits of action we can come to gain a release from the vasana-bondages which generally shackle our personality during our activities.

One who can faithfully follow the technique so far unravelled by the Lord should have, thereby, come to a condition wherein the insentient and inert mind has been stirred into a field of intense activity. A mind developed through the training is taught to come under the intelligent will of its determined trainer, the very seeker. The mind thus gathered and trained is certainly a better equipped instrument for the higher purpose of Self-contemplation and Self-unfoldment

How this is done through the famous technique of meditation is, in a nutshell, the theme of the sixth chapter. During our discussions we shall not stand in sheer surprise and wonderment and swallow down the ideas in the verses without dissecting, discovering; analysing, and understanding every facet of each of the ideas. This chapter promises to give us all the means by which we can give up our own known weaknesses and positively grow into a healthier and more potent life of virtue and strength. This technique is called meditation which, in one form or the other, is the common method advocated and advised in all religions by all prophets at all times. in the history of man.

Chapter XI

About the Book

To enable Arjuna to have a direct experience of the Divine, the Lord bestows upon him a new intuitive power of insight. Therefore, the Lord reveals to him His cosmic form in which Arjuna finds, in an instant, all that exists-past, present and future-spread out, as it were, as past and parcel of an All-comprehending whole, a Divine Person whose mortifying majesty and stunning splendour are too much for him to bear. The Lord reveals that all- beings are helplessly drawn and absorbed. into His being-by the stringent' Time, identified with the Lord Himself There is only Divine Wire which encompasses the wire of all beings who are mere instruments serving His biddings and accomplishing His plans. Arjuna finds both the armies arranged in battle formations, along with their warriors and- chiefs, have all been already destroyed by the Lord’s will; he finding himself just an instrument of the Lord surrenders to Him in dauntless devotion.

Preface to the Revised Edition

After hearing the Lord say: "I am what manifests as the Self in all beings,... with an atom of My being, I pervade and sustain everything," Arjuna wanted to have a direct experience of the Divine Majesty, which is the source of support of all Existence.

To enable Arjuna to have a direct experience of the Divine, the Lord bestows upon him a new intuitive power of insight. Thereafter, the Lord reveals to him His cosmic form in which Arjuna finds, in an instant, all that exists-past, present and future-spread out, as it were, as part and parcel of an AlI- comprehending Whole, a Divine Person, whose mortifying majesty and stunning splendour are too much for him to bear. The Lord reveals that all beings are helplessly drawn and absorbed into His being-by the stringent Time, identified with the Lord Himself.

There is only Divine Will which encompasses the will of all beings, who are mere divine instruments serving His biddings and accomplishing His plans. Arjuna finds both the armies arrayed in battle formations, along with their warriors and Chiefs, have all been already destroyed by the Lord's Will; he, finding himself just an instrument of the Lord, surrenders to Him in dauntless devotion.

In this revised Edition diacritical marks are used for Transliteration of Samskrta words in the verses as well as commentary. Non-English words have been italicised. In the 'free translation' section where the entire text is italicised, to, distinguish Samskrta words, 'normal' fonts are used. In the 'word-for-word meaning' section, for the benefit of readers not knowing Devanagari, transliteration of Samskrta words is added. This will help readers to identify and pronounce the words correctly.

The English plural sign's' has been added to untranslated Samskrta words after a hyphen (-) to show that it is not elemental to the words e.g., mantra-s, veda-s, Rsi-s etc. Macrons are used on the last letter e.g., 'a, i' of such words as mantra-s, Veda-s, Rsi-s etc., to lengthen the quantity of sound to keep up with the prolonged sound in pronunciation, although grammer rules do not require so.

The commentary on Gita: (chapter-wise) has been reprinted repeatedly to meet continuous demand resulting in numerous inaccuracies, rendering some concepts almost unintelligible. Besides its readability was poor in small print. Both these aspects are taken care of in the revised layout, the credit for which is due to Shri Vishwamitra Puri who with consistent perseverance and devotion scrutinised the entire book very minutely to identify misprints, missing words and lines; added diacritical marks and word meanings, improved the get up; and pursued steadfastly, the suggested changes/ improvements, with the Acarya of Sandipany Mumbai for approval.

An "Alphabetical Index" in Devanagari of the first line of verses, and "Glossary of Terms used," "Index to Topics," "the Essence of Gita," "Appellations of Arjuna" and "Names of Sri Krsna" are added to the volume containing Chapter-I of the present series. An "Alphabetical Index" in Roman letters, the beginning of first line in case of verses with two lines, and of first and third lines of verses having four lines is being appended at the end Chapter XVIII of the series. Gita (chapter-wise) is being printed afresh in the revised format.

To be true to the Samskrta text in transliteration, we have used "brahmana" for the first Varna instead of the commonly used word "brahmin." It need not be confused with the term "Brahman" of the Yedantin-s.

To facilitate easy location of a particular verse distinctive markings are given on the top of each page along with Chapter number and Name of the Chapter.

A key to the transliteration and pronunciation is added in the beginning of the book.

We are pleased to bring out the present revised Edition of the original commentary given by H. H. Svami Chinmayananda whom we all reverentially refer as Pujya Gurudeva. This is our humble offering at His holy feet with a prayer that may His words and guidance inspire us to carry on His work in all spheres of activities such as this---publication of scriptural thoughts for the benefit of the society.

Chapter XVIII

Preface

The closing chapter (eighteen) is a peroration of the beautiful discourse of the inspired Divine and, therefore, is a reiteration of almost all the salient ideas and a summary of the whole Gita--The Scripture of Mankind.

Niskama Karma i.e., Unselfish work is an all-pervasive doctrine of the Gita. Seeing the Divine Will working through the well-of-all, the enlightened ones offer all the fruits of action as well as abandon the sense of agency to the Lord. Expecting fruits of action or remuneration for services is natural and unavoidable for a man in the world. By cultivating a special attitude towards work-vas an offering to God--work is turned into worship.

In all ancient societies and even amongst the modem European races till industrial revolution, there was a stratification of society into four classes priest, nobility, agriculturist and traders, and serfs. These four character types are universal all over the world. The four-fold class system i.e., the four Varna-s of Brahmana, Ksatriya, Vaisya and Sudra based on character types i.e., predominance of Sattvik, Rejssik and Tamasik in the constitution of their body-mind-equipment, rather than the four hereditary castes, is a great doctrine of the social philosophy of ancient India. Unfortunately it is the most misunderstood and misinterpreted doctrine which is the root cause of social and political evil in the present day India.

Gita speaks of three types of Siddhi-s i.e., types of perfection. Siddhi, in general, means "attainment of the end in view of an undertaking." Svadhanna being the integral nature of man, he can not give it up; he would be compelled to undertake his Svadhanna by force of his Nature. Though Arjuna expressed a desire to retire to forest to take up the life of a medicant, his inherent Ksatriya character dragged him back into the great war.

One devoted to Svadhanna gains purity of mind and powerful aspiration through the grace of God reaches an advanced stage of development through dedicated performance, simultaneously accompanied by intense meditation and worship.

The second is described as Naisksrmya Siddhi i.e., "Perfection of transcendence of work," which is essentially the abandonment of 'fruits of action' and the 'sense of agency.'

The third Siddhi is Brahma-bhuyam wherein an introvert and ascetic is living in solitude absorbed in meditation, having nothing to do with the outside world, or any other work. He is workless both mentally and physically. It is the same state referred to as Brahmi-sthiti (II-72), Sthita-prajna (II-54) and Brahma-bhuya (XIV-26).

Bhakti and Jnana considered the same; at their highest reaches, both perfect each other. Concluding the whole teaching of Gita in Verse 63, the Lord, in a true democratic style of the Hindu Commandments as contained in Taittiriya Upanisad, giving remarkable freedom to Arjuna says: "do as you think as fit." Arjuna having regained his true original nature of a soldier desired a "Clear command." Therefore, the Lord in Verses 65-66, to satisfy his friend and disciple says "Fix your mind upon me, be devoted to Me, sacrifice to Me, bow down to Me .... " and then "abandoning all dharma-s (of the body, mind and intellect), take refuge in Me alone, I will liberate thee from all sins; grieve not."

Madhusudana Saraswati draws a very fine distinction in the three forms of surrender based on the maturity of Sadhana:--

i) "I am His"--i.e., the wave belongs to the ocean and never the other way round.

ii) "He is mine"--i.e., the devotee's sense of 'myness' is so great that the Lord can never separate Himself from his devotee.

iii) "He is I"--is the highest stage of surrender where 'I' has disappeared in the 'He', and there is only 'He.'

The term 'Jnana Yajna '-- used for the first time in the Gita--means "sacrifice of knowledge" is a mental form of sacrifice which is the highest form of adoration of the Lord. Identification of man with the perishable body-mind- equipment is the root cause of this delusion. Lord's instructions restore man to be the Immortal Spirit.

In this revised Edition, diacritical marks are used for Transliteration of Samskrta words in the verses as well as commentary. Non-English words have been italicised. Transliteration as well as word meanings have been added to Gita Dhyana Sloks-s too. In the 'free translation' section where the entire text is italicised, to distinguish Sams1qta words, 'normal' fonts are used. In the 'word-far-word meaning' section, for the benefit of readers not knowing Devanagari transliteration of Samskrta words is added. This will help readers to identify and pronounce the words correctly.

An "Alphabetical Index" in Devanagari showing the first line of Verses, "Glossary of Terms used," "Gita Dhyana Sloksa," "Index to Topics," "Appellations of Arjuna" "Names of Sri Krsna" have been added to the volume containing Chapter-I of the present series. An Alphabetical Index of Verses in Roman Scripts, ignoring Devanagari alphabetical order, showing the beginning of first and second lines of verses having two lines, and of first and third lines of verses having four lines has been added to the volume containing Chapter XVIII. This will be helpful in locating quotation from the middle of verses. The Gita (chapter-wise) has been printed afresh in the revised format.

To be true to the Samskrta text in transliteration, we have used "Brahmana" for the first Varna instead of the commonly used word "Brahmin." It need not be confused with the term "Brahman" of the Vedantin-s.

To facilitate easy location of a particular verse, distinctive marking are given on the top of each page along with Chapter No. and Name of the Chapter.

A key to the transliteration and pronunciation has been added in the beginning of the book.

 

 

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The Bhagawad Geeta (Set of 15 Books)

Item Code:
NAJ902
Cover:
Paperback
Edition:
2009
Language:
Sanskrit Test with Transliteration and Word to Word Meaning English Translation
Size:
8.5 inch x 5.5 inch
Pages:
1740
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Weight of the Book: 2.0 kg
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Chapter I & II

About the Book

The Gita is one of the most widely translated and commented upon scriptures of the world. It was Sankara who for the first time lifted it out of the mass of Mahabharata Literature and gave it recognition as an Upanisad. The Gita is a revelation to humanity by Lord Krsna through Arjuna-a-friend and disciple-at a critical moment of his life. It teachers man the Goal Supreme to be attained, as well as the means of attaining it. It is a Universal Scripture containing various strands of teachings suited to different men at their stages of development.

The significance of the first Chapter named Arjuna-visada-yoga literally meaning ''Arjuna's Spiritual conversion through sorrow describes the conditions under which man opens up to the Voice of the Spirit. It is often a mighty crisis or a grave tragedy which opens our eyes to the Spiritual Reality within us.

Preface

As detailed--- under "Mahabharata in Brief," on return from their long sojourn of 13 years in forest and incognito pandava-s claimed their kingdom back, as assured by Dhrtarastra at the time of their departure. Duryodhana who enjoyed the empire without a rival all these years refused to surrender even "enough land which can be carried on the tip of a needle, without war."

War, thus, became inevitable and pandava-s approached their mother Kunti for permission. Kunti had a unique personality with exemplary forbearance. She desired no worldy pleasures nor kingdom. She even implored upon Lord Krsna to grant her the boon of adversity, which retains one on the path of righteousness, and she may have Lord's rare vision always enabling her to be out of the cycle of rebirth----Samsara Cakra (Srimad Bhagavat I-viii-25). But two incidents had hurt her too deeply to be cured even after a lapse of time-One was the sadistically vain effort by Duryodhana to disrobe het beloved daughter-in-law Draupadi in the presence of all the' courtiers in the assembly and-two the vainglorious effort by Duryodhana, Duhsasana, Karna and Sakuni etc., to arrest Lord Krsna; when he went to Hastinapura as a Raja- duta (royal emissary) of pandavas-s with• a proposal of reconciliation, against all cannons of righteous behaviour on the part of akin worth, his salt. 'Kunti thought that such villians need to be put to death before they perpetrate further sinful felonies on-the society. She, therefore, granted permission.

In the entire Gita, Dhrtarastra the blind king speaks only once i.e., the first verse in Chapter I with which the Song Divine begins and the first words "Dharma-ksetre, Kuruksetre'' have special significance. Kuru-ksetra means the land of the Kuru-s, because King Kuru ruled over it. It is called Dharma-ksetra because gods are said to have performed holy sacrifice, and king Kuru, too, did lot of tapascarya, there.

Another significant and noteworthy point here is that both groups of cousins had King Kuru as one common ancestor and as such both should be known as kaurava- having common lineage; but the blind King Dhrtarastra uses the term "Mamakah)" for his own sons, while Pandava-s for his brother Pandava's sons. By considering them Pandava-s and differentiating them from Kaurava-s (the epithet reserved for his own sons), he is subtly trying to eliminate their claim to Kuru Kingdom and thus betraying his partial attitude right from first verse in the Gita. Ironically in the entire Song Divine, the sons of Pandavas are dubbed as Pandava-s, whereas sons of Dhrtarastra, instead of being called Dhartarastra-s are analogued as Kaurava-s.

The significance of the first chapter depicting Arjuna's grief is meant to show the conditions under which a man generally listens to the "Voice of the Spirit" within. Often it is a mighty crisis or a grave tragedy which opens our eyes to the Spiritual Reality within us.

In this revised Edition diacritical marks are used for Transliteration of Samskrta words in the verses as well as commentary. Non-English words have been italicised. Transliteration as well as word meanings have been added to Gita Dhyana Sloka.-s too. In the 'free translation' section where the entire text is italicised, to distinguish Samskrta words, 'normal' fonts are used. In the 'word-for-word meaning' section, for the benefit of readers not knowing Devanagari, transliteration of Samskrta words is added. This will help readers to identify and pronounce the words correctly.

The English plural sign's' has been added to untranslated Samskrta words after a hyphen (-) to show that it is not elemental to the words e.g., mantra-s, Yeda-s, Rasi-s etc.

Macrons are used on the last letter e.g., 'a, i' of such words as mantra-s, Yeda-s, Rsi-s etc., to lengthen the quantity of sound to keep up with the prolonged sound in pronunciation, although grammer rules do not require so.

The commentary on Gita (chapter-wise) has been reprinted repeatedly to meet continuous demand resulting in numerous inaccuracies, rendering some concepts almost unintelligible. Besides its readability was poor in small print. Both these aspects are taken care of in the revised layout, the credit for which is due to Shri Vishwamitra Purl who with consistent perseverance and devotion scrutinised the entire book very minutely to identify misprints, missing words and lines; added diacritical marks and word meanings, improved the get up; and pursued steadfastly, the suggested changes improvements, with the Acarya of Sandipany Mumbai for approval .

An "Alphabetical Index" in Devanagri of the first line of verses, and "Glossary of Terms used," "Index to Topics," ''the Essence of Gita;" "Appellations of Arjuna" and "Names of Sri Krsna" are added to the volume containing Chapter-I of the present series. An "Alphabetical Index" in Roman letters, the beginning of first line in case of verses with two lines, and of first and third lines of verses having four lines is being appended at the end Chapter xviii of the series. Gita (chapter-wise) is being printed afresh in the revised format.

To be true to the Samskrta text in transliteration, we have used "brahmana" for the first Varna instead of the commonly used word "brahmin." It need not be confused with the term "Brahman" of the Yedantin-s.

A key to the transliteration and pronunciation is added in the beginning of the book.

We are pleased to bring out the present revised Edition of the original-, commentary given by H. H. Svami Chinmayananda whom we all reverentially refer as Pujya Gurudeva. This is our humble offering at His holy feet with a prayer that may His words and guidance inspire us to carry on His work in all spheres of activities such as this---publication of scriptural thoughts for the benefit of the society.

Contents Chapter III, IV, V, IX, XII, XIII, XIV

 

  Chapter - I  
1 Preface to the Revised Edition  
2 Index to Topics referred to the Gita V
3 The Essence of Gita -  
  Direct Guidance For Your Problems IX
4 The Appellations Of Arjuna -  
  as defined in the Gita xv
5 The Names of Sri Krishna-  
  as employed in the Gita XVII
6 Glossory of the Terms in the Gita  
  A. Terms and their Meanings XIX
  B. Terms denoting multifarious meaning XXXVI
7 Prayerful Meditation -  
  Dhyana Shloka-s 1
8 Mahabharata In Brief 27
9 General Introduction to the Bhagawad Gita 45
10 Arjuna's Grief - Introduction . 57
11 The Scene of Kuruksetra - Verse-I ... 61
  Chapter-II  
12 Our Six Schools Of Philosophy -  

Preface

The commentary on Gita (chapter-wise) has been reprinted repeatedly to meet continuous demand resulting in numerous inaccuracies, rendering some concepts almost unintelligible. Besides these mistakes which have now been eliminated, its readability was difficult in small print which is now enlarged.

In this revised Edition diacritical marks are used for Transliteration of Samskrta words in the verses as well as commentary. Non-English words have been italicised. In the 'free translation' section where the entire text is italicised, to distinguish Samskrta words, 'normal' fonts are used. In the 'word-far-word meaning' section, for benefit of readers not knowing Devanagari, transliteration of Samskrta words is added. This will help readers to identify and pronounce the words correctly.

The English plural sign's' has been added to untranslated Samskrta words after a hyphen (-) to show that it is not elemental to the words e.g., mantra-s, Veda-s Rsi-s etc. Macrons are used on the last letter e.g., 'a, i' of such words as mantra-s, Veda-s, Rsi-s etc., to lengthen the quantity of sound to keep up with the prolonged sound in' pronunciation, although grammer rules do not require so.

An "Alphabetical Index" and "Glossary of Terms used" is added to the volume containing Chapter-XVIII and "Index to Topics," "Appellations of Arjuna" and "Names of Sri Krsna" to the volume containing Chapter-I of the present series. Gita (chapter-wise) is being printed afresh in the revised format.

A key to the transliteration and pronunciation has been added in the beginning of the book.

Chaper VI

Introduction

With this chapter we are coming to the close of a definite section in the scheme of thought in the Geeta: this is the opinion of some of the well- known critics and students of the Lord's Song. According to them, the entire eighteen chapters of the Geeta can fall into three definite sections, each of six chapters, and they group themselves to expound the implications and significances of the sacred Vedic mantra Tattvamasi- 'That thou art! The first six chapters together constitute, in their contents and explanation, the philosophical significance indicated by the word 'Thou' (tvam). In the general scheme of thought developed in that section, the contents of chapter six constitute a fitting conclusion.

In Chapter II, in a language almost foreign to Arjuna, in quick strokes, Lord Krishna painted the philosophical perfection which is the theme of all the Upanishads. He concluded that chapter with a vivid and expressive picture of a saint of perfection and mental equipoise. Naturally, the interest of a seeker is excited and he seeks to find means and methods by which he too can grow within himself into those divine heights of self-control and equipoise.

The Geeta is personally and specifically addressed to Arjuna, a confused average man, at a moment when he felt completely confounded by the problem that was facing him. Naturally, the highest methods of subtle meditation, of the mental drill by which each can renounce all his preoccupations, etc., are not easy methods which can be practised with confidence. At the same time, it will not be true to say that Vedantic methods are meant only for a few; if it is immediately useful only to the few, there must be in Vedanta preliminary techniques by which everyone can steadily grow to become fit to enter the Hall of Perfection.

That there are graded lessons for the spiritual unfoldment, is not really understood by the modem lip- Vedantins. It is this general ignorance that has brought the misconception in Hinduism that the study of the Vedas is the guarded preserve of some rare ones. And Vedanta would have been an incomplete science if it did not contain upasana methods for purifying the students' inner equipments.

Krishna, as a true teacher, understood Arjuna's mental debility and intellectual incompetency at that particular moment to start right away the arduous lines of pure meditation and clear, detached thinking. In order to bring him to the level of perfection, various lower methods of self-integration were to be prescribed in the treatment of Arjuna, Thus in Chapter III we found an exhaustively scientific treatment of the Karma- Yoga-the Path of Action.

Activities in the outer world, however noble they may be in their motive, cannot but leave deep ulcerations and painful restlessness in the bosom of the worker. To mitigate the 'reactions' of actions. (karma- phalam), as a balm to soothen the bleeding mental wounds, new methods of maintaining the mind in quietude and ease had been expounded in Chapter IV under the title 'Renunciation of Action in Knowledge'. By constantly maintaining in the mind the awareness of the greater principle that presides over all human endeavours, it is the theory of Krishna that the worker can, even in the thick of activities, maintain a healthy and well-ventilated inner life.

Naturally, the limited intellect of Arjuna got extremely confused since his teacher argued in the beginning for 'action', and in the conclusion for 'renunciation of action'. In Chapter V, therefore, the 'Way of Renunciation' is explained, and the technique of guaranteeing immunity to our mind from reactions even while it is engaged inactivity is explained. The 'yagna-spirit' -the spirit of self-dedicated activity for the benefit of the larger majority and not for any self-arrogating profit-is the antiseptic that Krishna prescribes for a mind and intellect that are to work in the world. In chapter IV, an unavoidable treatment is prescribed for the mind for curing its own pox of painful' impressions of the past' (vasanas).

In Chapter V. the Way of Renunciation is explained under two different categories, which show the two methods of achieving the same goal: Renunciation of (a) our sense of agency in activities, and (b) our unintelligent anxieties arising out of our thoughtless preoccupations with the fruits of our action. The chapter exhausts these two techniques and explains how, by the renunciation of our attachment to the fruits of action we can come to gain a release from the vasana-bondages which generally shackle our personality during our activities.

One who can faithfully follow the technique so far unravelled by the Lord should have, thereby, come to a condition wherein the insentient and inert mind has been stirred into a field of intense activity. A mind developed through the training is taught to come under the intelligent will of its determined trainer, the very seeker. The mind thus gathered and trained is certainly a better equipped instrument for the higher purpose of Self-contemplation and Self-unfoldment

How this is done through the famous technique of meditation is, in a nutshell, the theme of the sixth chapter. During our discussions we shall not stand in sheer surprise and wonderment and swallow down the ideas in the verses without dissecting, discovering; analysing, and understanding every facet of each of the ideas. This chapter promises to give us all the means by which we can give up our own known weaknesses and positively grow into a healthier and more potent life of virtue and strength. This technique is called meditation which, in one form or the other, is the common method advocated and advised in all religions by all prophets at all times. in the history of man.

Chapter XI

About the Book

To enable Arjuna to have a direct experience of the Divine, the Lord bestows upon him a new intuitive power of insight. Therefore, the Lord reveals to him His cosmic form in which Arjuna finds, in an instant, all that exists-past, present and future-spread out, as it were, as past and parcel of an All-comprehending whole, a Divine Person whose mortifying majesty and stunning splendour are too much for him to bear. The Lord reveals that all- beings are helplessly drawn and absorbed. into His being-by the stringent' Time, identified with the Lord Himself There is only Divine Wire which encompasses the wire of all beings who are mere instruments serving His biddings and accomplishing His plans. Arjuna finds both the armies arranged in battle formations, along with their warriors and- chiefs, have all been already destroyed by the Lord’s will; he finding himself just an instrument of the Lord surrenders to Him in dauntless devotion.

Preface to the Revised Edition

After hearing the Lord say: "I am what manifests as the Self in all beings,... with an atom of My being, I pervade and sustain everything," Arjuna wanted to have a direct experience of the Divine Majesty, which is the source of support of all Existence.

To enable Arjuna to have a direct experience of the Divine, the Lord bestows upon him a new intuitive power of insight. Thereafter, the Lord reveals to him His cosmic form in which Arjuna finds, in an instant, all that exists-past, present and future-spread out, as it were, as part and parcel of an AlI- comprehending Whole, a Divine Person, whose mortifying majesty and stunning splendour are too much for him to bear. The Lord reveals that all beings are helplessly drawn and absorbed into His being-by the stringent Time, identified with the Lord Himself.

There is only Divine Will which encompasses the will of all beings, who are mere divine instruments serving His biddings and accomplishing His plans. Arjuna finds both the armies arrayed in battle formations, along with their warriors and Chiefs, have all been already destroyed by the Lord's Will; he, finding himself just an instrument of the Lord, surrenders to Him in dauntless devotion.

In this revised Edition diacritical marks are used for Transliteration of Samskrta words in the verses as well as commentary. Non-English words have been italicised. In the 'free translation' section where the entire text is italicised, to, distinguish Samskrta words, 'normal' fonts are used. In the 'word-for-word meaning' section, for the benefit of readers not knowing Devanagari, transliteration of Samskrta words is added. This will help readers to identify and pronounce the words correctly.

The English plural sign's' has been added to untranslated Samskrta words after a hyphen (-) to show that it is not elemental to the words e.g., mantra-s, veda-s, Rsi-s etc. Macrons are used on the last letter e.g., 'a, i' of such words as mantra-s, Veda-s, Rsi-s etc., to lengthen the quantity of sound to keep up with the prolonged sound in pronunciation, although grammer rules do not require so.

The commentary on Gita: (chapter-wise) has been reprinted repeatedly to meet continuous demand resulting in numerous inaccuracies, rendering some concepts almost unintelligible. Besides its readability was poor in small print. Both these aspects are taken care of in the revised layout, the credit for which is due to Shri Vishwamitra Puri who with consistent perseverance and devotion scrutinised the entire book very minutely to identify misprints, missing words and lines; added diacritical marks and word meanings, improved the get up; and pursued steadfastly, the suggested changes/ improvements, with the Acarya of Sandipany Mumbai for approval.

An "Alphabetical Index" in Devanagari of the first line of verses, and "Glossary of Terms used," "Index to Topics," "the Essence of Gita," "Appellations of Arjuna" and "Names of Sri Krsna" are added to the volume containing Chapter-I of the present series. An "Alphabetical Index" in Roman letters, the beginning of first line in case of verses with two lines, and of first and third lines of verses having four lines is being appended at the end Chapter XVIII of the series. Gita (chapter-wise) is being printed afresh in the revised format.

To be true to the Samskrta text in transliteration, we have used "brahmana" for the first Varna instead of the commonly used word "brahmin." It need not be confused with the term "Brahman" of the Yedantin-s.

To facilitate easy location of a particular verse distinctive markings are given on the top of each page along with Chapter number and Name of the Chapter.

A key to the transliteration and pronunciation is added in the beginning of the book.

We are pleased to bring out the present revised Edition of the original commentary given by H. H. Svami Chinmayananda whom we all reverentially refer as Pujya Gurudeva. This is our humble offering at His holy feet with a prayer that may His words and guidance inspire us to carry on His work in all spheres of activities such as this---publication of scriptural thoughts for the benefit of the society.

Chapter XVIII

Preface

The closing chapter (eighteen) is a peroration of the beautiful discourse of the inspired Divine and, therefore, is a reiteration of almost all the salient ideas and a summary of the whole Gita--The Scripture of Mankind.

Niskama Karma i.e., Unselfish work is an all-pervasive doctrine of the Gita. Seeing the Divine Will working through the well-of-all, the enlightened ones offer all the fruits of action as well as abandon the sense of agency to the Lord. Expecting fruits of action or remuneration for services is natural and unavoidable for a man in the world. By cultivating a special attitude towards work-vas an offering to God--work is turned into worship.

In all ancient societies and even amongst the modem European races till industrial revolution, there was a stratification of society into four classes priest, nobility, agriculturist and traders, and serfs. These four character types are universal all over the world. The four-fold class system i.e., the four Varna-s of Brahmana, Ksatriya, Vaisya and Sudra based on character types i.e., predominance of Sattvik, Rejssik and Tamasik in the constitution of their body-mind-equipment, rather than the four hereditary castes, is a great doctrine of the social philosophy of ancient India. Unfortunately it is the most misunderstood and misinterpreted doctrine which is the root cause of social and political evil in the present day India.

Gita speaks of three types of Siddhi-s i.e., types of perfection. Siddhi, in general, means "attainment of the end in view of an undertaking." Svadhanna being the integral nature of man, he can not give it up; he would be compelled to undertake his Svadhanna by force of his Nature. Though Arjuna expressed a desire to retire to forest to take up the life of a medicant, his inherent Ksatriya character dragged him back into the great war.

One devoted to Svadhanna gains purity of mind and powerful aspiration through the grace of God reaches an advanced stage of development through dedicated performance, simultaneously accompanied by intense meditation and worship.

The second is described as Naisksrmya Siddhi i.e., "Perfection of transcendence of work," which is essentially the abandonment of 'fruits of action' and the 'sense of agency.'

The third Siddhi is Brahma-bhuyam wherein an introvert and ascetic is living in solitude absorbed in meditation, having nothing to do with the outside world, or any other work. He is workless both mentally and physically. It is the same state referred to as Brahmi-sthiti (II-72), Sthita-prajna (II-54) and Brahma-bhuya (XIV-26).

Bhakti and Jnana considered the same; at their highest reaches, both perfect each other. Concluding the whole teaching of Gita in Verse 63, the Lord, in a true democratic style of the Hindu Commandments as contained in Taittiriya Upanisad, giving remarkable freedom to Arjuna says: "do as you think as fit." Arjuna having regained his true original nature of a soldier desired a "Clear command." Therefore, the Lord in Verses 65-66, to satisfy his friend and disciple says "Fix your mind upon me, be devoted to Me, sacrifice to Me, bow down to Me .... " and then "abandoning all dharma-s (of the body, mind and intellect), take refuge in Me alone, I will liberate thee from all sins; grieve not."

Madhusudana Saraswati draws a very fine distinction in the three forms of surrender based on the maturity of Sadhana:--

i) "I am His"--i.e., the wave belongs to the ocean and never the other way round.

ii) "He is mine"--i.e., the devotee's sense of 'myness' is so great that the Lord can never separate Himself from his devotee.

iii) "He is I"--is the highest stage of surrender where 'I' has disappeared in the 'He', and there is only 'He.'

The term 'Jnana Yajna '-- used for the first time in the Gita--means "sacrifice of knowledge" is a mental form of sacrifice which is the highest form of adoration of the Lord. Identification of man with the perishable body-mind- equipment is the root cause of this delusion. Lord's instructions restore man to be the Immortal Spirit.

In this revised Edition, diacritical marks are used for Transliteration of Samskrta words in the verses as well as commentary. Non-English words have been italicised. Transliteration as well as word meanings have been added to Gita Dhyana Sloks-s too. In the 'free translation' section where the entire text is italicised, to distinguish Sams1qta words, 'normal' fonts are used. In the 'word-far-word meaning' section, for the benefit of readers not knowing Devanagari transliteration of Samskrta words is added. This will help readers to identify and pronounce the words correctly.

An "Alphabetical Index" in Devanagari showing the first line of Verses, "Glossary of Terms used," "Gita Dhyana Sloksa," "Index to Topics," "Appellations of Arjuna" "Names of Sri Krsna" have been added to the volume containing Chapter-I of the present series. An Alphabetical Index of Verses in Roman Scripts, ignoring Devanagari alphabetical order, showing the beginning of first and second lines of verses having two lines, and of first and third lines of verses having four lines has been added to the volume containing Chapter XVIII. This will be helpful in locating quotation from the middle of verses. The Gita (chapter-wise) has been printed afresh in the revised format.

To be true to the Samskrta text in transliteration, we have used "Brahmana" for the first Varna instead of the commonly used word "Brahmin." It need not be confused with the term "Brahman" of the Vedantin-s.

To facilitate easy location of a particular verse, distinctive marking are given on the top of each page along with Chapter No. and Name of the Chapter.

A key to the transliteration and pronunciation has been added in the beginning of the book.

 

 

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