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Books > Tantra > BHASKARI (Three Volumes)
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BHASKARI (Three Volumes)
BHASKARI (Three Volumes)
Description
PREFACE:
[To the First Edition]

The present volume fulfils the promise, held out to reader in my Abhinavagupta: An Historical and Philosophical Study (P. 152), to publish the Bhaskari with an English Translation of the Isvara Pratyabhijna Vimarsini of Abhinavagupta. It is the actualization of a dream, seen in Kashmir in 1931, the year of the discovery of the MS. of the Bhaskari.

It contains an English Translation of (I) the Isvara Pratyabhijna Karika of Utpalacarya and of (II) the Vimarsini, a commentary on the above by Abhinavagupta, in the light of the Bhaskari. These two are the well recognised authoritative texts, out of the six, referred to by Madhava in his Sarva Darsana Sangraha, in the section on the Pratyabhijna system, the Recognitive School of Kashmir.

The original work on the system is the Siva Drsti of Somananda (800 A.D.). The Isvara Pratyabhijna Karika of Utpalacarya, according to his own statement is only a reflection (Pratibimba) of the system of Somananda. On his Karika he himself wrote two commentaries: (I) the Vriti: no complete MS. of this work has so far been discovered; the available portion has been published in the Kashmir Sanskrit Series: and (II) the Vivrti: only a fragment of this work has recently been traced in Kashmir, after a long and continuous search for it for about twenty-five years. Abhinavagupta wrote (I) the Vivrti Vimarsini, a commentary on the Vivrti, which also has been published in the K. S. S. without the original, and (II) the Vimarsini, a commentary on the Karika. Historically, the Vimarsini is the last of the available works of Abhinavagupta and, according to his own statement, summarily presents his views on the system. Thus, besides the Siva Drsti of Somananda, Utpalacarya's Isvara Pratyabhijna Karika and Abhinavagupta's Vimarsini on it, and English Translation of which is given in the following pages, are the only two complete texts on the system, available so far.

The Karika, without the commentary, the Vimarsini, is extremely difficult to understand. But the commentary also is from the pen of Abhinavagupta, whose style is notoriously difficult. Therefore, to facilitate the understanding of these, the publication of the Bhaskari was undertaken.

CONTENTS
Volume I (Sanskrit+Text)

CONTENTS
Volume II

PrefaceI
IntroductionIII
PreliminaryIII
(I) History and Literature
Somananda, the founder of the Pratyabhijna SystemIII
Somananda and the tradition of the Monistic SaivagamasIV
His rationalistic approachIV
His discovery of PratyabhijnaV
The Isvara Pratyabhijna Karika of UtpalacaryaVI
Importance of the Vimarsini of AbhinavaguptaVII
The Bhaskari of Bhaskara KanthaVIII
Another Commentary on the VimarsiniIX
(II) Philosophy
The Philosophical Background of KriyasaktiIX
The MahesvaraX
The influence of religionXI
Mahesvara, the Absolute MindXIII
SvatantryavadaXVII
The point of view of the Isvara Pratyabhijna KarikaXIX
The Bauddha theory of actionXX
The Bauddha criticism of the Saiva view of actionXXIII
Bauddha refutation of the MahesvaraXXIV
Objections against the SvatantryavadaXXVI
The Saiva replyXXVII
Agreement with the Monistic VedantaXXX
The Saiva answer to Buddhistic objections against kriyaXXXII

CONTENTS
Volume III

Page
PREFACEi
Contentsv
List of Abbreviationsxix
INTRODUCTIONI
AN OUTLINE OF HISTORY OF SAIVA PHILOSOPHY
PART I
HISTORICAL APPROACH TO EIGHT SYSTEMS OF
SAIVA PHILOSOPHY
ANTIQUITY OF SAIVAISM AS A RELIGION
Saivaism in the VedaI
Saivaism as known to BuddhaII
Saivaism amongst kingsIII
Saivaism amongst great authorsIV
Saivaism and the VedaV
Fight systems of the Saiva PhilosophyVI
Saiva Agamic LiteratureVII
(I) PASUPATA DUALISM
The Vaisesika as a Pasupata systemX
Haribhadra's basis of classificationX
Light on the Pasupata, thrown by Rajasekhara.XII
Identification of the Pasupata system in SanskaraXIII
(II) SIDDHANTA SAIVA DUILISM
SadyojyotiXV
BrhaspatiXVI
Sankara NandanaXVII
DevabalaXVII
SAIVA DUALISM IN KASHMIR
Ramakantha IXVIII
SrikanthaXX
Narayana KanthaXX
Rama Kantha, the author of the SarvatobhadraXXI
Rama Kantha IIXXII
King Bhoja of DharaXXIII
Aghora SivaXXIV
(III) LAKULISA PASUPATA SYSTEM OF SAIVAISM
NarayanopanisadXXVII
The date of the Lakulisa Pasupata systemXXVIII
Reference to Saiva teacher UditacaryaXXIX
Identification of KausikaXXIX
The probable shape of the memorial LingasXXX
(IV) THE SAIVA VISISTADVAITA
Saiva Visistadvaita and SrikanthaXXXII
Criticism of Sri Kantha's VisistadvaitaXXXV
(V) VISESADVAITA OR PURE DVAITA OF VIRA SAIVAISM
The five teachers as historical personalities XXXIX
Revana Siddha and RevanaryaXL
MarulaXLI
EkoramaXLII
Sripati PanditaXLIII
Sripati Pandita's dateXLIII
His commentaryXLV
Aggressiveness of RamanujaXLVI
Some unfamiliar authorities referred to in the commentaryXLVII
Sripati's VisesadvaitaXLVIII
(VI) NANDIKESVARA SAIVAISM
Tradition about NandikesvaraXLIX
The date of Nandikesvara KasikaXLIX
Upamanyu, the commentatorL
(VII) RASESVARA SAIVAISM
The cause of the rise of the Rasesvara systemLII
Rasesvara as a Saiva systemLII
Probable time of Rasesvara DarsanaLV
(VIII) MONISTIC SAIVAISM OF KASHMIR
PART II. PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH
PreliminaryLVIII
The basis of the arrangement of the systemsLX
Saiva dualismLXIV
(I) PASUPATA DUALISM
Salient features of the Pasupata DualismLXIV
(II) SIDDHANTA SAIVA DUALISM
The Siddhanta Saiva Dualism and the VaisesikaLXVI
The Siddhanta Saiva Dualism and the SankhyaLXVII
The processLXVII
The Siddhanta Saiva Dualism and the VedantaLXIX
The Pasupata Dualism and the Siddhanta Saiva DualismLXX
The Siddhanta Saiva Dualism and the philosophy of GrammarLXXI
The Categories of the Siddhanta Saiva DualismLXXII
The primary and the dependent categoriesLXXIII
(I) Pati, the transcendental Siva, the first primary category.LXXV
The difference in the conception of powers explainedLXXVII
Powers of the Lord (Pati)LXXVIII
(1) The power of knowledgeLXXVIII
(2) The power of actionLXXVIII
(3) The power of willLXXVIII
(4) The power of creationLXXIX
The pure creationLXXIX
The impure creationLXXX
(5) The power of maintenance (Sthiti Sakti)LXXX
(6) The power of annihilation (Samhara Sakti)LXXXI
(7) The power of obscuration (Tirobhava)LXXXI
(8) The power of grace (Anugraha Sakti)LXXXII
(II) Pasa, the bondage, the second primary categoryLXXXII
(1) MalaLXXXIII
(2) MayaLXXXIV
(3) KarmaLXXXIV
(4) Nirodhasakti or TirobahvaLXXXV
(5) Bindu LXXXV
Bindu as an impurity or Mala LXXXV
Mysticism of the Saiva dualism and Plotinus LXXXV I
Bindu as the first dependent category
THE REASONS FOR ADMITTING THE BINDU
(1) Bindu as the material cause of the pure creationLXXXVIII
(2) Bindu and the impure worldLXXXVIII
(3) Bindu and individual selfLXXXIX
Another view of the BinduXC
Its refutation by the DualistsXC
Nada as a substitute for Sphota of the philosophy of GrammarXCI
The criticism of the Grammarians' viewXCI
Vijnana as the arouser of the meaningXCII
Its criticism and a reply to itXCIII
The theory of NadaXCIII
Nada and philosophy of musicXCV
Bindu and NadaXCV
Bindu and the theory of Pasyanti etc.,
in the philosophy of Grammar
XCVI
The difference between Bhartrhari and SrikanthaXCVII
Nada and the second dependent category, Sakti TattvaXCVIII
Sadasiva Tattva, the third dependent categoryXCVIII
Isvara Tattva, the fourth dependent categoryXCIX
Vidya Tattva, the fifth dependent category XCIX
Bindu, subtle and gross XCIX
Maya, the sixth dependent category XCIX
Kala, the seventh dependent category C
Niyati, the eighth dependent category C
Kala, the ninth dependent category CI
Vidya, the tenth dependent category CI
Raga, the eleventh dependent category CII
(III) Pasu, the third Primary category and Purusa,
the twelfth dependent category
CII
(1) Two types of VijnanakalaCIII
(2) PralayakalaCIII
(3) SakalaCIII
PurusaCIV
Avyakta, the thirteenth dependent categoryCIV
Guna Tattva, the fourteenth dependent category CIV
Liberation or MoksaCV
The experience of the liberatedCVI
The Dualist Saiva conception of Moksa and that of the VedantaCVI
Lakulisa Pasupata conception of Moksa criticisedCVIII
Other conceptions of Moksa, criticised by the Saiva Dualist CVIII
(1) Utpatti samta Paksa CVIII
(2) Samatasankranti Paksa CVIII
(3) Avesa Paksa CVIII
The teacher and the lower liberationCIX
Fundamental identity of the Tamil Saiva
Siddhanta and the Siddhanta Saiva DualismCIX
(III) DUALISM-CUM-MONISM OF LAKULISA PASUPATA
Lakulisa Pasupata and the VedaCXII
The conception of Brahman or PatiCXII
The conception of MoksaCXIV
Other points common or similar to the Lakulisa PasupataCXV
Sayana's interpretation of the text, the Vedic basis
of the Lakulisa Pasupata
CXVII
The distinctive features of the Lakulisa Pasupata systemCXVII
The points of difference between the dualist Saiva
and the Lakulisa Pasupata
CXVIII
Lakulisa Pasupata as rationalistic voluntarism CXVIII
The categories of the Lakulisa PasupataCXIX
(I) The cause (Pati), the first primary categoryCXXX
(II) The effect (Karya) or Pasu, the second primary categoryCXXIV
The relation between the cause (Pati or Karana) and
the effect (Karya)
CXXV
(1) Vidya or sentiencyCXXVI
Vidya-chartCXXVIII
Lakulisa Pasupata theory of perceptionCXXVIII
The theory of knowledgeCXXIX
PerceptionCXXIX
InferenceCXXX
AgamaCXXX
(2) KalaCXXXI
Kala-chartCXXXII
(3) PasuCXXXIII
Impurities (Mala) of the individual subject (Pasu)CXXIV
Pasu-chartCXXXIV
Eight Pentads (Pancaka) of the Lakulisa PasupataCXXXV
(1) BasaCXXXV
(2) CaryaCXXXVI
Carya (Mode of living and worship) chartCXXXVII
(3) Japa-DhyanaCXXXVII
(4) SadarudrasmrtiCXXXVII
(5) Prasada (Grace)
SiddhaCXXXIX
(III) Yoga, the third primary category of the
Lakulisa Pasupata
CXL
(IV) Vidhi, the fourth primary categoryCXLIII
Vidhi-chartCXLIV
(V) Duhkhanta (End of all miseries), the fifth primary categoryCXLV
Yukta and MuktaCXLV
The characteristics of the united (Yukta)CXLV
The conditions of the unionCXLVI
Table of the categories of the Lakulisa Pasupata systemCXLVII
(IV) VISISTADVAITA OR QUALIFIED MONISTIC SAIVAISM
Visistadvaita and BhedabhedaCXLVIII
The influencesCXLIX
Bhedabheda and Visistadvaita distinguishedCL
Brahman or SivaCLII
The individual subject or PasuCLV
Impurities or malasCLVI
Liberation or MoksaCLVII
Influence of AestheticsCLVIII
The nature of identification at liberationCLIX
(V) THE VISESADVAITA OF SRIPATI
Vira SaivaismCLXIII
Vira Saivaism and Sankara VedantaCLXIV
Criticism of the theory of superimposition (Adhyasa)CLXIV
Criticism of the practically real (Vyavaharika Satya CLXV
Criticism of the illusory nature of the worldCLXVI
Criticism of the theory of reflectionCLXVII
Criticism of the VisistadvaitaCLXVIII
Bhedabheda of SripatiCLXX
Bhedabheda and liberationCLXXI
Sacred texts and BhedabhedaCLXXII
Brahman, Para Siva or PatiCLXXIII
Pasu, Jiva or Individual soulCLXXV
Liberation or MoksaCLXXVI
Six ways to union (Sadadhva(, and six forms of
Grace (Sadvidhasaktipata)
CLXXVII
Six sections of the sacred text (Satsthala)CLXXVIII
(VI) ADVAITA SAIVAISM OF NANDIKESVARA
The importance of Nandikesvara SaivaismCLXXX
The main tendencies of the systemCLXXXI
Monism of NandikesvaraCLXXXIII
The Theory of ManifestationCLXXXIV
The categoriesCLXXXIV
(VII) RASESVARA SAIVAISM
Contributors to the Rasesvara systemCLXXXVI
The persisting traditionCLXXXVII
The value of the Rasa traditionCLXXXVIII
The scientific aspect of the Rasesvara systemCLXXXIX
Religious aspect of the Rasesvara systemCXC
Philosophical aspect of the Rasesvara systemCXCI
Saiva dualism as the basis of Rasesvara systemCXCII
Liberation in life (Jivanmukti)CXCIII
the means to liberation in life (Jivanmukti)CXCIV
(VIII) MONISTIC SAIVAISM OF KASHMIR AS PRESENTED IN
THE ISVARA PRATYABHIJNA VIMARSINI
Author's motive and point of viewCXCV
The introductionCXCVI
Buddhism and Monistic Saivaism of KashmirCXCVII
Bauddha objections against SaivaismCXCVIII
The reply of the Monistic Saivaism of KashmirCXCVIII
Epistemic basis of the Saiva MetaphysicsCC
The All-inclusive Universal Mind and its Omni-scienceCCI
Omnipotence (Kriyasakti) of the Lord and phenomenon of actionCCII
The Bauddha conception of actionCCII
The Saiva conception of actionCCIII
The last two AdhikarasCCVI
AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION
OF
THE ISVARA PRATYABHIJNA VIMARSINI
JNANADHIKARA
AHNIKA I
(THE INTRODUCTION)
Page
Statement of the purpose1
Inapplicability of the means of right knowledge to the Lord10
The essential nature of the help in recognitive activity towards the Lord12
Knowledge and action as the very life of sentient14
Establishment of the powers of knowledge and action16
AHNIKA II
(STATEMENT OF THE PRIMA FACIE VIEW)
Refutation of the permanent self20
Insufficiency of remembrance as a ground for proving permanent self22
Refutation of the view that the self as a substratum can
be inferred from the qualities such as knowledge etc.
24
Criticism of the power of knowledge25
Criticism of the Sankhya view of knowledge25
Refutation of the view of action as unity in multiplicity29
Assertion that there is no reason to prove the existence of
relation other than that of cause and effect
29
Criticism of the Saiva view of relation30
AHNIKA III
(REFUTATION OF THE PRIMA FACIE VIEW)
Direct experience cannot shine in remembrance32
Refutation of the view that remembrance is an error35
Practical life not possible without remembrance36
Explanation of remembrance on the Saiva hypothesis37
AHNIKA IV
(PRESENTATION OF THE POWER OF REMEMBRANCE)
The Saiva view of remembrance40
The subject can illumine the particular object of the
former direct experience
42
Remembrance enters into the direct experience and
its object so as to become one with them
44
Remembrance does not illumine the former direct experience as an object45
In the experience of another's experiences by a Yogin,
another's experience does not shine as an object
47
The assertion that remembrance does have direct
experience as its object is baseless
48
Even in determinate experience there is the unification of
present with the past direct experience
50
Remembrance, its subject and its object rest on one Sentient Principle51
AHNIKA V
(PRESENTATION OF THE POWER OF KNOWLEDGE)
Essential nature of the power of knowledge55
Luminosity (Prakasa) as the essential nature of the object55
Statement of the prima facie view that the existence of the
external objects is established by the refutation of the
subjectivism of the Vijnanavada
59
Futility of admission of the existence of the external object63
The essential nature of the object, according to the
Pratyabhijna system
65
Refutation of the view that the existence of the external
object is proved by direct perception
66
Refutation of the inferability of the external object66
Being of the objects as mere ideas in the Universal Self68
Self-consciousness as the very life of self-luminosity,
which constitutes the essential nature of the subject
70
Free conscious Will as the manifester of all objects and limited subjects76
The light of consciousness as the very life of both the
knowledge and the knower
80
The element of determinacy in indeterminate cognition81
Establishment of the distinction between knowledge and knower84
AHNIKA VI
(PRESENTATION OF THE POWER OF DIFFERENTIATION)
Indeterminacy as the distinctive feature of the universal
Self-consciousness
86
Impossibility of the activity of differentiation in pure self-consciousness87
Impure self-consciousness is determinacy89
Synthesis also is a determinative activity of the mind92
The creative activity of the Lord consists in Unification etc.93
All objective manifestations have their being in the
Universal Mind
94
Difference in the objects of different types of cognitions95
Content of imagination due to freedom96
AHNIKA VII
(PRESENTATION OF THE LORD AS THE ONE BASIS OF ALL)
The essential nature of the one Basis99
The practical life is possible only if there be one Basis of all100
Presentation of the essential nature of the practical life in
terms of the causal relation
101
Presentation of the essential nature of the practical life in
terms of remembrance
102
Presentation of the essential nature of the practical life in
terms of differentiation between truth and falsehood
103
Criticism of the Bauddha view of Abhava106
Reassertion in the conclusion that the explanation of
practical life is possible only on the admission of the
one Basis of all
110
AHNIKA VIII
(PRESENTATION OF THE CHIEF CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LORD)
Two kinds of manifestations, dependent and independent112
Abhasa as a unity113
Causal efficiency depends on a definite configuration of Abhasas114
Internality as the basis of variety in an Abhasa115
The essential nature of the externality and its subdivisions116
The Externality of what is pictures up in imagination116
The powers of knowledge etc. as identical with the
Freedom of the Lord
117
The essential nature of the Lord117
KRIYADHIKARA
AHNIKA I
(PRESENTATION OF THE POWER OF ACTION)
Refutation of the prima facie view about action (Kriya)119
The essential characteristic of the empirical action, the
succession, not possible in the transcendental action of the Lord
120
Time as succession121
The essential nature of succession122
The spheres of succession and simultaneity differentiated123
Both have their being in the One125
AHNIKA II
(DISCUSSION ON THE UNITY IN MULTIPLICITY)
Action etc. are real, though they cannot be accounted
for in terms of the Realistic philosophy
128
Accounting for action etc. in terms of Concrete Monism129
The characteristics of action etc. become clear in
determinate cognition only
130
Action etc. as mental constructs131
The basis of the idea of Relation134
Universal etc. as unity in multiplicity134
The essential nature of the relation of predicate and subject etc.135
Utility of relation etc. in practical life136
AHNIKA III
(DISCUSSION ON THE MEANS OF RIGHT KNOWLEDGE)
The essential nature of the means of right knowledge and its effect140
Determinate perception142
Inference (Anumana)144
Scriptural authority (Agama)145
Determinative grasp of manifestations. (Abhasas) by
intellectual reaction, according to taste etc.
147
The means of right knowledge operate on each isolated manifestation148
The causal efficiency of the "Abhasas"150
Inference in the light of Abhasavada152
Essential nature of the erroneous knowledge157
Possibility of establishing the essential nature of the object
of knowledge on the basis of the theory of God,
presented here.
159
The means of knowledge do not operate on the Lord160
The system removes the ignorance about "I"163
AHNIKA VI
(PRESENTATION OF THE ESSENTIAL NATURE
OF THE CAUSAL RELATION)
The identity of the relation of cause and effect with that
which holds between the creator and the object of creation
166
Refutation of the causality of the insentient167
Causality in reality belongs to the sentient only169
The possibility of inference depends upon the power of Niyati175
The Bauddha conception of causality ultimately
follows that of the Saiva
180
The Sankhya conception of causality does not stand to reason182
Criticism of the Vedanta metaphysics185
The Will as the cause, the agent and the action188
AGAMADHIKARA
AHNIKA I
(PRESENTATION OF THE CATEGORIES)
Definition of Siva190
Definitions of Sadasiva and Isvara191
Definition of Sadvidya192
Reasons in support of the view that Sadvidya is a pure category193
Sadasiva and Isvara as categories distinguished from
the presiding deities of the same names
194
Another view of the Suddha Vidya195
Utpalacarya's view of the Suddha Vidya196
Definition of Maya196
Elucidation of the concept of Tirodhana196
Presentation of the limiting conditions of the individual
subject, Kala, Vidya, Raga, Niyati and kala
197
Definition of Pradhana199
Presentation of the twenty-three objective categories
AHNIKA II
(PRESENTATION OF THE ESSENTIAL NATURE OF THE SUBJECT)
The essential nature of the trinity, Brahma, Visnu and Rudra202
Definitions of Pati and Pasu203
Three impurities Anava, Karma and Mayiya204
The subjects which have no 'freedom'205
Vijnanakevala205
Pralayakala206
Vidyesvara207
Gods have all the three impurities207
The two states of the transmigratory souls, according
as they are under the influence of impurities or rise above them
208
The Turiya and the Turiyatita states209
Two types of deep sleep and Sunya Pramata210
Dream and wakeful states differentiated213
Wakeful, dream and deep sleep states should be abandoned
and Turiya and Turiyatita should be realised
214
Difference in the conditions of the vital airs in the five states215
TATTVA SANGRAHADHIKARA
AHNIKA I
(PRESENTATION OF A SUMMARY-VIEW)
Mahesvara as the self of all living beings219
The essential nature of the bondage220
The essential nature of the limited subject220
The essential nature of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas221
Sattva, Rajas and Tamas as qualities221
Pleasure, pain and senselessness222
The object in relation to Pati224
The object in relation to the limited subject (Pasu)224
The world of imagination225
Two types of creation, common and uncommon226
Possibility of Moksa even when there are Vikalpas227
The bound and the liberated look upon the object world differently227
The relation of the objective world to the Parama Siva228
The conclusion that follows from the discussion in the four Adhikaras228
Line of teachers229
Illustration to show that the internal causal efficiency
depends upon recognition
230
The conclusion231
APPENDIX
Textual authority, indicated by foot-notes
INDEX275

BHASKARI (Three Volumes)

Item Code:
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Edition:
1998
Language:
An English Translation of THE ISVARAPRATYABHIJNAVIMARSINI IN THE LIGHT OF THE BHASKARI
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1360
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PREFACE:
[To the First Edition]

The present volume fulfils the promise, held out to reader in my Abhinavagupta: An Historical and Philosophical Study (P. 152), to publish the Bhaskari with an English Translation of the Isvara Pratyabhijna Vimarsini of Abhinavagupta. It is the actualization of a dream, seen in Kashmir in 1931, the year of the discovery of the MS. of the Bhaskari.

It contains an English Translation of (I) the Isvara Pratyabhijna Karika of Utpalacarya and of (II) the Vimarsini, a commentary on the above by Abhinavagupta, in the light of the Bhaskari. These two are the well recognised authoritative texts, out of the six, referred to by Madhava in his Sarva Darsana Sangraha, in the section on the Pratyabhijna system, the Recognitive School of Kashmir.

The original work on the system is the Siva Drsti of Somananda (800 A.D.). The Isvara Pratyabhijna Karika of Utpalacarya, according to his own statement is only a reflection (Pratibimba) of the system of Somananda. On his Karika he himself wrote two commentaries: (I) the Vriti: no complete MS. of this work has so far been discovered; the available portion has been published in the Kashmir Sanskrit Series: and (II) the Vivrti: only a fragment of this work has recently been traced in Kashmir, after a long and continuous search for it for about twenty-five years. Abhinavagupta wrote (I) the Vivrti Vimarsini, a commentary on the Vivrti, which also has been published in the K. S. S. without the original, and (II) the Vimarsini, a commentary on the Karika. Historically, the Vimarsini is the last of the available works of Abhinavagupta and, according to his own statement, summarily presents his views on the system. Thus, besides the Siva Drsti of Somananda, Utpalacarya's Isvara Pratyabhijna Karika and Abhinavagupta's Vimarsini on it, and English Translation of which is given in the following pages, are the only two complete texts on the system, available so far.

The Karika, without the commentary, the Vimarsini, is extremely difficult to understand. But the commentary also is from the pen of Abhinavagupta, whose style is notoriously difficult. Therefore, to facilitate the understanding of these, the publication of the Bhaskari was undertaken.

CONTENTS
Volume I (Sanskrit+Text)

CONTENTS
Volume II

PrefaceI
IntroductionIII
PreliminaryIII
(I) History and Literature
Somananda, the founder of the Pratyabhijna SystemIII
Somananda and the tradition of the Monistic SaivagamasIV
His rationalistic approachIV
His discovery of PratyabhijnaV
The Isvara Pratyabhijna Karika of UtpalacaryaVI
Importance of the Vimarsini of AbhinavaguptaVII
The Bhaskari of Bhaskara KanthaVIII
Another Commentary on the VimarsiniIX
(II) Philosophy
The Philosophical Background of KriyasaktiIX
The MahesvaraX
The influence of religionXI
Mahesvara, the Absolute MindXIII
SvatantryavadaXVII
The point of view of the Isvara Pratyabhijna KarikaXIX
The Bauddha theory of actionXX
The Bauddha criticism of the Saiva view of actionXXIII
Bauddha refutation of the MahesvaraXXIV
Objections against the SvatantryavadaXXVI
The Saiva replyXXVII
Agreement with the Monistic VedantaXXX
The Saiva answer to Buddhistic objections against kriyaXXXII

CONTENTS
Volume III

Page
PREFACEi
Contentsv
List of Abbreviationsxix
INTRODUCTIONI
AN OUTLINE OF HISTORY OF SAIVA PHILOSOPHY
PART I
HISTORICAL APPROACH TO EIGHT SYSTEMS OF
SAIVA PHILOSOPHY
ANTIQUITY OF SAIVAISM AS A RELIGION
Saivaism in the VedaI
Saivaism as known to BuddhaII
Saivaism amongst kingsIII
Saivaism amongst great authorsIV
Saivaism and the VedaV
Fight systems of the Saiva PhilosophyVI
Saiva Agamic LiteratureVII
(I) PASUPATA DUALISM
The Vaisesika as a Pasupata systemX
Haribhadra's basis of classificationX
Light on the Pasupata, thrown by Rajasekhara.XII
Identification of the Pasupata system in SanskaraXIII
(II) SIDDHANTA SAIVA DUILISM
SadyojyotiXV
BrhaspatiXVI
Sankara NandanaXVII
DevabalaXVII
SAIVA DUALISM IN KASHMIR
Ramakantha IXVIII
SrikanthaXX
Narayana KanthaXX
Rama Kantha, the author of the SarvatobhadraXXI
Rama Kantha IIXXII
King Bhoja of DharaXXIII
Aghora SivaXXIV
(III) LAKULISA PASUPATA SYSTEM OF SAIVAISM
NarayanopanisadXXVII
The date of the Lakulisa Pasupata systemXXVIII
Reference to Saiva teacher UditacaryaXXIX
Identification of KausikaXXIX
The probable shape of the memorial LingasXXX
(IV) THE SAIVA VISISTADVAITA
Saiva Visistadvaita and SrikanthaXXXII
Criticism of Sri Kantha's VisistadvaitaXXXV
(V) VISESADVAITA OR PURE DVAITA OF VIRA SAIVAISM
The five teachers as historical personalities XXXIX
Revana Siddha and RevanaryaXL
MarulaXLI
EkoramaXLII
Sripati PanditaXLIII
Sripati Pandita's dateXLIII
His commentaryXLV
Aggressiveness of RamanujaXLVI
Some unfamiliar authorities referred to in the commentaryXLVII
Sripati's VisesadvaitaXLVIII
(VI) NANDIKESVARA SAIVAISM
Tradition about NandikesvaraXLIX
The date of Nandikesvara KasikaXLIX
Upamanyu, the commentatorL
(VII) RASESVARA SAIVAISM
The cause of the rise of the Rasesvara systemLII
Rasesvara as a Saiva systemLII
Probable time of Rasesvara DarsanaLV
(VIII) MONISTIC SAIVAISM OF KASHMIR
PART II. PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH
PreliminaryLVIII
The basis of the arrangement of the systemsLX
Saiva dualismLXIV
(I) PASUPATA DUALISM
Salient features of the Pasupata DualismLXIV
(II) SIDDHANTA SAIVA DUALISM
The Siddhanta Saiva Dualism and the VaisesikaLXVI
The Siddhanta Saiva Dualism and the SankhyaLXVII
The processLXVII
The Siddhanta Saiva Dualism and the VedantaLXIX
The Pasupata Dualism and the Siddhanta Saiva DualismLXX
The Siddhanta Saiva Dualism and the philosophy of GrammarLXXI
The Categories of the Siddhanta Saiva DualismLXXII
The primary and the dependent categoriesLXXIII
(I) Pati, the transcendental Siva, the first primary category.LXXV
The difference in the conception of powers explainedLXXVII
Powers of the Lord (Pati)LXXVIII
(1) The power of knowledgeLXXVIII
(2) The power of actionLXXVIII
(3) The power of willLXXVIII
(4) The power of creationLXXIX
The pure creationLXXIX
The impure creationLXXX
(5) The power of maintenance (Sthiti Sakti)LXXX
(6) The power of annihilation (Samhara Sakti)LXXXI
(7) The power of obscuration (Tirobhava)LXXXI
(8) The power of grace (Anugraha Sakti)LXXXII
(II) Pasa, the bondage, the second primary categoryLXXXII
(1) MalaLXXXIII
(2) MayaLXXXIV
(3) KarmaLXXXIV
(4) Nirodhasakti or TirobahvaLXXXV
(5) Bindu LXXXV
Bindu as an impurity or Mala LXXXV
Mysticism of the Saiva dualism and Plotinus LXXXV I
Bindu as the first dependent category
THE REASONS FOR ADMITTING THE BINDU
(1) Bindu as the material cause of the pure creationLXXXVIII
(2) Bindu and the impure worldLXXXVIII
(3) Bindu and individual selfLXXXIX
Another view of the BinduXC
Its refutation by the DualistsXC
Nada as a substitute for Sphota of the philosophy of GrammarXCI
The criticism of the Grammarians' viewXCI
Vijnana as the arouser of the meaningXCII
Its criticism and a reply to itXCIII
The theory of NadaXCIII
Nada and philosophy of musicXCV
Bindu and NadaXCV
Bindu and the theory of Pasyanti etc.,
in the philosophy of Grammar
XCVI
The difference between Bhartrhari and SrikanthaXCVII
Nada and the second dependent category, Sakti TattvaXCVIII
Sadasiva Tattva, the third dependent categoryXCVIII
Isvara Tattva, the fourth dependent categoryXCIX
Vidya Tattva, the fifth dependent category XCIX
Bindu, subtle and gross XCIX
Maya, the sixth dependent category XCIX
Kala, the seventh dependent category C
Niyati, the eighth dependent category C
Kala, the ninth dependent category CI
Vidya, the tenth dependent category CI
Raga, the eleventh dependent category CII
(III) Pasu, the third Primary category and Purusa,
the twelfth dependent category
CII
(1) Two types of VijnanakalaCIII
(2) PralayakalaCIII
(3) SakalaCIII
PurusaCIV
Avyakta, the thirteenth dependent categoryCIV
Guna Tattva, the fourteenth dependent category CIV
Liberation or MoksaCV
The experience of the liberatedCVI
The Dualist Saiva conception of Moksa and that of the VedantaCVI
Lakulisa Pasupata conception of Moksa criticisedCVIII
Other conceptions of Moksa, criticised by the Saiva Dualist CVIII
(1) Utpatti samta Paksa CVIII
(2) Samatasankranti Paksa CVIII
(3) Avesa Paksa CVIII
The teacher and the lower liberationCIX
Fundamental identity of the Tamil Saiva
Siddhanta and the Siddhanta Saiva DualismCIX
(III) DUALISM-CUM-MONISM OF LAKULISA PASUPATA
Lakulisa Pasupata and the VedaCXII
The conception of Brahman or PatiCXII
The conception of MoksaCXIV
Other points common or similar to the Lakulisa PasupataCXV
Sayana's interpretation of the text, the Vedic basis
of the Lakulisa Pasupata
CXVII
The distinctive features of the Lakulisa Pasupata systemCXVII
The points of difference between the dualist Saiva
and the Lakulisa Pasupata
CXVIII
Lakulisa Pasupata as rationalistic voluntarism CXVIII
The categories of the Lakulisa PasupataCXIX
(I) The cause (Pati), the first primary categoryCXXX
(II) The effect (Karya) or Pasu, the second primary categoryCXXIV
The relation between the cause (Pati or Karana) and
the effect (Karya)
CXXV
(1) Vidya or sentiencyCXXVI
Vidya-chartCXXVIII
Lakulisa Pasupata theory of perceptionCXXVIII
The theory of knowledgeCXXIX
PerceptionCXXIX
InferenceCXXX
AgamaCXXX
(2) KalaCXXXI
Kala-chartCXXXII
(3) PasuCXXXIII
Impurities (Mala) of the individual subject (Pasu)CXXIV
Pasu-chartCXXXIV
Eight Pentads (Pancaka) of the Lakulisa PasupataCXXXV
(1) BasaCXXXV
(2) CaryaCXXXVI
Carya (Mode of living and worship) chartCXXXVII
(3) Japa-DhyanaCXXXVII
(4) SadarudrasmrtiCXXXVII
(5) Prasada (Grace)
SiddhaCXXXIX
(III) Yoga, the third primary category of the
Lakulisa Pasupata
CXL
(IV) Vidhi, the fourth primary categoryCXLIII
Vidhi-chartCXLIV
(V) Duhkhanta (End of all miseries), the fifth primary categoryCXLV
Yukta and MuktaCXLV
The characteristics of the united (Yukta)CXLV
The conditions of the unionCXLVI
Table of the categories of the Lakulisa Pasupata systemCXLVII
(IV) VISISTADVAITA OR QUALIFIED MONISTIC SAIVAISM
Visistadvaita and BhedabhedaCXLVIII
The influencesCXLIX
Bhedabheda and Visistadvaita distinguishedCL
Brahman or SivaCLII
The individual subject or PasuCLV
Impurities or malasCLVI
Liberation or MoksaCLVII
Influence of AestheticsCLVIII
The nature of identification at liberationCLIX
(V) THE VISESADVAITA OF SRIPATI
Vira SaivaismCLXIII
Vira Saivaism and Sankara VedantaCLXIV
Criticism of the theory of superimposition (Adhyasa)CLXIV
Criticism of the practically real (Vyavaharika Satya CLXV
Criticism of the illusory nature of the worldCLXVI
Criticism of the theory of reflectionCLXVII
Criticism of the VisistadvaitaCLXVIII
Bhedabheda of SripatiCLXX
Bhedabheda and liberationCLXXI
Sacred texts and BhedabhedaCLXXII
Brahman, Para Siva or PatiCLXXIII
Pasu, Jiva or Individual soulCLXXV
Liberation or MoksaCLXXVI
Six ways to union (Sadadhva(, and six forms of
Grace (Sadvidhasaktipata)
CLXXVII
Six sections of the sacred text (Satsthala)CLXXVIII
(VI) ADVAITA SAIVAISM OF NANDIKESVARA
The importance of Nandikesvara SaivaismCLXXX
The main tendencies of the systemCLXXXI
Monism of NandikesvaraCLXXXIII
The Theory of ManifestationCLXXXIV
The categoriesCLXXXIV
(VII) RASESVARA SAIVAISM
Contributors to the Rasesvara systemCLXXXVI
The persisting traditionCLXXXVII
The value of the Rasa traditionCLXXXVIII
The scientific aspect of the Rasesvara systemCLXXXIX
Religious aspect of the Rasesvara systemCXC
Philosophical aspect of the Rasesvara systemCXCI
Saiva dualism as the basis of Rasesvara systemCXCII
Liberation in life (Jivanmukti)CXCIII
the means to liberation in life (Jivanmukti)CXCIV
(VIII) MONISTIC SAIVAISM OF KASHMIR AS PRESENTED IN
THE ISVARA PRATYABHIJNA VIMARSINI
Author's motive and point of viewCXCV
The introductionCXCVI
Buddhism and Monistic Saivaism of KashmirCXCVII
Bauddha objections against SaivaismCXCVIII
The reply of the Monistic Saivaism of KashmirCXCVIII
Epistemic basis of the Saiva MetaphysicsCC
The All-inclusive Universal Mind and its Omni-scienceCCI
Omnipotence (Kriyasakti) of the Lord and phenomenon of actionCCII
The Bauddha conception of actionCCII
The Saiva conception of actionCCIII
The last two AdhikarasCCVI
AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION
OF
THE ISVARA PRATYABHIJNA VIMARSINI
JNANADHIKARA
AHNIKA I
(THE INTRODUCTION)
Page
Statement of the purpose1
Inapplicability of the means of right knowledge to the Lord10
The essential nature of the help in recognitive activity towards the Lord12
Knowledge and action as the very life of sentient14
Establishment of the powers of knowledge and action16
AHNIKA II
(STATEMENT OF THE PRIMA FACIE VIEW)
Refutation of the permanent self20
Insufficiency of remembrance as a ground for proving permanent self22
Refutation of the view that the self as a substratum can
be inferred from the qualities such as knowledge etc.
24
Criticism of the power of knowledge25
Criticism of the Sankhya view of knowledge25
Refutation of the view of action as unity in multiplicity29
Assertion that there is no reason to prove the existence of
relation other than that of cause and effect
29
Criticism of the Saiva view of relation30
AHNIKA III
(REFUTATION OF THE PRIMA FACIE VIEW)
Direct experience cannot shine in remembrance32
Refutation of the view that remembrance is an error35
Practical life not possible without remembrance36
Explanation of remembrance on the Saiva hypothesis37
AHNIKA IV
(PRESENTATION OF THE POWER OF REMEMBRANCE)
The Saiva view of remembrance40
The subject can illumine the particular object of the
former direct experience
42
Remembrance enters into the direct experience and
its object so as to become one with them
44
Remembrance does not illumine the former direct experience as an object45
In the experience of another's experiences by a Yogin,
another's experience does not shine as an object
47
The assertion that remembrance does have direct
experience as its object is baseless
48
Even in determinate experience there is the unification of
present with the past direct experience
50
Remembrance, its subject and its object rest on one Sentient Principle51
AHNIKA V
(PRESENTATION OF THE POWER OF KNOWLEDGE)
Essential nature of the power of knowledge55
Luminosity (Prakasa) as the essential nature of the object55
Statement of the prima facie view that the existence of the
external objects is established by the refutation of the
subjectivism of the Vijnanavada
59
Futility of admission of the existence of the external object63
The essential nature of the object, according to the
Pratyabhijna system
65
Refutation of the view that the existence of the external
object is proved by direct perception
66
Refutation of the inferability of the external object66
Being of the objects as mere ideas in the Universal Self68
Self-consciousness as the very life of self-luminosity,
which constitutes the essential nature of the subject
70
Free conscious Will as the manifester of all objects and limited subjects76
The light of consciousness as the very life of both the
knowledge and the knower
80
The element of determinacy in indeterminate cognition81
Establishment of the distinction between knowledge and knower84
AHNIKA VI
(PRESENTATION OF THE POWER OF DIFFERENTIATION)
Indeterminacy as the distinctive feature of the universal
Self-consciousness
86
Impossibility of the activity of differentiation in pure self-consciousness87
Impure self-consciousness is determinacy89
Synthesis also is a determinative activity of the mind92
The creative activity of the Lord consists in Unification etc.93
All objective manifestations have their being in the
Universal Mind
94
Difference in the objects of different types of cognitions95
Content of imagination due to freedom96
AHNIKA VII
(PRESENTATION OF THE LORD AS THE ONE BASIS OF ALL)
The essential nature of the one Basis99
The practical life is possible only if there be one Basis of all100
Presentation of the essential nature of the practical life in
terms of the causal relation
101
Presentation of the essential nature of the practical life in
terms of remembrance
102
Presentation of the essential nature of the practical life in
terms of differentiation between truth and falsehood
103
Criticism of the Bauddha view of Abhava106
Reassertion in the conclusion that the explanation of
practical life is possible only on the admission of the
one Basis of all
110
AHNIKA VIII
(PRESENTATION OF THE CHIEF CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LORD)
Two kinds of manifestations, dependent and independent112
Abhasa as a unity113
Causal efficiency depends on a definite configuration of Abhasas114
Internality as the basis of variety in an Abhasa115
The essential nature of the externality and its subdivisions116
The Externality of what is pictures up in imagination116
The powers of knowledge etc. as identical with the
Freedom of the Lord
117
The essential nature of the Lord117
KRIYADHIKARA
AHNIKA I
(PRESENTATION OF THE POWER OF ACTION)
Refutation of the prima facie view about action (Kriya)119
The essential characteristic of the empirical action, the
succession, not possible in the transcendental action of the Lord
120
Time as succession121
The essential nature of succession122
The spheres of succession and simultaneity differentiated123
Both have their being in the One125
AHNIKA II
(DISCUSSION ON THE UNITY IN MULTIPLICITY)
Action etc. are real, though they cannot be accounted
for in terms of the Realistic philosophy
128
Accounting for action etc. in terms of Concrete Monism129
The characteristics of action etc. become clear in
determinate cognition only
130
Action etc. as mental constructs131
The basis of the idea of Relation134
Universal etc. as unity in multiplicity134
The essential nature of the relation of predicate and subject etc.135
Utility of relation etc. in practical life136
AHNIKA III
(DISCUSSION ON THE MEANS OF RIGHT KNOWLEDGE)
The essential nature of the means of right knowledge and its effect140
Determinate perception142
Inference (Anumana)144
Scriptural authority (Agama)145
Determinative grasp of manifestations. (Abhasas) by
intellectual reaction, according to taste etc.
147
The means of right knowledge operate on each isolated manifestation148
The causal efficiency of the "Abhasas"150
Inference in the light of Abhasavada152
Essential nature of the erroneous knowledge157
Possibility of establishing the essential nature of the object
of knowledge on the basis of the theory of God,
presented here.
159
The means of knowledge do not operate on the Lord160
The system removes the ignorance about "I"163
AHNIKA VI
(PRESENTATION OF THE ESSENTIAL NATURE
OF THE CAUSAL RELATION)
The identity of the relation of cause and effect with that
which holds between the creator and the object of creation
166
Refutation of the causality of the insentient167
Causality in reality belongs to the sentient only169
The possibility of inference depends upon the power of Niyati175
The Bauddha conception of causality ultimately
follows that of the Saiva
180
The Sankhya conception of causality does not stand to reason182
Criticism of the Vedanta metaphysics185
The Will as the cause, the agent and the action188
AGAMADHIKARA
AHNIKA I
(PRESENTATION OF THE CATEGORIES)
Definition of Siva190
Definitions of Sadasiva and Isvara191
Definition of Sadvidya192
Reasons in support of the view that Sadvidya is a pure category193
Sadasiva and Isvara as categories distinguished from
the presiding deities of the same names
194
Another view of the Suddha Vidya195
Utpalacarya's view of the Suddha Vidya196
Definition of Maya196
Elucidation of the concept of Tirodhana196
Presentation of the limiting conditions of the individual
subject, Kala, Vidya, Raga, Niyati and kala
197
Definition of Pradhana199
Presentation of the twenty-three objective categories
AHNIKA II
(PRESENTATION OF THE ESSENTIAL NATURE OF THE SUBJECT)
The essential nature of the trinity, Brahma, Visnu and Rudra202
Definitions of Pati and Pasu203
Three impurities Anava, Karma and Mayiya204
The subjects which have no 'freedom'205
Vijnanakevala205
Pralayakala206
Vidyesvara207
Gods have all the three impurities207
The two states of the transmigratory souls, according
as they are under the influence of impurities or rise above them
208
The Turiya and the Turiyatita states209
Two types of deep sleep and Sunya Pramata210
Dream and wakeful states differentiated213
Wakeful, dream and deep sleep states should be abandoned
and Turiya and Turiyatita should be realised
214
Difference in the conditions of the vital airs in the five states215
TATTVA SANGRAHADHIKARA
AHNIKA I
(PRESENTATION OF A SUMMARY-VIEW)
Mahesvara as the self of all living beings219
The essential nature of the bondage220
The essential nature of the limited subject220
The essential nature of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas221
Sattva, Rajas and Tamas as qualities221
Pleasure, pain and senselessness222
The object in relation to Pati224
The object in relation to the limited subject (Pasu)224
The world of imagination225
Two types of creation, common and uncommon226
Possibility of Moksa even when there are Vikalpas227
The bound and the liberated look upon the object world differently227
The relation of the objective world to the Parama Siva228
The conclusion that follows from the discussion in the four Adhikaras228
Line of teachers229
Illustration to show that the internal causal efficiency
depends upon recognition
230
The conclusion231
APPENDIX
Textual authority, indicated by foot-notes
INDEX275
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