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Books > Hindu > BRAHMA PURANA: 4 Volumes
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BRAHMA PURANA: 4 Volumes
BRAHMA PURANA: 4 Volumes
Description
Preface

The present volume contains the Brahma Purana Part I (Chapters 1-40) in English Translation. This is the thirty third volume in the Series on Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology.

The project of the series was planned in 1970 by Lala Sundar Lal Jam of Messrs Motilal Banarsidass, with the aim to universalize knowledge through the most popular international medium, viz. English. Hitherto the English translations of nine Purãnas, namely Siva, Linga, Bhagavata, Garuda, Narada, Kurma, Brahmanda, Agni and Varaha have been published by us.

The present volume (Brahma Purana, part I) contains 40 chapters. Chapter 1 opens with a dialogue between Sutaromahana and the sages of Naimisa forest. Here as usual Suta is the chief speaker who on enquiry from the sages describes, in detail, the origin of Devas and Asuras. ch. 2 narrates the birth of Prthu from Vena and his installation on the throne as the lord of subjects ch. 3 mentions 14 Manus—six in the past, one in the present and seven in the future. Chs. 4-6 review the evolution of Vaivasvata Sun and kings of the solar race. There are references to the Haihaya race which comprised the following well known tribes Vitihotras, Saryãtas, Rhojas, Avantis, Tunçlikeras, (or Kundikeras), Talajañghas, Rharatas, Sujatyas, Yãdavas, Sürasenas, Anartas and Cedis. Mention is made of Sakas and Yadavas who helped the Haihaya kings in their war with Paraurama. Further, references are made to Pahlavas, Paradas, Vavanas, Kambojas, Dãradas, Sakas and Cinas. The chapter refers to some unknown tribes such as Kalasarpas and Daryas who are not identifiable. Chs. 7-8 narrate the birth of Soma and the dynasties of kings of the Lunar Race. Chs. 9-il recount the genealogy of ancient Ksatriyas with the narrative of king Yayati in detail. Chs. 12-15 relate to the family of the birth of Srikna in that family and the episode of Syamantaka jewel. Chs. 16-22 deal with the seven continents with particular reference to Jambudvipa. They survey the magnitude of oceans continents and nether regions. While describing the upper and lower worlds they present the dreadful portrait of hells as well the precise position of the pole star.

Ch. 23 relates to the holy centers of pilgrimage and describes their efficacy. Chs. 24,25 describe the glory of Bharata through the mouth of Brahma Chs. 26-31 prescribe the wordship of sun god his one hundred and eight names his glory and nativity Chs. 32-36 describe the marriage of uma-Mahesvara and their departure from the Himalayas Chs. 37-38 recount the story of Prajapati Daksa and the destruction of his sacrifice by the ganas of lord Siva. Chs. 39-40 describe the holy centers Ekamra and Utkala.

 

Introduction

The Purana as a class of Literature represents different phases and aspects of life lived by the people in diverse ages. It is not possible to adopt a standard definition for the class of literature that contains heterogeneous phases and aspects of life. Literally the word Purana means old A purana in therefore the record of ancient tradition. According to the lexicographer Amara Simha (c 500 A.D) a purana should treat of five subject viz creations (2) dissolution and re creation (3) Genearlogies of gods patriarchs and illustrious monarchs (4) epochs of Manus and (5) the history of ancient dynasties. The definition is applicable to the Brahma Purana as well as to the other Puranas. To illustrate Chapters 1-3 treat of Sarga and Pratisarga (dissolution). The latter is taken up again in Chs. 122-125 Chs. 4-11 treat of vamsa and Vamsancarita (the history of illustrious monarchs) Ch. 3 deals with the fourteen Manvantaras (ages of Manus) viz Svayambhuva svarocisa Uttama Raivata Caksusa vaivasvata Raibhya, Raucya, Tamasa and five savarnis surya daksa Brahma dharma and rudra.

But the definition was found inadequate even in the early age of Puranas. It could not cover the entire contents of the Purana. The scope of definition was therefore enlarged even at the stage when the Purana literature was in the offing. The Bhagavata Purana added five more characteristics to the panca laksana purana. They were vrtti (means of livelihood) Raksa (incarnations for the protection of the people) Mukti (final Release) Hetu (unmanifest primordial nature) and apasraya (Brahma) but even this dasa Laksana definition could not full cover all aspects. Hence the Matsya Purana provided a definition approaching nearer to the description of the extant Puranas. According to this definition the Purana included the glorification of Braham visnu Surya and Rudra as also of Dharma artha and Kama.

But neither the Pancalaksana nor the Dasalaksana nor the Matsya Purana definition of the Purana could cover such topics as Tirtha yatra etc. with changes in the peoples mode of behavior the Purana introduced various other subjects which could not be covered by any definition. However this class of literature was definable only by the etymological meaning of the word Purana that is old.

The Padma Purana classifies Brahma Purana as Rajasa and assigns it to Brahma the god of rajas quality. This conforms to the statement of Matsya that the Rajasa Puranas are assignable to Brahma or Agni sattvika to Visnu tamas to Siva. The Puranas are classifiable as sattvika rajasa and tamasa on the strength of quality which they possess predominantly. But as the study reveals the Brahma is more sattvika than rajasa. A considerable portion of this purana is devoted to the glorification of Purusottama vasudeva Srikrshna Sun god and Siva. The Purana speaks of Ekama ksetra and Purusottam ksetra as sacred to Siva and Visnu respectively visnu and Siva are paramount lords while Brahma occupies the third position. Brahma himself speaks highly of Visnu and Siva.

But the Purana takes its name after Brahma. It is because Braham is the main speaker here. It is Brahma who narrates this Purana to the sages on mount meru. The version with certain modifications was repeated by Vyasa to the sages at Kuruksetra and by his disciple Romaharsana to the sages at Naimisa. The Purana derives its name merely because it has appeared through the mouth of Brahma.

According to the Narada Purana Brahma Purana contains 10,000 verses. This is corroborated by Linga varaha kurma and padma Puranas. The Matsya Purana however gives the number as 1300 though some of the mss of the Matsya Purana read this number as 10,000. In fact if we divide the Krahma Purana into 2 parts arbitrarily (although there is no mention of this division in the purana itself) part 1 containing 138 adhyayas comprising 10,000 verses and part 2 comprising Gautami Mahatmya containing 4000 verses the number comes to 14000 verses which is supported by Devibhagavata. But whether Gautami Mahatmya is a part of Brahma Purana or an independent work has always been an open question. The Narada Purana excludes gautami mahatmya from the contents of Brahma Purana. This shows that Narada Purana did not recognize Gautami as a part of Brahma Purana. From this we can conclude that the original Brahma Purana much have comprised 10,000 verses approximately.

 

Part II

 

Preface

The present volume contains the Brahma Purazia Part II (Chapters 41-105) in English Translation. This is the thirty- fourth volume in the Series on Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology.

The project was planned in 1970 by Lala Sundar Lal Jam of Messrs Motilal Banarsidass, with the aim to universalize knowledge through the most popular international medium, viz. English. Hitherto the English translations of ten Puranas, namely Siva, Liñga, Bhãgavata, Garuçla, Narada, Kurma, Brahmaida, Agni, Varãha and Brahma (part I) have come out.

The present volume contains chapters 41 to 105. It opens with the narrative of Indradyumna, king of Avanti, his performance of horse-sacrifice at the holy centre Pursottama and the establishment of images of Sankarana, Krna and Subhadra in the magnificent palace which he built there. The account extends to the forty-eighth chapter ending with the description of Pursottama, the centre sacred to Vinu. The text then passes on to the story of sage Markancleya with the significant reference to Siva’s temple by the side of Markaodeya lake which was built in AD. 800 by Kundala Kesarin, king of Orissa. This is followed by the description of holy shrines, the procedure of worship of deities therein and the benefits of their worship. The Puraa expiates upon the merits of living and dying at this centre. Chapters 69 to 103 describe the narrative of Sri Krçia and the legends of Balarâma, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. Chapters 104 and 105 which conclude this part glorify different manifestations of the lord as well as review the path of the world of Yama.

Most of the chapters in this as well as the preceding part describe the holy places of Orissa. They seem to have been composed by one who was well acquainted with Orissa. We may, therefore, conclude that the group of chapters relating to Orissa might have sprung up in that centre.

It is our pleasant duty to put on record our sincere thanks to Dr. R.N. Dandekar and the UNESCO authorities for their kind encouragement and valuable help which render this work very useful. We are grateful to Shri T.V. Parameshwar Iyer for his valuable assistance in the preparation of this work. we also express out gratitude to all those scholars who have offered suggestions for improving the same.

In fine we avail of this opportunity to state that any critical suggestion or advice for improvement is welcome and will receive proper consideration from us.

 

Part III

 

Preface

This is the thirty-fifth volume in the series on Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology. It contains l3rahma Purana, Part III (chapters 106-138).

The project was conceived in 1970 by the late Lala Sundar Lal Jain of Messers Motilal Banarsidass with the aim to disseminate the knowledge acquired by the ancient sages through the most popular international medium, viz. English. Hitherto the English translations of ten Puranas, namely, Siva, Linga, Bhagavata, Garuda, Nárada, Kürma, Brahmanda, Agni, Varãha and Brahma (Parts I & II) have been published in the series.

Chapter 106 opens with an account of tortures inflicted on sinners in various hells. As many as forty-two hells have been named as against twenty-eight in most of the Puranas. A terrible picture of the tortures to which sinners are subjected has been drawn obviously with a motive to check the growth of crime. This is followed by an account of the reception accorded to the virtuous by Dharmarãja and his servants in chapter 107. Then chapter 108 describes the good and bad actions of the Jiva and the Yonis into which it is reborn as a result of them. The next chapter praises the gift of food as the best of charitable acts and then in the next three chapters details of the performance of raddha for the departed are given. Chapter 113 contains a description of compulsory and optional duties prescribed for the householder together with various do’s and dont’s. Chapter 114 describes the special duties of the four castes (varzas) and the four stages of life (dramas). The next one is of a considerable sociological interest as it specifies the circumstances leading to upgrading and downgrading of castes. Chapters 118-120 are concerned with the superiority of god Viu, his worship and the benefits of singing songs in praise of Visnu. Chapters 122-23 treat of the fate of men in Kali age and ‘foretell’ in what respects righteousness will decrease what losses difficulties and calamities will befall mankind. Various kinds of cosmic annihilation at the end of a kalpa etc. are described in Chapters 124-125 it is really a terrible picture that has been drawn. The subject of the next one is human suffering and the means of getting rid of it for ever. Yoga as a means of ending the miseries and various restrictions to be observed during its practice is the topic of Chapter 127. the Principles of Sankhya and Yoga are discussed in more details in chapters 128-32. Topics of religious and philosophical interest recur in the next five chapters. Samkhya concepts find a prominent place in the philosophy of this Purana.

 

Part IV

 

Preface

This thirty-sixth volume in the series on Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology forms the fourth and last part of the Brahma Purana. It contains the entire Gautami-Mãhatmya consisting of 105 chapters which eulogize a number of sacred places situated on the banks of the river Godãvari flowing south of the Vindhya mountain through the, well-known forest named Dasidakarauya.

This part of the Brahma Purana is an independent work, since it has no organic relationship with this Purana and the only affinity that it shows to the latter is a minor one, namely, that the main speaker here also happens to be Brahma. A very relevant thing to be noticed here is that it differs in style from the Brahma Purana. In each of its chapters it describes one Tirtha with the legends and anecdotes associated with it, how it got its name, what is its importance, what merits accrue from visiting it and offering worship etc. By all internal and external evidence the Gautami-Mahatmya appears to have been added to the Brahma Purana at some late stage.

In the first chapter of the work some genera! Features of the Tirthas, their varieties, nature etc. are described. The second one relates the story of the demon Taraka, atrocities inflicted by him on the Devas, their prayer to Visnu for protection, the latter’s advice to them to persuade Lord Siva to marry the daughter of Himalaya with the aim of giving birth to a valiant sort *ho would kill the demon, the burning of the God of Love by the fire emanating from Siva’s third eye and the ultimate winning of his consent by the Devas to marry Parvati. The third chapter describes the marriage of Siva with Pãrvati and the birth of Kãrttikeya. In the fourth chapter the story of Visnu’s incarnation as Vamana is narrated and also the origination of the waters of Ganga from the foot of Visnu washed by Brahma with the water of Kamandalu, and the bearing of the waters of Gangã by Siva in his matted hair. The fifth and next two chapters describe how Parvati gets jealous of Ganga due to her closer association with Siva how a plot is hatched up so that Siva Abandons her how the stage Gautama gets Falsely implicated and ultimately succeeds in bringing Ganga from Siva’s mattes air to Brahmagiri and from there down to the earth in the form of Godavari. The eighth chapter narrates the story Sagara the burning of his sons by the infuriated sage Kapila and the taking the ancestors burnt by the curse of Kapila. After this chapters 9-104 take up a detailed description of a large number of sacred places with associated stories. The last chapter repeats the story of Ganga brought down to the earth by the sage Gautama with the difference that he is not here falsely accused of cowslaughter and also the benefits of perusing and hearing the Gautama Mahatmya.

 

CONTENTS

 

PART I

 
Preface vii
Abbreviations xi
Introduction xiii
  Purana: Definition xiii
  The Nomenclature xiv
  Extent xv
  Transmission of tradition xvi
  Text-criticism xvii
  Date of Composition xvii
  Place of Composition xix
  Religion and Philosophy of Brahma Purana xx
Chapters  
1. On the Origin of Devas and Asuras 1
2. Origin and glory of Prthu 19
3. Manvantaras 29
4. Evolution of Vivasvat Aditya 33
5. Review of the Solar Race 37
6. Kings of the Solar Race 45
7. Birth of Soma 53
8. Kings of the Lunar Race 56
9. Genealogy of Ancient Ksatriyas 61
10. The Narrative of Yayati 65
11. Dynasty of Yayati 69
12. Birth of Srikrsna 84
13. The Family of Vrsnis 88
14. How the Syamantaka jewel was brought back 93
15. Akrura obtains Syamantaka 97
16. Seven Continents 100
17. Jambudvipa 105
18. Magnitude of Oceans and Continents 108
19. Magnitude of Nether worlds 114
20. Hells in nether regions 117
21. Upper Regions 121
22. Pole Star 124
23. Holy Centres: Their Greatness 126
24. A Dialogue between Brahma and Sages 132
25. Bharata Subcontinent 135
26. The Glory of Konaditya 140
27. Efficacy of Devotion to Sun-god 145
28. Glory of Sun-God 150
29. Names of Sun-God 157
30. Nativity of Sun-God 160
31. One Hundred and Eight Names of Sun-God 170
32. Penance of Uma 174
33. Testing of Parvati 183
34. Parvati weds Siva 189
35. Hymn in Praise of Siva 201
36. Uma and Sankara leave Himalayas 205
37. Destruction of Daksa's Sacrifice 209
38. The Prayer of Daksa 217
39. The holy Centre of Ekamra 230
40. The holy centre of Utkala 237

PART II

 
A. Abbreviations xiii
B. Translation and Notes  
Chapters  
41. The Narrative of Indradyumna; Description of Avanti 241
42. The Holy Centres Sighted 248
43. A Review of Past Incidents 254
44. Description of Holy Centres 261
45. Horse-sacrifice 264
46. Prayer for Welfare 272
47. Origin of Idols 280
48. Description of Purusottama 285
49. A visit to the Holy Banyan Tree by Markandeya 291
50. Markandeya views Annihilation 292
51. Markandeya wanders in the belly of the Lord 296
52. Prayer to the Lord 297
53. Markandeys's vision of the holy lord 301
54. Visit to Krsna shrine 308
55. Greatness of Narasimha 314
56. Greatness of Sveta Madhava 320
57. Mode of Procedure for a Holy Dip in the Ocean 328
58. Rules of worship and Mantras 334
59. Merit of a holy dip in the Ocean 339
60. Glory of five holy spots - Pancatirthi 341
61. Mahajyesthi Full-Moon day in the month of Jyestha 343
62. Holy ablution in propitiation of Krsna 345
63. Glory of holy procession: Gundika yatra 354
64. The twelve holy pilgrimages and their benefits 356
65. The world of Visnu 362
66. Glory of Lord Purusottama 368
67. Glory of Ananta Vasudeva 371
68. Glory of holy shrine of Purusottama 377
69. Narrative of sage Kandu 380
70. Doubts raised by sages 397
71. Lord's incarnation in the family of Yadus 404
72. Incarnations of Hari 407
73. Nativity of Srikrsna 411
74. Kamsa takes steps to ward off danger 415
75. Putana slain and Cart Smashed 416
76. Cowherd's cology shifted to Vrndavana 418
77. Suppression of Kaliya 421
78. Dhenuka and Pralamba are slain 425
79. Worship of Govardhana mountain 429
80. Coronation of Lord Krsna 432
81. Arista is slain 437
82. Kesin is slain 442
83. Akrura comes to the cowherd's colony 446
84. Retuen to Akrura 450
85. Kamsa is slain 457
86. The son f Sandipani restored 464
87. The onslaught of Jarasandha 467
88. Mucukunda's Prayer 468
89. Balarama returns to the cowherd's colony 472
90. Balarama's sport with Ploughshare 474
91. Return of Pradyumna 476
92. Rukmin is slain 479
93. Naraka is killed 482
94. The prayer by Indra 485
95. Lord Krsna marries sixteen thousand and one hundred virgins 491
96. Progeny of Sri Krsna 493
97. Usa and Aniruddha - their marriage 495
98. The burning of Kasi 500
99. Glory of Balarama 503
100. The monkey Dvivida is slain 506
101. Sri Krsna returns to his abode 508
102. Lord Krsna ascends heaven 513
103. Episode of Krsna concluded 514
104. Different manifestations of the Lord 522
105. Path to the world of Yama 535
PART III  
PREFACE vii
ABBREVIATIONS xi
CHAPTERS  
106. Tortures in Hell 547
107. The Goal of the Virtuous 559
108. The Cycle of Worldly Existence 566
109. Gift of food the best of all charitable acts 573
110. On the performance of Sraddha and the associated legend 575
111. The details of the Sraddha ritual 584
112. The details of Sapindikarana Rite 588
113. Conduct of the Good 597
114. Assignment of duties to different castes and stages of life 612
115. Characteristics of mixed castes 617
116. Review of Virtue 622
117. Review of Virtue 627
118. Dialogue between Mahesvara and the sages 632
119. Goal of the devotees of Visnu 637
120. The benefits of singing devotional songs of Visnu while keeping awake at night 641
121. Manifestation of Maya 654
122. Foretelling future 662
123. Foretelling future 669
124. Description of Annihilation 677
125. The Natural Re-absorption 681
126. The Ultimate Re-absorption 685
127. Practice of Yoga 691
128. Review of Samkhya and Yoga 695
129. Review of Samkhya and Yoga 701
130. Review of Samkhya and Yoga 709
131. Review of Injunctions regarding Yogic Practice 714
132. Review of the principles of Samkhya 719
133. The perishable and the Imperishable 729
134. A dialogue between Vasistha and Janaka 733
135. A dialogue between Vasistha and Janaka 737
136. A dialogue between Vasistha and Janaka 745
137. A dialogue between Vasistha and Janaka 749
138. In Praise of the Purana 754

PART IV
(Gautami-Mahatmya - The Glorification of Gautami)

 
PREFACE vii
ABBREVIATIONS xiii
Chapters  
1. Holy Centres 759
2. Siva's Marriage 762
3. Gift of a Watr vessel to Brahma 766
4. How Ganga Entered the Matted Hair of Siva 770
5. Vinayaka and Gautama 776
6. Descent of Gautami 784
7. Glory of the Holy River 789
8. The Descent of Bhagirathi 793
9. The Holy Centre Varaha 799
10. Kapotatirtha 801
11. Kumaratirtha 809
12. Krittika Tirtha 811
13. Dasasvamedha Tirtha 812
14. Paisaca Tirtha 815
15. Ksudha Tirtha 816
16. Indra Tirtha: Ahalyasangama Tirtha 819
17. Janasthana Tirtha 825
18. Cakratirtha 827
19. Asvabhanu Tirtha 832
20. Garuda Tirtha 835
21. Govardhana Tirtha 839
22. Paparanasana Tirtha 840
23. Visvamitra Tirtha 844
24. Sveta and other Tirthas 847
25. Sukratirtha and Mrtasanjivani Tirtha 851
26. Seven Thousand Holy Centres 854
27. Paulastya Tirtha 856
28. Agnitirtha 859
29. Rnamocana Tirtha 861
30. Kadru-Suparna-Sangama Tirtha 863
31. Sarasvatisangama 866
32. Review of the Greatness of Five Tirthas 868
33. Sami and other Holy Centres 869
34. Twenty-two Thousand Holy Centres 870
35. The Twnety-Five Confluences of Various Rivers 878
36. Amrtasangama and other Holy Centres 881
37. Description of Seventeen Holy Centres 885
38. Sixteen Thousand Holy Centres 893
39. Cakra Tirtha 905
40. Cakresvara and other Holy Centres 910
41. Nagatirtha a Holy Centre 932
42. Matrtirtha 940
43. Brahmatirtha and other Holy Centres 943
44. Avighnatirtha 945
45. Sesatirtha and other Holy Centres 947
46. Vadava and other Holy Centres 949
47. Atmatirtha 952
48. Asvattha and other Tirthas 954
49. Somatirtha 957
50. Dhanyatirtha 959
51. Vidarbhasangama and other Holy Centres 961
52. Purnatirtha and other Holy Centres 963
53. Ramatirtha and other Holy Centres 973
54. Putratirtha and other Holy Centres 991
55. Holy Centres Yamatirtha etc. 1004
56. The Holy Centre Tapastirtha and Others 1010
57. Holy Centre Arstisenatirtha etc. 1014
58. Holy Centre Arstisenatirtha etc. 1020
59. Holy Centre Tapovanatirtha etc. 1027
60. Apastambatirtha and other Holy Centres 1038
61. Holy Centres Yamatirtha and Others 1042
62. Holy Centres Yaksinisangama etc. 1047
63. Suklatirtha and other Holy Centres 1048
64. Cakratirtha and other Holy Centres 1050
65. Vanisangama and other Holy Centres 1051
66. Visnutirtha and other Holy Centres 1054
67. Laksmitirtha and other Holy Centres 1057
68. Bhanutirtha and other Holy Centres 1061
69. Khadgatirtha  and other Holy Centres 1065
70. Anvindratirtha and other Holy Centres 1067
71. Kapilasangama and other Holy Centres 1071
72. Devasthana and other Holy Centres 1074
73. Siddhatirtha and other Holy Centres 1076
74. Parusnisangama and other Holy Centres 1077
75. Markandeyat tha and other Holy Centres 1080
76. Yayatatirtha and other Holy Centres 1081
77. Apsaroyugasangama Tirtha and other Holy Centres 1086
78. Kotitirtha and other Holy Centres 1088
79. Narasimhatirtha and other Holy Centres 1090
80. Paisacatirtha and other Holy Centres 1091
81. Nimnabheda and other Holy Centres 1094
82. Nanditata and other Holy Centres 1096
83. Bhavatirtha and other Holy Centres 1100
84. Sahasrakunda and other Holy Centres 1101
85. Kapilatirtha and other Holy Centres 1104
86. Sankhahrada and other Holy Centres 1105
87. Kiskindha - A Holy Centre 1106
88. Vyasatirtha - A Holy Centre 1109
89. Vanjarasangama and other Holy Centres 1113
90. The Holy Centre Devagamatirtha 1118
91. The Description of Kausatarpana and other Holy Centres 1120
92. The Holy Centre Manyu 1126
93. Sarasvata and other Holy Centres 1129
94. Cincikatirtha and other Holy Centres 1134
95. Bhadratirtha 1138
96. Patatritirtha 1142
97. Vipratirtha also known as Narayanatirtha 1143
98. Bhanutirtha and other Holy Centres 1146
99. The Holy Centre Bhilla 1150
100. Caksustirtha and other Holy Centres 1154
101. Urvasi and other Holy Centres 1162
102. Meeting of Godavari and the Sea in Seven Branches 1167
103. Rsisatra and Bhimesvaratirtha 1169
104. The Confluence of Ganga with Sea 1172
105. The Benefits of Listening to the Purana 1175
INDEX 1185

Sample Pages

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BRAHMA PURANA: 4 Volumes

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Preface

The present volume contains the Brahma Purana Part I (Chapters 1-40) in English Translation. This is the thirty third volume in the Series on Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology.

The project of the series was planned in 1970 by Lala Sundar Lal Jam of Messrs Motilal Banarsidass, with the aim to universalize knowledge through the most popular international medium, viz. English. Hitherto the English translations of nine Purãnas, namely Siva, Linga, Bhagavata, Garuda, Narada, Kurma, Brahmanda, Agni and Varaha have been published by us.

The present volume (Brahma Purana, part I) contains 40 chapters. Chapter 1 opens with a dialogue between Sutaromahana and the sages of Naimisa forest. Here as usual Suta is the chief speaker who on enquiry from the sages describes, in detail, the origin of Devas and Asuras. ch. 2 narrates the birth of Prthu from Vena and his installation on the throne as the lord of subjects ch. 3 mentions 14 Manus—six in the past, one in the present and seven in the future. Chs. 4-6 review the evolution of Vaivasvata Sun and kings of the solar race. There are references to the Haihaya race which comprised the following well known tribes Vitihotras, Saryãtas, Rhojas, Avantis, Tunçlikeras, (or Kundikeras), Talajañghas, Rharatas, Sujatyas, Yãdavas, Sürasenas, Anartas and Cedis. Mention is made of Sakas and Yadavas who helped the Haihaya kings in their war with Paraurama. Further, references are made to Pahlavas, Paradas, Vavanas, Kambojas, Dãradas, Sakas and Cinas. The chapter refers to some unknown tribes such as Kalasarpas and Daryas who are not identifiable. Chs. 7-8 narrate the birth of Soma and the dynasties of kings of the Lunar Race. Chs. 9-il recount the genealogy of ancient Ksatriyas with the narrative of king Yayati in detail. Chs. 12-15 relate to the family of the birth of Srikna in that family and the episode of Syamantaka jewel. Chs. 16-22 deal with the seven continents with particular reference to Jambudvipa. They survey the magnitude of oceans continents and nether regions. While describing the upper and lower worlds they present the dreadful portrait of hells as well the precise position of the pole star.

Ch. 23 relates to the holy centers of pilgrimage and describes their efficacy. Chs. 24,25 describe the glory of Bharata through the mouth of Brahma Chs. 26-31 prescribe the wordship of sun god his one hundred and eight names his glory and nativity Chs. 32-36 describe the marriage of uma-Mahesvara and their departure from the Himalayas Chs. 37-38 recount the story of Prajapati Daksa and the destruction of his sacrifice by the ganas of lord Siva. Chs. 39-40 describe the holy centers Ekamra and Utkala.

 

Introduction

The Purana as a class of Literature represents different phases and aspects of life lived by the people in diverse ages. It is not possible to adopt a standard definition for the class of literature that contains heterogeneous phases and aspects of life. Literally the word Purana means old A purana in therefore the record of ancient tradition. According to the lexicographer Amara Simha (c 500 A.D) a purana should treat of five subject viz creations (2) dissolution and re creation (3) Genearlogies of gods patriarchs and illustrious monarchs (4) epochs of Manus and (5) the history of ancient dynasties. The definition is applicable to the Brahma Purana as well as to the other Puranas. To illustrate Chapters 1-3 treat of Sarga and Pratisarga (dissolution). The latter is taken up again in Chs. 122-125 Chs. 4-11 treat of vamsa and Vamsancarita (the history of illustrious monarchs) Ch. 3 deals with the fourteen Manvantaras (ages of Manus) viz Svayambhuva svarocisa Uttama Raivata Caksusa vaivasvata Raibhya, Raucya, Tamasa and five savarnis surya daksa Brahma dharma and rudra.

But the definition was found inadequate even in the early age of Puranas. It could not cover the entire contents of the Purana. The scope of definition was therefore enlarged even at the stage when the Purana literature was in the offing. The Bhagavata Purana added five more characteristics to the panca laksana purana. They were vrtti (means of livelihood) Raksa (incarnations for the protection of the people) Mukti (final Release) Hetu (unmanifest primordial nature) and apasraya (Brahma) but even this dasa Laksana definition could not full cover all aspects. Hence the Matsya Purana provided a definition approaching nearer to the description of the extant Puranas. According to this definition the Purana included the glorification of Braham visnu Surya and Rudra as also of Dharma artha and Kama.

But neither the Pancalaksana nor the Dasalaksana nor the Matsya Purana definition of the Purana could cover such topics as Tirtha yatra etc. with changes in the peoples mode of behavior the Purana introduced various other subjects which could not be covered by any definition. However this class of literature was definable only by the etymological meaning of the word Purana that is old.

The Padma Purana classifies Brahma Purana as Rajasa and assigns it to Brahma the god of rajas quality. This conforms to the statement of Matsya that the Rajasa Puranas are assignable to Brahma or Agni sattvika to Visnu tamas to Siva. The Puranas are classifiable as sattvika rajasa and tamasa on the strength of quality which they possess predominantly. But as the study reveals the Brahma is more sattvika than rajasa. A considerable portion of this purana is devoted to the glorification of Purusottama vasudeva Srikrshna Sun god and Siva. The Purana speaks of Ekama ksetra and Purusottam ksetra as sacred to Siva and Visnu respectively visnu and Siva are paramount lords while Brahma occupies the third position. Brahma himself speaks highly of Visnu and Siva.

But the Purana takes its name after Brahma. It is because Braham is the main speaker here. It is Brahma who narrates this Purana to the sages on mount meru. The version with certain modifications was repeated by Vyasa to the sages at Kuruksetra and by his disciple Romaharsana to the sages at Naimisa. The Purana derives its name merely because it has appeared through the mouth of Brahma.

According to the Narada Purana Brahma Purana contains 10,000 verses. This is corroborated by Linga varaha kurma and padma Puranas. The Matsya Purana however gives the number as 1300 though some of the mss of the Matsya Purana read this number as 10,000. In fact if we divide the Krahma Purana into 2 parts arbitrarily (although there is no mention of this division in the purana itself) part 1 containing 138 adhyayas comprising 10,000 verses and part 2 comprising Gautami Mahatmya containing 4000 verses the number comes to 14000 verses which is supported by Devibhagavata. But whether Gautami Mahatmya is a part of Brahma Purana or an independent work has always been an open question. The Narada Purana excludes gautami mahatmya from the contents of Brahma Purana. This shows that Narada Purana did not recognize Gautami as a part of Brahma Purana. From this we can conclude that the original Brahma Purana much have comprised 10,000 verses approximately.

 

Part II

 

Preface

The present volume contains the Brahma Purazia Part II (Chapters 41-105) in English Translation. This is the thirty- fourth volume in the Series on Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology.

The project was planned in 1970 by Lala Sundar Lal Jam of Messrs Motilal Banarsidass, with the aim to universalize knowledge through the most popular international medium, viz. English. Hitherto the English translations of ten Puranas, namely Siva, Liñga, Bhãgavata, Garuçla, Narada, Kurma, Brahmaida, Agni, Varãha and Brahma (part I) have come out.

The present volume contains chapters 41 to 105. It opens with the narrative of Indradyumna, king of Avanti, his performance of horse-sacrifice at the holy centre Pursottama and the establishment of images of Sankarana, Krna and Subhadra in the magnificent palace which he built there. The account extends to the forty-eighth chapter ending with the description of Pursottama, the centre sacred to Vinu. The text then passes on to the story of sage Markancleya with the significant reference to Siva’s temple by the side of Markaodeya lake which was built in AD. 800 by Kundala Kesarin, king of Orissa. This is followed by the description of holy shrines, the procedure of worship of deities therein and the benefits of their worship. The Puraa expiates upon the merits of living and dying at this centre. Chapters 69 to 103 describe the narrative of Sri Krçia and the legends of Balarâma, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. Chapters 104 and 105 which conclude this part glorify different manifestations of the lord as well as review the path of the world of Yama.

Most of the chapters in this as well as the preceding part describe the holy places of Orissa. They seem to have been composed by one who was well acquainted with Orissa. We may, therefore, conclude that the group of chapters relating to Orissa might have sprung up in that centre.

It is our pleasant duty to put on record our sincere thanks to Dr. R.N. Dandekar and the UNESCO authorities for their kind encouragement and valuable help which render this work very useful. We are grateful to Shri T.V. Parameshwar Iyer for his valuable assistance in the preparation of this work. we also express out gratitude to all those scholars who have offered suggestions for improving the same.

In fine we avail of this opportunity to state that any critical suggestion or advice for improvement is welcome and will receive proper consideration from us.

 

Part III

 

Preface

This is the thirty-fifth volume in the series on Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology. It contains l3rahma Purana, Part III (chapters 106-138).

The project was conceived in 1970 by the late Lala Sundar Lal Jain of Messers Motilal Banarsidass with the aim to disseminate the knowledge acquired by the ancient sages through the most popular international medium, viz. English. Hitherto the English translations of ten Puranas, namely, Siva, Linga, Bhagavata, Garuda, Nárada, Kürma, Brahmanda, Agni, Varãha and Brahma (Parts I & II) have been published in the series.

Chapter 106 opens with an account of tortures inflicted on sinners in various hells. As many as forty-two hells have been named as against twenty-eight in most of the Puranas. A terrible picture of the tortures to which sinners are subjected has been drawn obviously with a motive to check the growth of crime. This is followed by an account of the reception accorded to the virtuous by Dharmarãja and his servants in chapter 107. Then chapter 108 describes the good and bad actions of the Jiva and the Yonis into which it is reborn as a result of them. The next chapter praises the gift of food as the best of charitable acts and then in the next three chapters details of the performance of raddha for the departed are given. Chapter 113 contains a description of compulsory and optional duties prescribed for the householder together with various do’s and dont’s. Chapter 114 describes the special duties of the four castes (varzas) and the four stages of life (dramas). The next one is of a considerable sociological interest as it specifies the circumstances leading to upgrading and downgrading of castes. Chapters 118-120 are concerned with the superiority of god Viu, his worship and the benefits of singing songs in praise of Visnu. Chapters 122-23 treat of the fate of men in Kali age and ‘foretell’ in what respects righteousness will decrease what losses difficulties and calamities will befall mankind. Various kinds of cosmic annihilation at the end of a kalpa etc. are described in Chapters 124-125 it is really a terrible picture that has been drawn. The subject of the next one is human suffering and the means of getting rid of it for ever. Yoga as a means of ending the miseries and various restrictions to be observed during its practice is the topic of Chapter 127. the Principles of Sankhya and Yoga are discussed in more details in chapters 128-32. Topics of religious and philosophical interest recur in the next five chapters. Samkhya concepts find a prominent place in the philosophy of this Purana.

 

Part IV

 

Preface

This thirty-sixth volume in the series on Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology forms the fourth and last part of the Brahma Purana. It contains the entire Gautami-Mãhatmya consisting of 105 chapters which eulogize a number of sacred places situated on the banks of the river Godãvari flowing south of the Vindhya mountain through the, well-known forest named Dasidakarauya.

This part of the Brahma Purana is an independent work, since it has no organic relationship with this Purana and the only affinity that it shows to the latter is a minor one, namely, that the main speaker here also happens to be Brahma. A very relevant thing to be noticed here is that it differs in style from the Brahma Purana. In each of its chapters it describes one Tirtha with the legends and anecdotes associated with it, how it got its name, what is its importance, what merits accrue from visiting it and offering worship etc. By all internal and external evidence the Gautami-Mahatmya appears to have been added to the Brahma Purana at some late stage.

In the first chapter of the work some genera! Features of the Tirthas, their varieties, nature etc. are described. The second one relates the story of the demon Taraka, atrocities inflicted by him on the Devas, their prayer to Visnu for protection, the latter’s advice to them to persuade Lord Siva to marry the daughter of Himalaya with the aim of giving birth to a valiant sort *ho would kill the demon, the burning of the God of Love by the fire emanating from Siva’s third eye and the ultimate winning of his consent by the Devas to marry Parvati. The third chapter describes the marriage of Siva with Pãrvati and the birth of Kãrttikeya. In the fourth chapter the story of Visnu’s incarnation as Vamana is narrated and also the origination of the waters of Ganga from the foot of Visnu washed by Brahma with the water of Kamandalu, and the bearing of the waters of Gangã by Siva in his matted hair. The fifth and next two chapters describe how Parvati gets jealous of Ganga due to her closer association with Siva how a plot is hatched up so that Siva Abandons her how the stage Gautama gets Falsely implicated and ultimately succeeds in bringing Ganga from Siva’s mattes air to Brahmagiri and from there down to the earth in the form of Godavari. The eighth chapter narrates the story Sagara the burning of his sons by the infuriated sage Kapila and the taking the ancestors burnt by the curse of Kapila. After this chapters 9-104 take up a detailed description of a large number of sacred places with associated stories. The last chapter repeats the story of Ganga brought down to the earth by the sage Gautama with the difference that he is not here falsely accused of cowslaughter and also the benefits of perusing and hearing the Gautama Mahatmya.

 

CONTENTS

 

PART I

 
Preface vii
Abbreviations xi
Introduction xiii
  Purana: Definition xiii
  The Nomenclature xiv
  Extent xv
  Transmission of tradition xvi
  Text-criticism xvii
  Date of Composition xvii
  Place of Composition xix
  Religion and Philosophy of Brahma Purana xx
Chapters  
1. On the Origin of Devas and Asuras 1
2. Origin and glory of Prthu 19
3. Manvantaras 29
4. Evolution of Vivasvat Aditya 33
5. Review of the Solar Race 37
6. Kings of the Solar Race 45
7. Birth of Soma 53
8. Kings of the Lunar Race 56
9. Genealogy of Ancient Ksatriyas 61
10. The Narrative of Yayati 65
11. Dynasty of Yayati 69
12. Birth of Srikrsna 84
13. The Family of Vrsnis 88
14. How the Syamantaka jewel was brought back 93
15. Akrura obtains Syamantaka 97
16. Seven Continents 100
17. Jambudvipa 105
18. Magnitude of Oceans and Continents 108
19. Magnitude of Nether worlds 114
20. Hells in nether regions 117
21. Upper Regions 121
22. Pole Star 124
23. Holy Centres: Their Greatness 126
24. A Dialogue between Brahma and Sages 132
25. Bharata Subcontinent 135
26. The Glory of Konaditya 140
27. Efficacy of Devotion to Sun-god 145
28. Glory of Sun-God 150
29. Names of Sun-God 157
30. Nativity of Sun-God 160
31. One Hundred and Eight Names of Sun-God 170
32. Penance of Uma 174
33. Testing of Parvati 183
34. Parvati weds Siva 189
35. Hymn in Praise of Siva 201
36. Uma and Sankara leave Himalayas 205
37. Destruction of Daksa's Sacrifice 209
38. The Prayer of Daksa 217
39. The holy Centre of Ekamra 230
40. The holy centre of Utkala 237

PART II

 
A. Abbreviations xiii
B. Translation and Notes  
Chapters  
41. The Narrative of Indradyumna; Description of Avanti 241
42. The Holy Centres Sighted 248
43. A Review of Past Incidents 254
44. Description of Holy Centres 261
45. Horse-sacrifice 264
46. Prayer for Welfare 272
47. Origin of Idols 280
48. Description of Purusottama 285
49. A visit to the Holy Banyan Tree by Markandeya 291
50. Markandeya views Annihilation 292
51. Markandeya wanders in the belly of the Lord 296
52. Prayer to the Lord 297
53. Markandeys's vision of the holy lord 301
54. Visit to Krsna shrine 308
55. Greatness of Narasimha 314
56. Greatness of Sveta Madhava 320
57. Mode of Procedure for a Holy Dip in the Ocean 328
58. Rules of worship and Mantras 334
59. Merit of a holy dip in the Ocean 339
60. Glory of five holy spots - Pancatirthi 341
61. Mahajyesthi Full-Moon day in the month of Jyestha 343
62. Holy ablution in propitiation of Krsna 345
63. Glory of holy procession: Gundika yatra 354
64. The twelve holy pilgrimages and their benefits 356
65. The world of Visnu 362
66. Glory of Lord Purusottama 368
67. Glory of Ananta Vasudeva 371
68. Glory of holy shrine of Purusottama 377
69. Narrative of sage Kandu 380
70. Doubts raised by sages 397
71. Lord's incarnation in the family of Yadus 404
72. Incarnations of Hari 407
73. Nativity of Srikrsna 411
74. Kamsa takes steps to ward off danger 415
75. Putana slain and Cart Smashed 416
76. Cowherd's cology shifted to Vrndavana 418
77. Suppression of Kaliya 421
78. Dhenuka and Pralamba are slain 425
79. Worship of Govardhana mountain 429
80. Coronation of Lord Krsna 432
81. Arista is slain 437
82. Kesin is slain 442
83. Akrura comes to the cowherd's colony 446
84. Retuen to Akrura 450
85. Kamsa is slain 457
86. The son f Sandipani restored 464
87. The onslaught of Jarasandha 467
88. Mucukunda's Prayer 468
89. Balarama returns to the cowherd's colony 472
90. Balarama's sport with Ploughshare 474
91. Return of Pradyumna 476
92. Rukmin is slain 479
93. Naraka is killed 482
94. The prayer by Indra 485
95. Lord Krsna marries sixteen thousand and one hundred virgins 491
96. Progeny of Sri Krsna 493
97. Usa and Aniruddha - their marriage 495
98. The burning of Kasi 500
99. Glory of Balarama 503
100. The monkey Dvivida is slain 506
101. Sri Krsna returns to his abode 508
102. Lord Krsna ascends heaven 513
103. Episode of Krsna concluded 514
104. Different manifestations of the Lord 522
105. Path to the world of Yama 535
PART III  
PREFACE vii
ABBREVIATIONS xi
CHAPTERS  
106. Tortures in Hell 547
107. The Goal of the Virtuous 559
108. The Cycle of Worldly Existence 566
109. Gift of food the best of all charitable acts 573
110. On the performance of Sraddha and the associated legend 575
111. The details of the Sraddha ritual 584
112. The details of Sapindikarana Rite 588
113. Conduct of the Good 597
114. Assignment of duties to different castes and stages of life 612
115. Characteristics of mixed castes 617
116. Review of Virtue 622
117. Review of Virtue 627
118. Dialogue between Mahesvara and the sages 632
119. Goal of the devotees of Visnu 637
120. The benefits of singing devotional songs of Visnu while keeping awake at night 641
121. Manifestation of Maya 654
122. Foretelling future 662
123. Foretelling future 669
124. Description of Annihilation 677
125. The Natural Re-absorption 681
126. The Ultimate Re-absorption 685
127. Practice of Yoga 691
128. Review of Samkhya and Yoga 695
129. Review of Samkhya and Yoga 701
130. Review of Samkhya and Yoga 709
131. Review of Injunctions regarding Yogic Practice 714
132. Review of the principles of Samkhya 719
133. The perishable and the Imperishable 729
134. A dialogue between Vasistha and Janaka 733
135. A dialogue between Vasistha and Janaka 737
136. A dialogue between Vasistha and Janaka 745
137. A dialogue between Vasistha and Janaka 749
138. In Praise of the Purana 754

PART IV
(Gautami-Mahatmya - The Glorification of Gautami)

 
PREFACE vii
ABBREVIATIONS xiii
Chapters  
1. Holy Centres 759
2. Siva's Marriage 762
3. Gift of a Watr vessel to Brahma 766
4. How Ganga Entered the Matted Hair of Siva 770
5. Vinayaka and Gautama 776
6. Descent of Gautami 784
7. Glory of the Holy River 789
8. The Descent of Bhagirathi 793
9. The Holy Centre Varaha 799
10. Kapotatirtha 801
11. Kumaratirtha 809
12. Krittika Tirtha 811
13. Dasasvamedha Tirtha 812
14. Paisaca Tirtha 815
15. Ksudha Tirtha 816
16. Indra Tirtha: Ahalyasangama Tirtha 819
17. Janasthana Tirtha 825
18. Cakratirtha 827
19. Asvabhanu Tirtha 832
20. Garuda Tirtha 835
21. Govardhana Tirtha 839
22. Paparanasana Tirtha 840
23. Visvamitra Tirtha 844
24. Sveta and other Tirthas 847
25. Sukratirtha and Mrtasanjivani Tirtha 851
26. Seven Thousand Holy Centres 854
27. Paulastya Tirtha 856
28. Agnitirtha 859
29. Rnamocana Tirtha 861
30. Kadru-Suparna-Sangama Tirtha 863
31. Sarasvatisangama 866
32. Review of the Greatness of Five Tirthas 868
33. Sami and other Holy Centres 869
34. Twenty-two Thousand Holy Centres 870
35. The Twnety-Five Confluences of Various Rivers 878
36. Amrtasangama and other Holy Centres 881
37. Description of Seventeen Holy Centres 885
38. Sixteen Thousand Holy Centres 893
39. Cakra Tirtha 905
40. Cakresvara and other Holy Centres 910
41. Nagatirtha a Holy Centre 932
42. Matrtirtha 940
43. Brahmatirtha and other Holy Centres 943
44. Avighnatirtha 945
45. Sesatirtha and other Holy Centres 947
46. Vadava and other Holy Centres 949
47. Atmatirtha 952
48. Asvattha and other Tirthas 954
49. Somatirtha 957
50. Dhanyatirtha 959
51. Vidarbhasangama and other Holy Centres 961
52. Purnatirtha and other Holy Centres 963
53. Ramatirtha and other Holy Centres 973
54. Putratirtha and other Holy Centres 991
55. Holy Centres Yamatirtha etc. 1004
56. The Holy Centre Tapastirtha and Others 1010
57. Holy Centre Arstisenatirtha etc. 1014
58. Holy Centre Arstisenatirtha etc. 1020
59. Holy Centre Tapovanatirtha etc. 1027
60. Apastambatirtha and other Holy Centres 1038
61. Holy Centres Yamatirtha and Others 1042
62. Holy Centres Yaksinisangama etc. 1047
63. Suklatirtha and other Holy Centres 1048
64. Cakratirtha and other Holy Centres 1050
65. Vanisangama and other Holy Centres 1051
66. Visnutirtha and other Holy Centres 1054
67. Laksmitirtha and other Holy Centres 1057
68. Bhanutirtha and other Holy Centres 1061
69. Khadgatirtha  and other Holy Centres 1065
70. Anvindratirtha and other Holy Centres 1067
71. Kapilasangama and other Holy Centres 1071
72. Devasthana and other Holy Centres 1074
73. Siddhatirtha and other Holy Centres 1076
74. Parusnisangama and other Holy Centres 1077
75. Markandeyat tha and other Holy Centres 1080
76. Yayatatirtha and other Holy Centres 1081
77. Apsaroyugasangama Tirtha and other Holy Centres 1086
78. Kotitirtha and other Holy Centres 1088
79. Narasimhatirtha and other Holy Centres 1090
80. Paisacatirtha and other Holy Centres 1091
81. Nimnabheda and other Holy Centres 1094
82. Nanditata and other Holy Centres 1096
83. Bhavatirtha and other Holy Centres 1100
84. Sahasrakunda and other Holy Centres 1101
85. Kapilatirtha and other Holy Centres 1104
86. Sankhahrada and other Holy Centres 1105
87. Kiskindha - A Holy Centre 1106
88. Vyasatirtha - A Holy Centre 1109
89. Vanjarasangama and other Holy Centres 1113
90. The Holy Centre Devagamatirtha 1118
91. The Description of Kausatarpana and other Holy Centres 1120
92. The Holy Centre Manyu 1126
93. Sarasvata and other Holy Centres 1129
94. Cincikatirtha and other Holy Centres 1134
95. Bhadratirtha 1138
96. Patatritirtha 1142
97. Vipratirtha also known as Narayanatirtha 1143
98. Bhanutirtha and other Holy Centres 1146
99. The Holy Centre Bhilla 1150
100. Caksustirtha and other Holy Centres 1154
101. Urvasi and other Holy Centres 1162
102. Meeting of Godavari and the Sea in Seven Branches 1167
103. Rsisatra and Bhimesvaratirtha 1169
104. The Confluence of Ganga with Sea 1172
105. The Benefits of Listening to the Purana 1175
INDEX 1185

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