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Books > Hindu > Art > Mayamatam (Vol. I and II)
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Mayamatam (Vol. I and II)
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Mayamatam (Vol. I and II)
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About the book

The Mayamata is a Vastusastra, i.e. a treatise on dwelling and as such it deals with all the facets of gods and mens dwellings, from the choice of the site to the iconography of the temple walls. It contains numerous and precise descriptions of villages and towns as well as of the temples, houses, mansions and palaces. It gives indications for the selection of a proper orientation, right dimensions, and of appropriate materials. It intends to be a manual for the architect and a guidebook for the layman. Well-thought of by traditional architects (sthapatis) of South India, the treatise is of great interest at a time when technical traditions, in all fields, are being scrutinized for their possible modern application.

The present bilingual edition prepared by Dr. Bruno Dagens, contains critically edited Sanskrit text, which is an improvement over the earlier edition by the same scholar and published as No.40 of Publications de I'Institute Francais d'Indologie, Pondicherry. The English translation, also published earlier, has now been revised with copious notes. The usefulness of the edition has been further enhanced by adding an analytical table of contents and a comprehensive glossary.

About the Author

Dr. Bruno Dagens (b. 1953) is an eminent Sanskritist and archaeologist. He is a member of the Ecole Francais d'Estreme-Orient. Dr. Dagens taught Sanskrit at the University of Louvain (Belgium) and did archaeological research in Afghanistan and Cambodia. He also worked, since 1977, at the Institute Francais d'Indologie, Pondicherry for quite a few years.

Besides articles and research papers on the Archaeology and Iconography of monuments in Afghanistan and Cambodia, two earlier editions of the Mayamata and one edition of the Saivagamaparibhasamanjari (a compendium of Saiva doctrines and rituals), Dr. Dagens has authored Architecture in the Ajitagama and the Rauravagama (Sitaram Bharatia Institute of Scientific Research, New Delhi, 1984).

 

Introduction

The body of Sanskrit literature dealing with architecture and iconography is voluminous, even if scattered and insufficiently surveyed and it is matched by a vernacular literature, more scattered and less known. It comprises, first of all, independent works which can be classified under the general heading of "technical treatises" (silpaSastra) or under the more precise one of "treatises on dwelling" (vastuSastra) or "treatises on dwellings" (vastuSastra) The scope of these works, and that of the domain they cover, varies considerably and that goes for the comprehensive treatises as much as for those which confine themselves to limited subjects, such as iconography or astrological points bearing upon the founding and the construction of a house. There are few specialized works of importance in this category even so, architecture and iconography being more often dealt with in various works, whether more or less ambitious encyclopaedias or treatises which concentrate upon areas where architecture and iconography are involved. Some of the main purana or upapurana are to be found in this category (e.g. Matsyapurana, Agnipurana, Visnudbarmottarapurana ... ) along with encyclopaedias of royal inspiration (e.g. Manasollasa of Somesvara, Samaranganasutradbara of Bhoja ... ) and the Saivite and Vaisnavite agama of various persuasions, as well as the Grbyasutra. the Arthasastra and the Brhatsamhita. These types of works are just those in which the material is most abundant but most scattered; it should be added that a number of small independent treatises are nothing more than extracts from much larger works and, as well, that it is hard to be sure whether the Purvakamikagama has borrowed from the Mayamata the very great number of passages common to both texts or whether the reverse is the case (see below).

That the dispersion is also historical and geographical only complicates the problem still further: the architecture and iconography, as they appear in a given work, are but the reflection of what was in existence during the time of its drafting in the region where that was done; significant in relation to the described forms, this factor is also apparent in the technical vocabulary which is always more or less marked by regional usage, as well as by borrowings from the vernacular. Then, there is the sectarian bias, whether stressed or not and very apparent in the iconography and also, even if to a lesser degree, in complex architectural forms, if not in their elements envisaged separately." The pretension to universality of many of these texts does nothing to conceal this phenomenon, and whether the regional and sectorian features are more or less emphasized, they are still, usually, obvious. It must also be added that the Indian or, more precisely, the Hindu koine, is so much the fruit of such a mixture of regional and unitarian trends that each author, or school, may legitimately imagine that its day-to-day reality is nothing but an accurate reflection of the whole Indian world.

In that very extensive and widely disseminated range of works, the Mayamata occupies a fairly well defined place. It is a general treatise, a vastusastra, written in Sanskrit but originating from Dravidian India, most probably from the Tamil area; it is part of the Saivite agamic literature without the connection being underlined by any pronounced sectarianism and its drafting must have been done during the Cola period, at the time when the architecture it describes had reached the peak of its maturity. Comprising about 3300 verses and divided into 36 chapters, it is identified as a vastusastra, that is, as a treatise on dwelling, for it defines the vastu as "anywhere where immortals or mortals live" (2.1)' This definition is followed by specifications which show that the concept of housing is very wide and is divided into four categories: the Earth (considered as original dwelling), buildings, vehicles and seats (which last three are nothing but "vastu" deriving from the first "vastu",the Earth). Once iconography has been added to this list we have a panorama, brief but inclusive, of the content of the work. Leaving aside here the details of this content which we will analyse further on, we note that the Mayamata is arranged in three large sections: the first (Chapters 1-10) deals with dwelling sites, the first vastu, the second section with buildings (Chapters 11- 30) and the third (Chapters 31-36), with the last two vastu, vehicles and seats, and with iconography (Linga images and their pedestals). In these different sections are found entire chapters or significant passages consecrated to particular topics in the sphere of technique or that of the ritual which sets the pace for the construction: system of measurements and quality of the architects (Chapter 5), orientation and laying-out (Chapters 6-7), offerings to the gods of the site (Chapter 8), foundation deposit (Chapter 12), joinery (Chapter 17), rites for the end of the construction of a temple and for the first entry into a house (Chapters 18 and 28) and renovation work and associated rites (Chapter 35).

The work as a whole is coherent in spite of various interpolations which are sometimes, but not always, indicated by changes in the metres." These appear quite frequently in chapters describing temples where they often give information on details of decorative motifs which were evidently mentioned, though not described, in the original text; in the same way the description of a pavilion of the siddha type (25.39 sq.) is interrupted by fourteen verses given over to ritual firepits (kunda); this interpolation would seem to have been entailed by the mention of the fact that the siddha pavilion may serve "for all rituals"; sometimes definitions of terms have been added, such as in Chapter 26 where we are given, but quite untimely, precise meanings for vimana, barmya and malika (26.100). These interpolations do not seem to give rise to any great internal discrepancy; it is only to be noted that the mention, in a general chapter on temples, of thirteen, fourteen and sixteen storeyed temple ( 11.19) seems to be the result of an updating of the text which never otherwise describes temples with more than twelve storeys (22.66 sq., see below ).

That the Mayamata belongs to Saivasiddhanta literature is demonstrated by the leading place given to Siva temples, by the chapter given over to the Linga and especially by the speculations on the nature of the Linga which it contains and, lastly, by the pantheon described in Chapter 36 which is essentially that found in saivagamas. This being said, the Mayamata nevertheless does not appear to be a sectarian work; the list of Siva's Attendants is followed by a list of those of Visnu (Chapter 23) and Chapter 36 includes descriptions of images of Buddha and Jina which are not usual in agamic literature, no more than are mentions of the temples of these two deities such as are found here in the chapters dealing with villages and foundation deposits (9.70 sq. and 12.59 sq.). Ram Raz, who has noted the tolerance shown in the Mayamata (and the Mana- sara ) towards Buddhists and jains, says however that the locations attributed to the cult places of these two sects were close to those suitable for inferior deities or for malignant spirits.This absence of sectarianism is marked in a much more general way by constant references to a very classical society such as is presented in the Dbarmasastras. The society for which arc intended the construction prescribed by the Mayamata is that of the four uarnas and the "others", who are installed at a distance and who are responsible for polluting tasks such as refuse collection (e.g. 9.95-98). If the society of the Mayamata is that of the Dharmasastras, its political organization is that of the Arthasastra; there too the references to classical India are very evident, as well where they concern the hierarchies of towns and villages, as when they give the method of organizing the defence of a kingdom with forts, and the way in which the royal council chamber is to be arranged (cf. Chapters 9 and 10 and 29.191 sq.).

It may be said, quite definitively, that the aim of the Mayamata is to organize the integration of the external manifestations of siddhanta Saivism in a context which could be qualified as "non-sectarian Hindu", so as to avoid the term "secular" which is not very appropriate when speaking of traditional India.

Preface

This is our third MAYAMATA and it owes a lot to the former Institute of Indology (now French Institute of Pondicherry) we have retained without any substantial change the Sanskrit text and, after revision and emendation, the material for many of the footnotes, which have been added to the translation. That last, as well as the Introduction, has been borrowed after revision from our second work published in 1985 by the Sitaram Bhartia Institute of Scientific Research; we have tried to clarify it on several points, without however being able to make more than little progress in the interpretation of the ones. From the first published in 1970-1976 by the French passages dealing with timber work (chapters 18 and 25). The drawings of that second edition too have been kept with slight corrections; it should be reminded that they are meant to be no more than tentative sketches. Lastly an Index-glossary and an Analytical table of contents have been prepared.

The helps received since 1964 when the late Professor Jean Filliozat introduced us for the first time to the MAYAMATA, have been too numerous to be acknowledged one by one; exception is to be made however for that brought by Pandit N.R. Bhatt, founder and former Head of the Sanskrit Department at the French Institute of Pondicherry; I owe him more than can be expressed.

Lastly we thank Mrs. Kapila Vatsyayana for having asked us some years ago to prepare that book for the I.G.N.C.A. series, and for having friendly stood for out endless delays.

Foreword

In the series of Kalamulasastra early texts on music, namely, Matralaksanam, Dattilam and Brhaddesi, have been published. The medieval texts on music, specially, the Sri hastamuktavali (No.3 in the series) and the Nartananirnaya (No.17 in the series), bring us upto the 15th and 16th century. In the case of architecture, despite the IGNCA's endeavour to publish portions of the Brhatsamhita, the Agnipurana and the Visnudharmottara-purana, first this has not been possible. Instead, our scholars wrere able to complete work first on a late but important text, namely, silparatnakosa. We hope that the sections on architecture in the Brhatsamhita, the Agnipurana and the Visnudharmottara-purana which predate the medieval texts, will be published soon, alongwith revised and re-edited texts of Manasollasa and Aparajitaprccha.

The Mayamatam is the fourteenth and fifteenth volumes in the Kalamulasastra series of the Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA).

Urban development and city planning was, undoubtedly, known to the Mohenjodaro, but its most outstanding survivals of the historical period are in South India. The layout of Tanjore and later, Madurai has been widely commented upon. Understandably, technical texts, which devote attention to village, city planning, house building and temple construction, should be expected. An outstanding example of a comprehensive text, comprising thirty-six chapters, is the Mayamatam, written sometime between 11th and 12th century. The text is, obviously, a deduction from existing practices and actual structures rather than an abstract theoretical treatise on architecture. Its contents are more systematic than those found in other comprehensive texts, such as, the Manasollasa or the Samaranganasutradhara. The latter two are encyclopaedic in nature but are not tightly structured. In contrast, Mayamatam is more definitive and coherent as it situates itself within the larger saiva tradition and even more particularly, the Saivagama tradition and takes into account actual town and village layouts and temple construction. While it would be debatable whether the text precedes or succeeds the construction of the Brhadisvara with architectural plans, techniques of construction and the modular approach in regard to the number of storeys. The text assumes importance not only for its detailed descriptions of temples, but also for its detailed descriptions of houses for different categories of inhabitants in a village and a city, entrances, exists, ventilations and much else. Equally revealing is the concern with examination of the site, the analysis of the soil, the preparation of the foundations, the materials to be used and the methods of construction. A comparative study of the valuable date in this text, with techniques, which survive with the traditional sthaptis and others, would be the next rewarding journey.

As we have observed elsewhere Vastu and the Agama traditions are complementary and often they overlap. This was evident in the Svayambhuvasutrasamgraha and this interdependence has been highlighted by Prof. Pierre Filliozat in his Introduction. The Mayamatam, likewise, complements material in the Kamikagama specially the section on the Purvakamikagama and the two should be seen together, because while the text on architecture details the techniques of construction, the Agama texts lay down the process by which the material is transubstantiated to a non-material plane.

The text of the Mayamatam also interlinks the IGNCA programmes of studying the area of Tanjore and the Brhadisvara Temple. In a related programme, precise measurements have been taken of the city, new layout plans have been made, the Tmple has been measured precisely and a new set of drawings of ground plans, elevation and sections, is ready. Alongside, a volume on sculpture of the Temple, not understood in isolation but in its aspect of a programmed orchestration of the outer and the inner, the lower and the higher is ready for publication. Inscriptions have been re-assessed from the point of view of their placement and the contents of these inscriptions, specially those that have been deciphered recently, throw a fund of information on the organization of temple architecture activity. Alongside, the temple rituals are being documented. Studies are being carried out in regard to adherence or departures in contemporary practice of these rituals from the Agamas- whether the Kamikagama or the Makutagama. A comparison of the material of Mayamatam and the studies in the Brhadisvara project will, undoubtedly, throw up a new set of issues for further study.

With the publication of a group of monographs relating to the Brhadisvara Temple, including the Isanasivagurudevapaddhati and the Makutagama, the architectural, sculptural, painting and epigraphical volumes, and the volume based on the socio-political and cultural aspects and the history of the period and region, and the Mayamatam the Institute will have, hopefully, provided a new or, certainly, an alternate medel for the study of cultural areas and regions. Here theory and practice-the textual and the oral, the historical and contemporary, the monument, the texts and the living traditions are being investigated as interpenetrative categories.

Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts is grateful to Dr. Bruno Dagens, Editor and Translator of this edition of the text. A French edition was published by the French Institute of Indology, Pondicherry, in 1970-76 and an English translation of the text from Sitaram Bharatia Institute of Scientific Research was published in 1985. The present edition is a revision of Dr. Bruno Dagen's critical text published as also a revision of the English translation. He has provided an insightful introduction and an exhaustive glossary of technical terms, which will be an invaluable source of understanding for future scholars. Dr. Bruno Dagens brings to this edition the sensitive understanding of an excavator and an archaeologist. Thus, many complex passages have been edited by him with a view not only of grammatical correctness but also from the point of view of comprehension as statements of architectural construction. The question of homogeneity of this text - whether it was all composed during Cola or the post Cola period is somewhat debatable. Dr. Bruno Dagens concedes that there may be some interpolations. However, the question of interpolations in the Indian textual tradition is itself a complex matter. The text was never considered to be a frozen text. Since at all times the text reflected actual practices, as and when actual practices went through modifications, these changes were reflected in the subsequent texts or incorporated into an already prevalent text. Elsewhere, we have taken up the question "What constitutes the authenticity of a text in the Indian tradition, other than the Vedic text under the category of Sruti?". The Mayamatam, like many other texts in different disciplines but particularly the arts, is also not a frozen text of a particular fixed date and time, but belongs much more to the stream of evolution and development of distinctive schools of architectural style.

I would like to take this occasion to thank Dr. Bruno Dagens for preparing the present text and thank my colleagues, especially Dr. N.D. Sharma who has assisted in proof-reading of the Sanskrit documents and publications, and Prof. Satkari Mukhopadhyaya, for supervision.

 

CONTENTS
     
 
Vol. I
 
  Foreword vii
  Preface xi
  Table of figures xv
  Analytical table of contents of Mayamata xvii
  Introduction xxxix
  Text and translation of Mayamata (Chapter 1 to 23)  
Chapter1: Summary 3
  Maya, auditor of the Lord of the Universe and author of the treatise(1-2). Summary of the treatise (3-11).
Envoi: divine origin of the treatise which deals with divine and human dwellings (14).
 
Chapter2: Dwelling sites 7
  Definitions:
-Varieties of dwelling sites(1-3); principal and secondary sites (4-6a);
various kinds of dwelling sites (6b-8); the Earth as main site (9). Characteristic of sites intended for Brahmins, kings, vaisys and sudra (10-15).
Envoi: the perfect site (20).
 
Chapter3: Examination of the site 11
  Auspicious characteristics (1-10a).
Inauspicious characteristics (10b-19).
Envoi: the perfect site (20).
 
Chapter4: Taking possession of the site 11
  How to take possession of the site:
-Dismissing of spirits and others (1-3); ploughing, seeding and grazing (4-8a); offering (8b-10a).
New examination is necessary before taking possession of the site (19).
 
Chapter5: System of measurements 23
  System of measurements:
-Definition of the various units(1-6a); when to use them (6-11a); unit for rituals etc. (11b-12).
The four technicians:
-Names (13-14a); the architect (14b-18a); the sutragrabin (18b-19); the taksaka (20); the vardhaki (21-22a); qualities of technicians (22b-24).
-Envoi: such technicians are indispensable (25).
 
Chapter6: Orientation 29
  Preliminaries:
- Choice of date (1-2a); preparation of the ground (2b-3a); making the gnomon (3b-7a).
Fixing the cardinal points:
-Drawing east-west and north-south lines (7b-13a); values of apacchaya (11b-13).
Laying out the building:
--Making rope and stakes (14-18); the lines to be drawn: definitions (19-21a); order to be followed in drawing them (21b-24a); drawing the lines for four main building houses (24b-26).
The apacchaya (cont.)
-Various (27); when to make adjustments (28).
 
Chapter7: Diagrams 37
  List fo the thirty-two diagrams (1-21).
Descriptions:
Sakala diagram (22); pecaka diagram (23); pitha diagram(24); mahapitha diagram (25-27); upapitha and other diagrams (28-29).
Two two main diagrams (manduka and paramasayin):
-Common characteristics (30-33a); names of the gods and their respective places (33b-42); manduka diagram (43-48); the Spirit of the site (49-56); manduka diagram (cont.) (57); Paramasayin diagram (58).
 
Chapter8: Offerings 51
  Individual offerings (1-15); common offerings (16-20); placing the gods (21-23).  
Chapter9: Villages planning 57
  Dimensions of settlements:
-System of measurements (cont.): liner (1b-2a) and square (2b-4a) units; dimensions of village settlements (4b-8a); dimensions of towns (8b-10); dimensions of village, kheta, kharvata, forts and cities (10-16a); proportions of villages, kheta, kharvata, forts and cities (10-16a); proportions (16b-18a); the ayadi system (18b-24).
Number of Brahmins to be installed in a settlement (25-31).
General points:
-Choosing a diagram(32-33a); list of village types(33b-34); various kinds of streets (35-39); definition of various kinds of settlements (40).
Description of village type:
-Dandaka type (41-42); svastika type (43-45); prastara type (46); prakarnaka type (47); nandyavarta type (18-50a); paraga type (50b-51a); padma type (51b-52); sripratisthita and srivatsa types (53-54a).
Village planning:
-General rules (54b-56); doors and sewage outlets (57-60a); defences (50b-60a); concentric zoning (61b-63); shrines (64-75); layout of centre of village (75b-78); harmony between settlement of shrines (84-85); the body of the Spirit of the Site is not to be harmed (86); arrangement of amenities and dwelling quarters (87-91a); houses: dimensions and types (91b-94); constructions around the village (95-98); errors to be avoided in plainning (99-100).
The foundation deposit for villages:
-Components (101-122a); location (122b-128).
Envoi: Gifts to architect and others and their fruits (129-130).
 
Chapter10: Towns 89
  Dimensions of towns (1-12)
General points:
-The surrounding wall: layout and dimensions (13-16a); choice of a diagram and places to be avoided (16b-17a); streets (17b-18).
Descriptions of towns and other settlements:
-Rajadhanin or the king's capital (19-26a); khata (26b); kharvata and janasthanakubja (27); pattana or harbour (28b-29a); sibira (29b-30a); senamukha (30b-31a); sthaniya (31b-32a); dronamukha (32b-33a); vidamba and kotmakolaka (33b-34a); nigama (34b-35a); skandhavara and cerika (35b-36a).
Fort:
-Types (36b-38); qualities to be sought (39-40a); gateways (40b-42a); walls (42b-46a); stores (46b-48a); qualities to be sought (cont. 48b-49a). gods of the fort (49b-51a).
Town plans:
-General rule regarding the number of streets (51b-54a); dandaka, kartaridandaka, bahudandaka, kalakabandhadandaka, vedibhadra and svastika types of plan (54-61a); bhadraka, bhadramukha, bhadrakalyana, mahabhadra, vastubhadra and subhadra types (62-67a); jayanga, vijaya and sarvatobhadra types (67b-76).
Town planning:
-Habitation quarters and bazaars (77-87); shrines (88-89a); outside constructions (89-90); specificity o pattana (91b-c); list of various kinds of settlement(92).
Envoi: Gifts architect and others and their fruits (93-94).
 
Chapter11: The number of storeys and the dimensions 113
  Differences regarding the plan of buildings and the number of their storeys(1-3a).
Dimensions of buildings according to number of storeys (3b-22a).
Destination of buildings according to number of storeys (22b-25).
Maximum size to be given to a building (?)(26).
Envoi: contents of the chapter (27).
 
Chapter12: The foundation deposit 121
  General points:
-Why a foundation deposit is necessary (1-3a); the foundation pit (3b-8); the casker (9-15a); preliminary rites (15b-22); content of the casket (23-32).
Temples foundation deposit:
-Deposit for Siva temple (33-46a); deposits for Visnu (46b-48a), for Brahma (48b-51) and for Sanmukha (52-53); deposits for dikpalas and similar Attendants (54-58); for Buddha (59-60), for Jina (61-63), for Durga (64-65a) and for Ksetrapala (65b); deposits for Laksmi, Sarasvati, Kali, the Mothers, Rohini, Parvati, Mohini, etc….(67-70).
Deposits for human dwellings:
-Deposits for each of the four varna (71-83); deposits for the principal main buildings of catussala (84-87); deposits for various buildings (88-95); general points: deposit is not to be placed when he house mistress is pregnant(95); orientation of deposit (97); formula for foundation (98); deposits for wells… etc. (99_100).
The first bricks:
-Number, nature and dimensions (101-108a); placing the first bricks (108b-111).
General points:
-Order of operations (112); placing a pillar or a door jamb above the deposit(114).
 
Chapter13: The socle 151
  Definition and proportions (1-5).
Descriptions:
-Vedibhadra types (6-8); pratibhadra types (9-14); subhadra types (15-19a).
General rules:
-Decoration (19b-20); proportions (21-22).
 
Chapter14: Tha base 157
  Foundation works:
-Dry and moist grounds (1-4a); preparing the ground (4b-8).
General points:
-Regulating course, base and socle (9-11a); definition of base (11b); height of the base (12-16); projection(17-18).
Descriptions:
-Padabandha base (19-20); uragabandhu base (21-22); pratikrama base (23-24); padmakesara base (25-26); puspapuskala base (27-28); sri bandha base (29-30); mancabandha base (31)srikanta base (32); srenibandha base (33); padmabandha base (34); vaprabandha base(35); kapotabandha base(36a); pratibandha base (36b); kalasa base(37);
General points:
-Decoration and proportion (38-39); synonyms for 'base'(40); projection and recess (41-44); rule for interruption of base and stereo bate (45-47).
 
Chapter15: Dimensions of pillars and choice of materials 179
  Pillars:
-General points:
-Synonyms for 'pillar' (2); dimensions (3-8); various kinds of pillars:pratistambha, nikhatastambha, jhasalastambha (9-11a); rule for pillar diameter (11b-12).
-Descrioptions:
-Brahmakanta, vinsukanta, indrakanta, saumya, purvasra, rudrakanta and rudracchanda pillars (13-17a); proportion of lotiform base (17b); bhadraka pillar (18-19); sundupada and pindipada pillars (20-22a); ictrakhanda, srikhnda and srivajra pillars (22b-26a); ksepanastambha(26b-27a).
General points (cont.):
-Pillar assembly, general use of bracket capital, definition of module (27b-29a).
-Capitals:
-Types of bell-capital (29b-30); pillar upper part arrangement (31); bell capital (32-34a); abacus and other elements (34b-39a); bracket capital: dimensions (39b-42); description (43-47), various types (48-50).
-Pilasters projection (51); intercolumniation (52-54); wooden and stone pillars (55-56); placing the reference line (57-58a); how to calculate the height of a building (58b-59a); placing the reference line (cont.)(59b-61a).
 
  Choice of building materials:
-Materials to be used (61b)
-Characteristics of correct materials:
-Trees (62-63); list of trees suitable for pillars (64-67a); stone is not to be used for vais, a and sudra buildings (78-79a); pure, 'mixed' and 'mingled' building (79b-80).
-Search for timber:
-Preliminary rites (81-83); 'male', 'female' and 'neuter' trees (84-86); cutting the tree(87-92); omens (93-98); squaring, transporting and storing timber (99-102); storing the nails, etc. (103-104a); making a muhurtastambha (104b-108); list of trees not to be used for human dwellings (109-114).
-The making of bricks:
-Choice of earth (115-116a); mixing earth with water and various saps (116b-118a); dimensions of bricks (118b-119a); drying and baking (119b); testing the bricks (120).
-Envoi: why good materials are to be chosen (121).
 
Chapter16: Entablature 213
  The architrave and its upper fascia:
-Three kinds of architrave (1-3); four kinds of arrangement for entablature (4); the upper fascia (5-7a).
Various features:
-Braces (7b-9a); consoles (9b-10a); lierne and cornice (10b-15); struts (16-18a); decoration of cornice (18b-20a); upper fascia (cont.) (20b-23a); cornice (cont.) (23b-27); frieze: description (28-32a), various kinds (32b-35).
The ceiling:
-Arrangement of architrave and pillars (41b-42a); orientation of architrave, beams, etc. (42b-44a); arrangement of beams, valika, joists and small joists (44b-45); decoration of entablature and making of ceiling (46-47); height of entablature (48); preparation of coating (49); even and odd measurements (50a); position of the door (50b); rule for arrangement of stereobate (51-53).
Latticed windows:
-Position and dimensions (54-55a); arrangement of upright and transoms (55b-56a); various types of latticed window (56b-60a); jambs and shutters (60b-61); circular windows(62).
Walls:
-Three sorts of walls (63); description of latticed and plank walls.
Envoi: contents of the chapter and emphasis on rules regarding stereo bate (67).
 
Chapter17: Joinery 235
  General points:
-Definition (1); basic principle (2); varieties of assembly: names(3); how to make an assembly (4-8a); position of pieces to be joined (8b-10a); varieties of assembly (cont.); definitions (10b-15a).
Descriptions:
-Sarvatobhadra assembly (15b-18); nandyavarta assembly (19-22a); svastibandha assembly (22b-23); vardhamana assembly (24-26a).
General rules for successful assemblies (26b-28).
Assemblies for pillars and for pillars (29) and horizontal elements (30); assembling the pillars: types of assembly (31-34); general rules (35-37); assembling the horizontal elements: types of assembly (38-34); general rules (35-37); assembling the horizontal elements: types of assembly (38-41); general rules (42-43).
tenons and pegs (44-45a).
Errors regarding tenons and pillars (45b-46); position on diagrams (47-49); middle regarding tenons and pillars (45b-46); position on diagrams (47-49); middle of pieces (50-51a) and confusion of elements (51b-53a); evil result of an error (53b-54); errors regarding use of old pieces (55-56); assembly of pillars and architrave (57-58a) and assembly above the place of Brahma at the centre of the building (58b-59); error regarding male, female and neuter woods (60); happy fruit of a correct assembly (61).
Description of a special assembly(/) (62).
 
Chapter18: Making of the roof and completion of the building work 251
  Upper levels of elevation:
-The attic:
-Height (2); projections and recess (3-5a); decorative elements (5b-7a).
-The roof:
-Different types of roof and their proportions (7b-12a); proportions and names of corresponding types of rafter work (12b-14); roof shapes (15-17).
Height of the finial (18-19).
-Roof timber work:
-Number of rafters (20); puskara(?) (21-22); dimensions of rafters (23-29); the five categories of rafters (30-31); rafter work of a wagon roof (?) (32-35); timber-work of a pyramid roof (?) (36-37); dimensions of various roof elements (38-45); roofing (46-47a); lierne and other elements (?) (47b-64); roofing (cont.) (65-66a); axis of the finial: dimensions (66b-67) and setting up (68-77); decoration of the porch gable (78-81).
-The finial:
-Position of final axis (82); height (83-87a) and width (87b-89a) of finial parts; finial support (?) (89b-90); the finial is suitable only for the first three varna (91).
Coatings and mortars:
-Different kinds (92-98a); preparation of kalka and cikkana (98b-101a); preparing of bandhodaka (101b-103); making a roofing (?) and a gutter (104-108); paintings (109-112a); recipe to make a rock-like mortar (112b-115).
-The crowning bricks (116-121a).
-Axis of the finial (cont.): materials, shape and dimensions (121b-127a).
Consecration ceremony:
-Laying in place of the crowning bricks:
-Preparatory rites: arrangement of pavilion (127b-133a); placing the bricks and the finial axis in that pavilion (133b-134a); offerings (134b-136a); settling of the architect for the night (136b-138a).
Morning rites: dressing of the architect (138b-141a); meditation (141b-142); washing the bricks and the finial axis (143).
 
  -Setting the bricks: climbing up the roof of the building and placing the bricks (144-147a); placing a sacred deposit under the axis of finial (147b-151); hanging a banner and clothing the building (152-154); honoraria for the architect and others (155-156); where to place the deposit in various kinds of building (157-158).
-General rules for the completion of the building work (159-169).
-Summary of what has been already told in this chapter (163)
-Axis of the finial (cont.): suitable woods (164).
-Consecration rites:
-Choice of a correct time (165); preparatory rites: arrangement of a consecration pavilion (166-170a); placing twenty-five vases and invoking the gods (170b-172); setting of the architect for the night (173-174); arrangement fo a sacrificial pavilion (175-178a); placing the murtikumbha in that pavilion and dressing the temple (178b-181); offerings to the divinities of the site (182-184).
-The opening of the eyes (185-188); climbing up again the temple roof and handing banners (189-193a); making the vase of the finial and setting it in place (193b-195); consecration formula (196-198); end of the architect and others (202-206).
-General rules for the consecration:
-Necessity for the consecration ritual (207-210); the architect officiates in the consecration (211-212); the time for consecration (213-214); placing the vases (215).
Envoi: the rules to be followed for success.
 
Chapter19: One storeyed temples 307
  General features of single storeyed temples:
-Dimensions and proportions (1-3a); shapes (3b-4a).
General points regarding temples:
-The pavilion in front of the shrine (4b-9); synonyms designating buildings (10-12); dimensions of the sanctum (13-15a); proportions of the finial (15b-17); false-dormer windows set in the roof (18-19a); the attic stereo bate (19b); the door (20-22); the gargoyle: position (23-24); description (25-28); alternative position (29).
General appearance of single storeyed temples (30-34).
General points regarding temples (cont.):
Nagara, dravida and vesara categories (35-38); images to be set on temple facades: ground floor (40-43); second floor (44-45a); third floor (45b-46); attic (47-48a).
Envoi: decorative elements which may used. (48b-49).
 
Chpater20: Two storeyed temples 325
  Dimensions and proportions of two storeyed temples (1-5)
Descriptions of two storeyed temples:
-Svastika type (6-7); vipulasundara type (9b-10a)
General points regarding temples:
-Aediculae (10b-12a).
Description of two storeyed temples (cont.):
-Kailasa (12b-13a); parvata (13b-16a); svastibandha (16b-18a); kalyana (18b-19); pancala (20); visnukanta (21); sumangala (22-23); gandhara (24); hastiprstha (25-26); manohara (27a); isvarakanta (27b-28a); urttaharmya (28b-29a) and kuberakanta (29b-30a).
Envoi: there are fifteen types of two storeyed temple (30b-31a).
General points regading temples (cont.):
-Male,female and neuter building (31b-34a).engaged structures (35); arcatures: proportions (36-37) and positions (?) (38-39).
 
Chapter21: Three storeyed temples 337
  Dimension and proportions of three storeyed temples (1-2a).
Description of three storeyed temples:
-Svastika type (2b-10); vimalakrti type (11-14); hastiprstha type (15-18a)
General points points regarding temples:
-The pavilion in front of the shrine: proportions (18b); decorative features (19-20); position of the reference line(21-23a).
Descriptions of three storyed temples (cont.):
-Hastiprstha type (cont.)(23b-29a).
General points regarding temples (cont.):
-Arcatures: tambhatorana (29b-33).
Descriptions of three storeyed temples (cont.)
-Hastiprstha type (cont.) (34-40a); bhadrakostha type (40b-48a); vrttakuta type (48b-49); sumangala type (50-51); gandhara type (52-59); sribhoga type (60).
General points regarding temples (cont.):
-Aediculae (61-64a); new classification: buildings with and without aisle (64b-65); the sanctum (66); stereobate (67); arcatures (cont); patratorana, makaratorana and citratorana (68b-80a); other decorative elements; kumbhalata (80b-81), stambhakumbhalata (82-83) and vrttasphutita (84-86a); stairs: four types of stairs (86b-90), rule for step (91-92), proportions and location of stairs(93-97).
Envoi: arcatures and stairways have been described in this chapter (98); nagara, dravida and vesara temples (99).
 
Chapter22: Temples with four or more storeys 363
  Four storeyed temples:
-Dimensions and proportions (1-2); Descriptions: subhadraka type (3-12); srivisala type (13-14); bhadrakostha type (15-24a); jayavaha type (24b-34a); bhadrakuta type (34b-36).
General points regarding temples:-The kapotapanjara (37-42).
Descriptions of four storeyed temples (cont.):
-Bhadrakuta type (cont.) (43-46a); manohara type (46b-47a); avantika type (47b-48); sukhavaha type (49-54).
Five storeyed temples (55-57).
Temples with six to eleven storeys (58-66a).
Twelve storeyed temples (66b-71a).
General points regarding temples (cont.):
-Odd and even measurements: proportion of aediculae (71b-73); engaged structures for temples with four storeys or more (74-75); aediculae:proportions (76-78a), arrangement (78b-79a), projection (79b-81), roof shapes (82-85), other kinds of arrangement (86-92a); dimensions are to be in whole numbers of units (92b-93a).
Envoi: thus have been described temples …(93b-94).
 
Chapter23: Enclosures and Attendants' shrines 387
  Enclosure:
-Aim of temple enclosure (1); dimensions of the five enclosures: according to even and odd diagrams (2-5) or according to main temple size (6-16); position of reference line (17); enclosure walls: dimensions (18-22) and decoration (23-25); cloister-like gallery (26-31); decoration of wall coping (32a); height of enclosures base (32b-34).
Attendants shrines:
-General features (35-38);lists of eight (39-40a), twelve (40b-42a), sixteen (42b-45a) and thirty-two (45b-52) Siva's Attendants; arrangement of Attendants shrines: ccording to odd and even diagrams (53a); according to number of enclosures (53b-54a); according to orientation of main temple (54b-57a); appearance of Attendants shrines.
Storeyed galleries:
-General features (58b-61a); proportions (61b-69); temple storeyed gallery and dwelling house annexes (70-71a); storeyed galleries and Attendant's shrines or other features (71b-73).
Enclosures arrangement:
-Altars (74-81); flag mast (82-83a); various buildings within the enclosures (83b-88a); flag mast 9cont.) (88b-91);other buildings (92-97).
Attendants of Visnu:
-Lists and arrangement of eight (89-100a); twelve (100b-102), sixteen (103-105a) and thiry-two (105b-106) Visnu's Attendants.
Characteristics of the image of Vrsa:
-General proportions (107-110a); detailed proportions (110b-127a); general features (127b-131).
 
 
Vol.II
 
  Text and translation of Mayamata (chapter 24 to Appendix)  
Chapter24: Gateway 421
  The five gateways:
-Dimensions in relation to that of the main temple (1-10); names (11); dimensions and proportions (12-22); dimensions of doors (23-25), based (27-28) and pillars (29-30); position of foundation deposit (31a).
General rules:
-List of fifteen types (31-34a), number of storeys (34b-35); elevation: proportions for single storeyed (36-38), two storeyed (38b-40), three storeyed (41-43a), four storeyed (43b-46a), five storeyed (46b-49), six storeyed (50-54a) and seven storeyed (54b-59a) gateways; horizontal proportions for single storeyed (59b-60a), two storeyed (60b-63), three storeyed (63-68a), four storeyed (68b-70), five storeyed (71-72a), six storeyed (72b-74a) and seven storeyed (74b-77) gateways; doors and stairways (78-80).
The five gateways(cont.):
-Shapes (81-84a); dvarsasobha or gateway of first enclosure: srikara type (84b-88), ratikanta type (89-91a) and kantavijaya type (91b-94a);dvarasala or gateway of second enclosure: vijayavisala type (94b-97), visalalaya type (98-100a), and vipratikanta type (100b-103a); dvaraprasada or gateway of third enclosure: srikanta type (103b-106a); srikesa type (106b-110) and kesvisala type (111-113), dvaraharmya or gateway of fourth enclosure: svastika type (114-116), disasvastika type (117-120a) and mardala type (120b-123a); dvaragopura or gateway of fifth enclosure: matrakanda type (123b-126), srivisala type (127-129); caturmukha type (130-134); rule for gutters (135).
Envoi: the wide diversity of the five gateways (139-137).
 
Chapter25: Pavilions and halls 451
  Pavilions:
-General rules:
-Position (1-3a) and functions (3b-5) of pavilions; names square (6-8a) and rectangular (8b-11a) pavilions; features to be described in this chapter (11b-12); proportions and dimensions: value of intercolumniation (13-16), dimensions of pillars (17-20a), base (20a-21) and socle (22-24); definition of pavilion (25); etymology of the term mandapa (26a); definition of light building (26b-29), canopy (30-34) and malikamandapa (35-36a).
Square pavilions:
-Meruka type (36b-37a); vijaya type (37b-39a); siddha type (39b-41).
The sacrificial pavilion:
- Inside arrangement (42); quadrangular (43-44), vulva-form (47), semicircular (48), triangular (49a), circular (49b), hexagonal (50), lotiform (51), octagonal (52), heptagonal (53) and pentagonal (54) firepits; other method to draw firepits (?) (55-56)
-Square pavilions (cont.):
 
Chapter26: Houses 515
  The main buildings:
-Number and general features (1-3a); dimensions: width (3b-6a), length (6b-9a) and height (9b-10).
Houses with a single main building:
General characteristics (11-12a); names (12b-13a); other features (13b-16a); orientation (16b-17).
-Orientation (18-20); use and arrangement (21).
Houses with a single main building (cont.):
-First and second type of dandaka houses (22b-25); arrangement fo doors (26-27); third (28-31a), fourth (31b-32) and fifth (33-35) type of dandaka houses.
Proportions of the verandah for houses with one, two or three main buildings (36),
Houses with a single main building (cont.):
-dandaka houses (cont.) (37); maulika house (38-39a); svastika house (39b-40); caturmukha house (41-43); features common to dandaka and other types (44-46).
Houses with two main buildings:
-Caturmukha type (47-51a); svastika type (51b-53); dandavaktra type (54-55).
Houses with three main buildings.
-Merukanta type (56-58); maulibhadra type (59-62); dimensions of houses with three main buildings:
-Dimensions (64-66a) and types (66b-67); calculating the length (68-72).
Sarvatobhadra houses with four main buildings:
-First type (73-85); second type (86-87); third type (88-91); fourth type (92-95a); fifth type (95b-99).
Definitions of verandah (?) (101)
vardhamana houses with four main buildings:
-First type (102-109a); second type (109b-112a); third type (113b-115a); fourth type (115b-118); fifth type (119-133); sixth type (134-137a); seventh type (137b-151).
Nandyavarta houses with four main buildings:
-Firth type (152-159a); second type (159b-161a); third type (161b-167); fourth type (168-172a); fifth type (172b-177a).
Other types of houses with four main buildings.
-Svastika houses with four main buildings:
Svastika house (177b-185); rucaka house (186-187).
General rules for houses with four main buildings (189).
Houses with seven and ten main buildings (190-193)
General features of houses:
-Verandah and porch (194); 'limitless' house (195); even and uneven numbers )196a); placing the door (196b); placing the foundation deposit (197-198); auspicious and inauspicious axial door (199).
Monasteries (200-202)
General features of houses (cont.):
-Dimension of houses pillars (203-205); how to build an auspicious house with reference to ayadi (206-211); annexes of houses (212-213); buildings within the house enclosures (214-218); number of enclosures (219-220). (
 
Chapter27: Features of houses for the four classes 573
  The enclosure:
-Dimensions (1-4); plan (5); endclosure wall (6-9); annexes built around the house (10).
Rules for laying out:
-Houses with main buildings separated or in blocks (11-13), small and large sizes (14-15a); drawing the house diagram (15b-19). The central pavilion:
-Dimensions (20-23); the central platform (24-26); characteristics of central pavilion (27-35).
Laying out the principal main-building of a catussala:
-General rules (36-39a); laying out the sukhalaya for Brahmins (40-41).
General proportions for houses (42-44):Laying out the principal main-building of a catussala (cont.):
-The sukhalaya (cont.) (45); the annalaya for ksatriya (46-48); the Elements of the upper part of the house (55-57).
Proportions for dwelling pavilions (?) (58-59).
Foundation deposit:
-Position (60-65); the muhurtastambha (66-69).
General points:
-Doors (70-73a); placing the gods (73b-75a); pillars (75b-80); the verandah (81-83a); the chamber of the master (83b-91). Roofing of the main building (95a) materials (95b-96a); base (96b-99); distribution of appurtenance (100), the heart (101-103); number of finials (?) (104); distributing oappurtenaces (cont.) (105-108)
The four types of dwelling:
-List (109-110a); disibhadra dwelling (110b-111); garudapaksa dwelling (112a); kayabhara dwelling (112b-120a); tulaniya dwelling (120b-125a).
General rules (cont.)
-Why to protect the external wall (125b-126); auspicious proportions (127); door proportions (128-129); time for construction (130-131); auspicious door positions (132); placing the master's apartment and the gynaeceum (133); period for beginning the construction (134).
 
Chapter28: First entry into a house 611
  When to enter the house (1-2)
First rites:
-Preparatory ceremony (3-5); putting in place of the vases (5-6); preparing the food for offering (7-9); installing the gods (10-11a); offerings (11b-23); departure of the architect (24-25a); preparing the house (25b-27).
The entering in of the master and mistress of the house:
They enter (28); the first meal (29-30); the perfect house (31-33); errors to be avoided (34); the entry is to be joyful(35);
Offerings in villages, etc.(36)
 
Chapter29: Royal palaces 623
  Proportions (1-12a).
Features of a small palace:
-Plan (12b-21); gateways (22-24a); arrangements of buildings (24b-26); the moat (27-29a); arrangement of buildings (cont.)(29b-30a); first enclosure (30b-42); second enclosure (43-55); third enclosure (56-64).
The town:
-General features (65-69); the town's wall (70-72a).
Palace gateways (72b-78); number of storeys for palaces (79-86).
The palace of narendra:
-Enclosure walls (87-94), inner arrangement of the palace (95-102); external enclosure (103-107).
Saubala palace:
-First enclosure (108-111a); second enclosure (111-118a); third enclosure (118b-120); fourth enclosure (121-122a); fifth enclosure (122b-129).
Saubala palace:
-First enclosure (108-111a); second enclosure (111b-118a); third enclosure (118b-120); fourth enclosure (121-122a); fifth enclosure (122b-129).
The adhikaja palace:
-Arrangement of buildings (130-157); walls and most (158-161).
Different kinds of royal cities (162-167).
Miscellaneous palace buildings:
-General features (65-69); the town's wall (70-72a).
Palace gateways (72b-78); number of storeys for palaces (79-86).
The palace for narendra:
-Enclosure walls (87-94); inner arrangement of the palace (95-102); external enclosure (103-107).
Saubala palace:
-First enclosure (108-111a); second enclosure (111b-118a); third enclosure (118b-120); fourth enclosure (121-122a); fifth enclosure (122b-129).
The adhiraja palace:
-Arrangement of buildings (130-157); walls and moat (158-161).
Different kinds of royal cities (162-167).
Miscellaneous palace buildings:
-Elephant stable (168-180); the horses stable (181-187); various buildings (188-190); the council chamber, etc. (191-195a); the bath house (195b-200a); the coronation building (200b-205a); ritual weighing place (205b-215); place for gold embryo ceremony (216-225); the guard lodgings (226); underground apartment (227).
Envoi: all is to be arranged according to king's best pleasure (228).
 
Chapter30: Doors 681
  General features:
-Dimensions of doors (2-11a); dimensions of door jambs (11b-12); door leaves (13-32); auspicious and inauspicious characteristics of doors (33-42); positions of doors(43-51).
Gateways:
-Dimensions of the door(53-55a); single storeyed gateways; srikara, sita and sribhadra types (61b-67); two storeyed gateways: ratikanta, kantavijaya and sumangala types (68-75a); three storeyed gateways: mardala, matrakhanda and sriniketana types (75b-94a); seven storeyed gateways: bhadrakalyana, subhadra and bhadrasundara types (94b-108a): six storeyed gateways (108b-109); five storeyed gateways (110-114); four storeyed gateways (115-116); general rules (117-118); definition of stereobate (119).
Envoi: for whom are intended the various kinds of gateways (120-121).
 
Chapter31: Vehicles 715
  Definitions (1-2a).
Palanquins:
-Names (2b-3): pitha type(4-24a); sekhara and maundi types (25-28).
Chariots:
-Dimensions (29-30a); frame (30b-38); wheels (39-42a); assembly (42b-48a); uses (48b-49); pavilion-shaped cart (50-53); temple-shaped cart (54-56a);canopy-shaped cart (56b-57); elements of card elevation(?) (58-61).
 
Chapter32: Beds and seats 731
  Beds(1-6) and divans(7-10a).
Seats
-General rules (10b-13a); lion throne (13b-19); stand for worship(20-23). Rules regarding ayadi series (24).
 
Chapter33: The Linga 739
  General points:
-Different kinds of divine representation (1-3); characteristics of stones(4-7); male, female and neuter stones and when to use them(8-12); young, mature and aged stones (12b-16a) pregnant stones (16b-17a); position of the 'face' of a stone (17b-19a); searching for stones: time and place (19b-21), preliminary rites (22-28a); quarrying a stone (28b-31a) and taking it to workshop (31b-33); how to proceed when a suitable stone is not found(34-36).
Dimensions of Linga:
Linga and temple dimensions (37a); place of Linga in the sanctum (37b-40a); dimensions of nagara Linga (40b-43a); dimensions of dravida Linga (43b-45a); dimensions of vesara Linga (45b-48a); dimensions expressed in cubits (48b-53); dimensions of vesara Linga (45b-48a);dimensions expressed in cubits (48b-53); dimensions calculated from those of door and other elements of the temple (54-57); rule regarding ayadi series (58-64).
Fashioning the Linga:
-Shapes to be given to the block at the start (65-66); the three parts of the Linga(67) and the way to draw them (68-71).
Proportions:
-Sarvatobhadra, svastika, sivadhika types of Linga (72-79); surarcita, dharalinga, sahasralinga and trairasika type (80-84).
Linga installed by Rsi (85-86).
Self-generated Linga (87-92a).
The cutting of a rounded shape at the top of the Linga (92b-100)?
Bringing out the characteristic signs:
-Preparing the Linga (101-102); preliminary rites (103-105); drawing the lines (106-109a); bringing out the characteristics of nagara Linga (109b-114a); of dravida Linga (114b-117a); and of vesara Linga (117b-119a); width and depth of lines (119b-127a); general rules (127b-135); shapes of the frenum (136-143).
Other types of Linga:
-Crystal Linga (144-152); Linga of various material such as earth (153-158a); banalinga (158b-159).
Envoi:
-Installation of Linga (161); fruits of installing a Linga (162).
 
Chapter34: Pedestals 783
  General rules:
-Materials (2-3); dimensions (4-10); shapes (10-13a); names (13b-15).
Descriptions:
-Bhadra pedestal (16-17); padma pedestal (18); vajrapadma pedestal (19-20); mahabja pedestal (21-22); srikara pedestal (23-24); pithapadma pedestal (25); mahavajra and saumya pedestals (26-28a); srikamya pedestal (28b-29).
Common features (30-43)?
Placing the pedestal:
-The liners: Brahma stone (44-49) and nandyavarta stones (50).
Pedestals for statues (51-56a).
Temple, pedestal and image(?):
-Dimensions of temples as calculated from those of pedestals (56b-60); dimensions of temples as calculated from those of the images (61-64a).
Making of the eight (ingredients)mortar (64b-66).
The gods in the shrine:
-Number of gods (67); the biggest shrine is that housing the Linga (68); diagram of the sanctum and place of the gods (69-71).
Envoi: all attention is to be given in placing divine representation in the sanctum (72); formless and man-made Linga (73); contents of the chapter (74).
 
Chapter35: Renovation work 803
  -Temple renovation (2b-14); renovation of Linga (15-33a); renovation of pedestal (33b-36); renovation of images (37-40a); general rules (40b-44); renovation of villages, etc.(45-47).
Provisional installation:
-Why a provisional installation (48); provisional shrine (49-50); provisional Linga (51-53); provisional image (54-55); provisional pedestal (56); materials?(57); how long may last a provisional feature(580.
Envoi: rules for renovation have to be followed (59).
 
Chapter36: Iconography 821
  Brahma(2-7).
Visnu's images:
-Visnu (8-12a); Varaha (12b-14a); Trivikrama (14b-15a); Narasimha (15a-24); Anantasayin (25-35a).
Mahesvara (35b-43a).
The sixteen manifestations of Siva:
-The sixteen manifestation of Siva:
-List (43b-46a); common features (46b-48); Sukhasanamurti (49-51a); Vaivahamurti (51b-58); Umaskandamurti (59-62a); Vrsarudhamurti (62b-64a); Tripurantakamurti (65-67a); Dancing forms (67b-89a); Candrasekharamurti (80b-81a); Ardhanarisvaramurti (81b-89a); Hariharamurti (90-91); Candesanugrahamurti (92-93); Kamarimurti (94-95a); Kalanasamurti (95b-97); Daksinamurti (98-101); Bhiksatanamurti (102-103); Kankalamurti (104-107a); Mukhalinga (107b-118).
Sanmukha (119-121).
Ganadhipa (122-126)
Surya (127-136a).
Lords of the directions:
Indra (136b-138); Agni (139-143); Yama (144-149); Nirrtti (149b-150); Varuna (151-152); Vayu (153-154a); Kubera (154b-156); Candra (157-161a); Isana (161b-162a).
Other gods and goddesses:
-Kama (162b-167a); the two Asvin (167b-170); the eight Vasu (171-173a); the eight Marut (173b-174); the Rudra and the Vidyesvara (175-177); Ksetrapala (178-185); Candesvara (186-188); the twelve Aditya (189-191); the seven sages (192-194a); the seven Rohini (194b-195a); Garuda (195b-198a); Sasta (198b-210).
The Mothers:
-List (211-212); Virabhadra (213-214a); Brahmani (216-217); Mahesvari (218-219); Kaumari (220-222a); Vaisnavi (222b-224a); Varahi (224b-227a); Indrani (227b-228); Camundi (229-234a); Vinayaka (234b); installation of the Mothers (235-240a); Camundi (cont.) (240b-242); the Mothers Attendants (234-247a).
Goddesses:
-Laksmi (247b-255); Yaksini (256-257); Katyayani (258-262); Durga (263-264); Sarasvati(265-268a); Jyestha (268b-273); Bhumi (274-275); Parvati (276-278a);Saptamata (279-280).
Buddha (281-283).
Jina(284-291).
General Points:
-Proportions of images (293-303); dimensions of portable images (304-309).
Guardians of the doors (310-314).
Envoi: What has been told in that chapter(315).
 
Appendix: Where and when a well is to be established 899
  Choice of the place(?)(1-5);choice of the day (6-7); choice of the asterism (8-13); choice of the place(?)(cont.)(14-15).  
  Bibliography 905
  Editions and Manuscripts of Mayamatajj used for the establishment of the Sanskrit text 911
  Index-Glossary 913

 

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Mayamatam (Vol. I and II)

Item Code:
IDJ888
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2007
ISBN:
9788120812260 (Set)
Language:
Transliterated Text and Translation
Size:
9.2" X 7.3"
Pages:
978
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 2.7 kg
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Mayamatam (Vol. I and II)

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About the book

The Mayamata is a Vastusastra, i.e. a treatise on dwelling and as such it deals with all the facets of gods and mens dwellings, from the choice of the site to the iconography of the temple walls. It contains numerous and precise descriptions of villages and towns as well as of the temples, houses, mansions and palaces. It gives indications for the selection of a proper orientation, right dimensions, and of appropriate materials. It intends to be a manual for the architect and a guidebook for the layman. Well-thought of by traditional architects (sthapatis) of South India, the treatise is of great interest at a time when technical traditions, in all fields, are being scrutinized for their possible modern application.

The present bilingual edition prepared by Dr. Bruno Dagens, contains critically edited Sanskrit text, which is an improvement over the earlier edition by the same scholar and published as No.40 of Publications de I'Institute Francais d'Indologie, Pondicherry. The English translation, also published earlier, has now been revised with copious notes. The usefulness of the edition has been further enhanced by adding an analytical table of contents and a comprehensive glossary.

About the Author

Dr. Bruno Dagens (b. 1953) is an eminent Sanskritist and archaeologist. He is a member of the Ecole Francais d'Estreme-Orient. Dr. Dagens taught Sanskrit at the University of Louvain (Belgium) and did archaeological research in Afghanistan and Cambodia. He also worked, since 1977, at the Institute Francais d'Indologie, Pondicherry for quite a few years.

Besides articles and research papers on the Archaeology and Iconography of monuments in Afghanistan and Cambodia, two earlier editions of the Mayamata and one edition of the Saivagamaparibhasamanjari (a compendium of Saiva doctrines and rituals), Dr. Dagens has authored Architecture in the Ajitagama and the Rauravagama (Sitaram Bharatia Institute of Scientific Research, New Delhi, 1984).

 

Introduction

The body of Sanskrit literature dealing with architecture and iconography is voluminous, even if scattered and insufficiently surveyed and it is matched by a vernacular literature, more scattered and less known. It comprises, first of all, independent works which can be classified under the general heading of "technical treatises" (silpaSastra) or under the more precise one of "treatises on dwelling" (vastuSastra) or "treatises on dwellings" (vastuSastra) The scope of these works, and that of the domain they cover, varies considerably and that goes for the comprehensive treatises as much as for those which confine themselves to limited subjects, such as iconography or astrological points bearing upon the founding and the construction of a house. There are few specialized works of importance in this category even so, architecture and iconography being more often dealt with in various works, whether more or less ambitious encyclopaedias or treatises which concentrate upon areas where architecture and iconography are involved. Some of the main purana or upapurana are to be found in this category (e.g. Matsyapurana, Agnipurana, Visnudbarmottarapurana ... ) along with encyclopaedias of royal inspiration (e.g. Manasollasa of Somesvara, Samaranganasutradbara of Bhoja ... ) and the Saivite and Vaisnavite agama of various persuasions, as well as the Grbyasutra. the Arthasastra and the Brhatsamhita. These types of works are just those in which the material is most abundant but most scattered; it should be added that a number of small independent treatises are nothing more than extracts from much larger works and, as well, that it is hard to be sure whether the Purvakamikagama has borrowed from the Mayamata the very great number of passages common to both texts or whether the reverse is the case (see below).

That the dispersion is also historical and geographical only complicates the problem still further: the architecture and iconography, as they appear in a given work, are but the reflection of what was in existence during the time of its drafting in the region where that was done; significant in relation to the described forms, this factor is also apparent in the technical vocabulary which is always more or less marked by regional usage, as well as by borrowings from the vernacular. Then, there is the sectarian bias, whether stressed or not and very apparent in the iconography and also, even if to a lesser degree, in complex architectural forms, if not in their elements envisaged separately." The pretension to universality of many of these texts does nothing to conceal this phenomenon, and whether the regional and sectorian features are more or less emphasized, they are still, usually, obvious. It must also be added that the Indian or, more precisely, the Hindu koine, is so much the fruit of such a mixture of regional and unitarian trends that each author, or school, may legitimately imagine that its day-to-day reality is nothing but an accurate reflection of the whole Indian world.

In that very extensive and widely disseminated range of works, the Mayamata occupies a fairly well defined place. It is a general treatise, a vastusastra, written in Sanskrit but originating from Dravidian India, most probably from the Tamil area; it is part of the Saivite agamic literature without the connection being underlined by any pronounced sectarianism and its drafting must have been done during the Cola period, at the time when the architecture it describes had reached the peak of its maturity. Comprising about 3300 verses and divided into 36 chapters, it is identified as a vastusastra, that is, as a treatise on dwelling, for it defines the vastu as "anywhere where immortals or mortals live" (2.1)' This definition is followed by specifications which show that the concept of housing is very wide and is divided into four categories: the Earth (considered as original dwelling), buildings, vehicles and seats (which last three are nothing but "vastu" deriving from the first "vastu",the Earth). Once iconography has been added to this list we have a panorama, brief but inclusive, of the content of the work. Leaving aside here the details of this content which we will analyse further on, we note that the Mayamata is arranged in three large sections: the first (Chapters 1-10) deals with dwelling sites, the first vastu, the second section with buildings (Chapters 11- 30) and the third (Chapters 31-36), with the last two vastu, vehicles and seats, and with iconography (Linga images and their pedestals). In these different sections are found entire chapters or significant passages consecrated to particular topics in the sphere of technique or that of the ritual which sets the pace for the construction: system of measurements and quality of the architects (Chapter 5), orientation and laying-out (Chapters 6-7), offerings to the gods of the site (Chapter 8), foundation deposit (Chapter 12), joinery (Chapter 17), rites for the end of the construction of a temple and for the first entry into a house (Chapters 18 and 28) and renovation work and associated rites (Chapter 35).

The work as a whole is coherent in spite of various interpolations which are sometimes, but not always, indicated by changes in the metres." These appear quite frequently in chapters describing temples where they often give information on details of decorative motifs which were evidently mentioned, though not described, in the original text; in the same way the description of a pavilion of the siddha type (25.39 sq.) is interrupted by fourteen verses given over to ritual firepits (kunda); this interpolation would seem to have been entailed by the mention of the fact that the siddha pavilion may serve "for all rituals"; sometimes definitions of terms have been added, such as in Chapter 26 where we are given, but quite untimely, precise meanings for vimana, barmya and malika (26.100). These interpolations do not seem to give rise to any great internal discrepancy; it is only to be noted that the mention, in a general chapter on temples, of thirteen, fourteen and sixteen storeyed temple ( 11.19) seems to be the result of an updating of the text which never otherwise describes temples with more than twelve storeys (22.66 sq., see below ).

That the Mayamata belongs to Saivasiddhanta literature is demonstrated by the leading place given to Siva temples, by the chapter given over to the Linga and especially by the speculations on the nature of the Linga which it contains and, lastly, by the pantheon described in Chapter 36 which is essentially that found in saivagamas. This being said, the Mayamata nevertheless does not appear to be a sectarian work; the list of Siva's Attendants is followed by a list of those of Visnu (Chapter 23) and Chapter 36 includes descriptions of images of Buddha and Jina which are not usual in agamic literature, no more than are mentions of the temples of these two deities such as are found here in the chapters dealing with villages and foundation deposits (9.70 sq. and 12.59 sq.). Ram Raz, who has noted the tolerance shown in the Mayamata (and the Mana- sara ) towards Buddhists and jains, says however that the locations attributed to the cult places of these two sects were close to those suitable for inferior deities or for malignant spirits.This absence of sectarianism is marked in a much more general way by constant references to a very classical society such as is presented in the Dbarmasastras. The society for which arc intended the construction prescribed by the Mayamata is that of the four uarnas and the "others", who are installed at a distance and who are responsible for polluting tasks such as refuse collection (e.g. 9.95-98). If the society of the Mayamata is that of the Dharmasastras, its political organization is that of the Arthasastra; there too the references to classical India are very evident, as well where they concern the hierarchies of towns and villages, as when they give the method of organizing the defence of a kingdom with forts, and the way in which the royal council chamber is to be arranged (cf. Chapters 9 and 10 and 29.191 sq.).

It may be said, quite definitively, that the aim of the Mayamata is to organize the integration of the external manifestations of siddhanta Saivism in a context which could be qualified as "non-sectarian Hindu", so as to avoid the term "secular" which is not very appropriate when speaking of traditional India.

Preface

This is our third MAYAMATA and it owes a lot to the former Institute of Indology (now French Institute of Pondicherry) we have retained without any substantial change the Sanskrit text and, after revision and emendation, the material for many of the footnotes, which have been added to the translation. That last, as well as the Introduction, has been borrowed after revision from our second work published in 1985 by the Sitaram Bhartia Institute of Scientific Research; we have tried to clarify it on several points, without however being able to make more than little progress in the interpretation of the ones. From the first published in 1970-1976 by the French passages dealing with timber work (chapters 18 and 25). The drawings of that second edition too have been kept with slight corrections; it should be reminded that they are meant to be no more than tentative sketches. Lastly an Index-glossary and an Analytical table of contents have been prepared.

The helps received since 1964 when the late Professor Jean Filliozat introduced us for the first time to the MAYAMATA, have been too numerous to be acknowledged one by one; exception is to be made however for that brought by Pandit N.R. Bhatt, founder and former Head of the Sanskrit Department at the French Institute of Pondicherry; I owe him more than can be expressed.

Lastly we thank Mrs. Kapila Vatsyayana for having asked us some years ago to prepare that book for the I.G.N.C.A. series, and for having friendly stood for out endless delays.

Foreword

In the series of Kalamulasastra early texts on music, namely, Matralaksanam, Dattilam and Brhaddesi, have been published. The medieval texts on music, specially, the Sri hastamuktavali (No.3 in the series) and the Nartananirnaya (No.17 in the series), bring us upto the 15th and 16th century. In the case of architecture, despite the IGNCA's endeavour to publish portions of the Brhatsamhita, the Agnipurana and the Visnudharmottara-purana, first this has not been possible. Instead, our scholars wrere able to complete work first on a late but important text, namely, silparatnakosa. We hope that the sections on architecture in the Brhatsamhita, the Agnipurana and the Visnudharmottara-purana which predate the medieval texts, will be published soon, alongwith revised and re-edited texts of Manasollasa and Aparajitaprccha.

The Mayamatam is the fourteenth and fifteenth volumes in the Kalamulasastra series of the Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA).

Urban development and city planning was, undoubtedly, known to the Mohenjodaro, but its most outstanding survivals of the historical period are in South India. The layout of Tanjore and later, Madurai has been widely commented upon. Understandably, technical texts, which devote attention to village, city planning, house building and temple construction, should be expected. An outstanding example of a comprehensive text, comprising thirty-six chapters, is the Mayamatam, written sometime between 11th and 12th century. The text is, obviously, a deduction from existing practices and actual structures rather than an abstract theoretical treatise on architecture. Its contents are more systematic than those found in other comprehensive texts, such as, the Manasollasa or the Samaranganasutradhara. The latter two are encyclopaedic in nature but are not tightly structured. In contrast, Mayamatam is more definitive and coherent as it situates itself within the larger saiva tradition and even more particularly, the Saivagama tradition and takes into account actual town and village layouts and temple construction. While it would be debatable whether the text precedes or succeeds the construction of the Brhadisvara with architectural plans, techniques of construction and the modular approach in regard to the number of storeys. The text assumes importance not only for its detailed descriptions of temples, but also for its detailed descriptions of houses for different categories of inhabitants in a village and a city, entrances, exists, ventilations and much else. Equally revealing is the concern with examination of the site, the analysis of the soil, the preparation of the foundations, the materials to be used and the methods of construction. A comparative study of the valuable date in this text, with techniques, which survive with the traditional sthaptis and others, would be the next rewarding journey.

As we have observed elsewhere Vastu and the Agama traditions are complementary and often they overlap. This was evident in the Svayambhuvasutrasamgraha and this interdependence has been highlighted by Prof. Pierre Filliozat in his Introduction. The Mayamatam, likewise, complements material in the Kamikagama specially the section on the Purvakamikagama and the two should be seen together, because while the text on architecture details the techniques of construction, the Agama texts lay down the process by which the material is transubstantiated to a non-material plane.

The text of the Mayamatam also interlinks the IGNCA programmes of studying the area of Tanjore and the Brhadisvara Temple. In a related programme, precise measurements have been taken of the city, new layout plans have been made, the Tmple has been measured precisely and a new set of drawings of ground plans, elevation and sections, is ready. Alongside, a volume on sculpture of the Temple, not understood in isolation but in its aspect of a programmed orchestration of the outer and the inner, the lower and the higher is ready for publication. Inscriptions have been re-assessed from the point of view of their placement and the contents of these inscriptions, specially those that have been deciphered recently, throw a fund of information on the organization of temple architecture activity. Alongside, the temple rituals are being documented. Studies are being carried out in regard to adherence or departures in contemporary practice of these rituals from the Agamas- whether the Kamikagama or the Makutagama. A comparison of the material of Mayamatam and the studies in the Brhadisvara project will, undoubtedly, throw up a new set of issues for further study.

With the publication of a group of monographs relating to the Brhadisvara Temple, including the Isanasivagurudevapaddhati and the Makutagama, the architectural, sculptural, painting and epigraphical volumes, and the volume based on the socio-political and cultural aspects and the history of the period and region, and the Mayamatam the Institute will have, hopefully, provided a new or, certainly, an alternate medel for the study of cultural areas and regions. Here theory and practice-the textual and the oral, the historical and contemporary, the monument, the texts and the living traditions are being investigated as interpenetrative categories.

Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts is grateful to Dr. Bruno Dagens, Editor and Translator of this edition of the text. A French edition was published by the French Institute of Indology, Pondicherry, in 1970-76 and an English translation of the text from Sitaram Bharatia Institute of Scientific Research was published in 1985. The present edition is a revision of Dr. Bruno Dagen's critical text published as also a revision of the English translation. He has provided an insightful introduction and an exhaustive glossary of technical terms, which will be an invaluable source of understanding for future scholars. Dr. Bruno Dagens brings to this edition the sensitive understanding of an excavator and an archaeologist. Thus, many complex passages have been edited by him with a view not only of grammatical correctness but also from the point of view of comprehension as statements of architectural construction. The question of homogeneity of this text - whether it was all composed during Cola or the post Cola period is somewhat debatable. Dr. Bruno Dagens concedes that there may be some interpolations. However, the question of interpolations in the Indian textual tradition is itself a complex matter. The text was never considered to be a frozen text. Since at all times the text reflected actual practices, as and when actual practices went through modifications, these changes were reflected in the subsequent texts or incorporated into an already prevalent text. Elsewhere, we have taken up the question "What constitutes the authenticity of a text in the Indian tradition, other than the Vedic text under the category of Sruti?". The Mayamatam, like many other texts in different disciplines but particularly the arts, is also not a frozen text of a particular fixed date and time, but belongs much more to the stream of evolution and development of distinctive schools of architectural style.

I would like to take this occasion to thank Dr. Bruno Dagens for preparing the present text and thank my colleagues, especially Dr. N.D. Sharma who has assisted in proof-reading of the Sanskrit documents and publications, and Prof. Satkari Mukhopadhyaya, for supervision.

 

CONTENTS
     
 
Vol. I
 
  Foreword vii
  Preface xi
  Table of figures xv
  Analytical table of contents of Mayamata xvii
  Introduction xxxix
  Text and translation of Mayamata (Chapter 1 to 23)  
Chapter1: Summary 3
  Maya, auditor of the Lord of the Universe and author of the treatise(1-2). Summary of the treatise (3-11).
Envoi: divine origin of the treatise which deals with divine and human dwellings (14).
 
Chapter2: Dwelling sites 7
  Definitions:
-Varieties of dwelling sites(1-3); principal and secondary sites (4-6a);
various kinds of dwelling sites (6b-8); the Earth as main site (9). Characteristic of sites intended for Brahmins, kings, vaisys and sudra (10-15).
Envoi: the perfect site (20).
 
Chapter3: Examination of the site 11
  Auspicious characteristics (1-10a).
Inauspicious characteristics (10b-19).
Envoi: the perfect site (20).
 
Chapter4: Taking possession of the site 11
  How to take possession of the site:
-Dismissing of spirits and others (1-3); ploughing, seeding and grazing (4-8a); offering (8b-10a).
New examination is necessary before taking possession of the site (19).
 
Chapter5: System of measurements 23
  System of measurements:
-Definition of the various units(1-6a); when to use them (6-11a); unit for rituals etc. (11b-12).
The four technicians:
-Names (13-14a); the architect (14b-18a); the sutragrabin (18b-19); the taksaka (20); the vardhaki (21-22a); qualities of technicians (22b-24).
-Envoi: such technicians are indispensable (25).
 
Chapter6: Orientation 29
  Preliminaries:
- Choice of date (1-2a); preparation of the ground (2b-3a); making the gnomon (3b-7a).
Fixing the cardinal points:
-Drawing east-west and north-south lines (7b-13a); values of apacchaya (11b-13).
Laying out the building:
--Making rope and stakes (14-18); the lines to be drawn: definitions (19-21a); order to be followed in drawing them (21b-24a); drawing the lines for four main building houses (24b-26).
The apacchaya (cont.)
-Various (27); when to make adjustments (28).
 
Chapter7: Diagrams 37
  List fo the thirty-two diagrams (1-21).
Descriptions:
Sakala diagram (22); pecaka diagram (23); pitha diagram(24); mahapitha diagram (25-27); upapitha and other diagrams (28-29).
Two two main diagrams (manduka and paramasayin):
-Common characteristics (30-33a); names of the gods and their respective places (33b-42); manduka diagram (43-48); the Spirit of the site (49-56); manduka diagram (cont.) (57); Paramasayin diagram (58).
 
Chapter8: Offerings 51
  Individual offerings (1-15); common offerings (16-20); placing the gods (21-23).  
Chapter9: Villages planning 57
  Dimensions of settlements:
-System of measurements (cont.): liner (1b-2a) and square (2b-4a) units; dimensions of village settlements (4b-8a); dimensions of towns (8b-10); dimensions of village, kheta, kharvata, forts and cities (10-16a); proportions of villages, kheta, kharvata, forts and cities (10-16a); proportions (16b-18a); the ayadi system (18b-24).
Number of Brahmins to be installed in a settlement (25-31).
General points:
-Choosing a diagram(32-33a); list of village types(33b-34); various kinds of streets (35-39); definition of various kinds of settlements (40).
Description of village type:
-Dandaka type (41-42); svastika type (43-45); prastara type (46); prakarnaka type (47); nandyavarta type (18-50a); paraga type (50b-51a); padma type (51b-52); sripratisthita and srivatsa types (53-54a).
Village planning:
-General rules (54b-56); doors and sewage outlets (57-60a); defences (50b-60a); concentric zoning (61b-63); shrines (64-75); layout of centre of village (75b-78); harmony between settlement of shrines (84-85); the body of the Spirit of the Site is not to be harmed (86); arrangement of amenities and dwelling quarters (87-91a); houses: dimensions and types (91b-94); constructions around the village (95-98); errors to be avoided in plainning (99-100).
The foundation deposit for villages:
-Components (101-122a); location (122b-128).
Envoi: Gifts to architect and others and their fruits (129-130).
 
Chapter10: Towns 89
  Dimensions of towns (1-12)
General points:
-The surrounding wall: layout and dimensions (13-16a); choice of a diagram and places to be avoided (16b-17a); streets (17b-18).
Descriptions of towns and other settlements:
-Rajadhanin or the king's capital (19-26a); khata (26b); kharvata and janasthanakubja (27); pattana or harbour (28b-29a); sibira (29b-30a); senamukha (30b-31a); sthaniya (31b-32a); dronamukha (32b-33a); vidamba and kotmakolaka (33b-34a); nigama (34b-35a); skandhavara and cerika (35b-36a).
Fort:
-Types (36b-38); qualities to be sought (39-40a); gateways (40b-42a); walls (42b-46a); stores (46b-48a); qualities to be sought (cont. 48b-49a). gods of the fort (49b-51a).
Town plans:
-General rule regarding the number of streets (51b-54a); dandaka, kartaridandaka, bahudandaka, kalakabandhadandaka, vedibhadra and svastika types of plan (54-61a); bhadraka, bhadramukha, bhadrakalyana, mahabhadra, vastubhadra and subhadra types (62-67a); jayanga, vijaya and sarvatobhadra types (67b-76).
Town planning:
-Habitation quarters and bazaars (77-87); shrines (88-89a); outside constructions (89-90); specificity o pattana (91b-c); list of various kinds of settlement(92).
Envoi: Gifts architect and others and their fruits (93-94).
 
Chapter11: The number of storeys and the dimensions 113
  Differences regarding the plan of buildings and the number of their storeys(1-3a).
Dimensions of buildings according to number of storeys (3b-22a).
Destination of buildings according to number of storeys (22b-25).
Maximum size to be given to a building (?)(26).
Envoi: contents of the chapter (27).
 
Chapter12: The foundation deposit 121
  General points:
-Why a foundation deposit is necessary (1-3a); the foundation pit (3b-8); the casker (9-15a); preliminary rites (15b-22); content of the casket (23-32).
Temples foundation deposit:
-Deposit for Siva temple (33-46a); deposits for Visnu (46b-48a), for Brahma (48b-51) and for Sanmukha (52-53); deposits for dikpalas and similar Attendants (54-58); for Buddha (59-60), for Jina (61-63), for Durga (64-65a) and for Ksetrapala (65b); deposits for Laksmi, Sarasvati, Kali, the Mothers, Rohini, Parvati, Mohini, etc….(67-70).
Deposits for human dwellings:
-Deposits for each of the four varna (71-83); deposits for the principal main buildings of catussala (84-87); deposits for various buildings (88-95); general points: deposit is not to be placed when he house mistress is pregnant(95); orientation of deposit (97); formula for foundation (98); deposits for wells… etc. (99_100).
The first bricks:
-Number, nature and dimensions (101-108a); placing the first bricks (108b-111).
General points:
-Order of operations (112); placing a pillar or a door jamb above the deposit(114).
 
Chapter13: The socle 151
  Definition and proportions (1-5).
Descriptions:
-Vedibhadra types (6-8); pratibhadra types (9-14); subhadra types (15-19a).
General rules:
-Decoration (19b-20); proportions (21-22).
 
Chapter14: Tha base 157
  Foundation works:
-Dry and moist grounds (1-4a); preparing the ground (4b-8).
General points:
-Regulating course, base and socle (9-11a); definition of base (11b); height of the base (12-16); projection(17-18).
Descriptions:
-Padabandha base (19-20); uragabandhu base (21-22); pratikrama base (23-24); padmakesara base (25-26); puspapuskala base (27-28); sri bandha base (29-30); mancabandha base (31)srikanta base (32); srenibandha base (33); padmabandha base (34); vaprabandha base(35); kapotabandha base(36a); pratibandha base (36b); kalasa base(37);
General points:
-Decoration and proportion (38-39); synonyms for 'base'(40); projection and recess (41-44); rule for interruption of base and stereo bate (45-47).
 
Chapter15: Dimensions of pillars and choice of materials 179
  Pillars:
-General points:
-Synonyms for 'pillar' (2); dimensions (3-8); various kinds of pillars:pratistambha, nikhatastambha, jhasalastambha (9-11a); rule for pillar diameter (11b-12).
-Descrioptions:
-Brahmakanta, vinsukanta, indrakanta, saumya, purvasra, rudrakanta and rudracchanda pillars (13-17a); proportion of lotiform base (17b); bhadraka pillar (18-19); sundupada and pindipada pillars (20-22a); ictrakhanda, srikhnda and srivajra pillars (22b-26a); ksepanastambha(26b-27a).
General points (cont.):
-Pillar assembly, general use of bracket capital, definition of module (27b-29a).
-Capitals:
-Types of bell-capital (29b-30); pillar upper part arrangement (31); bell capital (32-34a); abacus and other elements (34b-39a); bracket capital: dimensions (39b-42); description (43-47), various types (48-50).
-Pilasters projection (51); intercolumniation (52-54); wooden and stone pillars (55-56); placing the reference line (57-58a); how to calculate the height of a building (58b-59a); placing the reference line (cont.)(59b-61a).
 
  Choice of building materials:
-Materials to be used (61b)
-Characteristics of correct materials:
-Trees (62-63); list of trees suitable for pillars (64-67a); stone is not to be used for vais, a and sudra buildings (78-79a); pure, 'mixed' and 'mingled' building (79b-80).
-Search for timber:
-Preliminary rites (81-83); 'male', 'female' and 'neuter' trees (84-86); cutting the tree(87-92); omens (93-98); squaring, transporting and storing timber (99-102); storing the nails, etc. (103-104a); making a muhurtastambha (104b-108); list of trees not to be used for human dwellings (109-114).
-The making of bricks:
-Choice of earth (115-116a); mixing earth with water and various saps (116b-118a); dimensions of bricks (118b-119a); drying and baking (119b); testing the bricks (120).
-Envoi: why good materials are to be chosen (121).
 
Chapter16: Entablature 213
  The architrave and its upper fascia:
-Three kinds of architrave (1-3); four kinds of arrangement for entablature (4); the upper fascia (5-7a).
Various features:
-Braces (7b-9a); consoles (9b-10a); lierne and cornice (10b-15); struts (16-18a); decoration of cornice (18b-20a); upper fascia (cont.) (20b-23a); cornice (cont.) (23b-27); frieze: description (28-32a), various kinds (32b-35).
The ceiling:
-Arrangement of architrave and pillars (41b-42a); orientation of architrave, beams, etc. (42b-44a); arrangement of beams, valika, joists and small joists (44b-45); decoration of entablature and making of ceiling (46-47); height of entablature (48); preparation of coating (49); even and odd measurements (50a); position of the door (50b); rule for arrangement of stereobate (51-53).
Latticed windows:
-Position and dimensions (54-55a); arrangement of upright and transoms (55b-56a); various types of latticed window (56b-60a); jambs and shutters (60b-61); circular windows(62).
Walls:
-Three sorts of walls (63); description of latticed and plank walls.
Envoi: contents of the chapter and emphasis on rules regarding stereo bate (67).
 
Chapter17: Joinery 235
  General points:
-Definition (1); basic principle (2); varieties of assembly: names(3); how to make an assembly (4-8a); position of pieces to be joined (8b-10a); varieties of assembly (cont.); definitions (10b-15a).
Descriptions:
-Sarvatobhadra assembly (15b-18); nandyavarta assembly (19-22a); svastibandha assembly (22b-23); vardhamana assembly (24-26a).
General rules for successful assemblies (26b-28).
Assemblies for pillars and for pillars (29) and horizontal elements (30); assembling the pillars: types of assembly (31-34); general rules (35-37); assembling the horizontal elements: types of assembly (38-34); general rules (35-37); assembling the horizontal elements: types of assembly (38-41); general rules (42-43).
tenons and pegs (44-45a).
Errors regarding tenons and pillars (45b-46); position on diagrams (47-49); middle regarding tenons and pillars (45b-46); position on diagrams (47-49); middle of pieces (50-51a) and confusion of elements (51b-53a); evil result of an error (53b-54); errors regarding use of old pieces (55-56); assembly of pillars and architrave (57-58a) and assembly above the place of Brahma at the centre of the building (58b-59); error regarding male, female and neuter woods (60); happy fruit of a correct assembly (61).
Description of a special assembly(/) (62).
 
Chapter18: Making of the roof and completion of the building work 251
  Upper levels of elevation:
-The attic:
-Height (2); projections and recess (3-5a); decorative elements (5b-7a).
-The roof:
-Different types of roof and their proportions (7b-12a); proportions and names of corresponding types of rafter work (12b-14); roof shapes (15-17).
Height of the finial (18-19).
-Roof timber work:
-Number of rafters (20); puskara(?) (21-22); dimensions of rafters (23-29); the five categories of rafters (30-31); rafter work of a wagon roof (?) (32-35); timber-work of a pyramid roof (?) (36-37); dimensions of various roof elements (38-45); roofing (46-47a); lierne and other elements (?) (47b-64); roofing (cont.) (65-66a); axis of the finial: dimensions (66b-67) and setting up (68-77); decoration of the porch gable (78-81).
-The finial:
-Position of final axis (82); height (83-87a) and width (87b-89a) of finial parts; finial support (?) (89b-90); the finial is suitable only for the first three varna (91).
Coatings and mortars:
-Different kinds (92-98a); preparation of kalka and cikkana (98b-101a); preparing of bandhodaka (101b-103); making a roofing (?) and a gutter (104-108); paintings (109-112a); recipe to make a rock-like mortar (112b-115).
-The crowning bricks (116-121a).
-Axis of the finial (cont.): materials, shape and dimensions (121b-127a).
Consecration ceremony:
-Laying in place of the crowning bricks:
-Preparatory rites: arrangement of pavilion (127b-133a); placing the bricks and the finial axis in that pavilion (133b-134a); offerings (134b-136a); settling of the architect for the night (136b-138a).
Morning rites: dressing of the architect (138b-141a); meditation (141b-142); washing the bricks and the finial axis (143).
 
  -Setting the bricks: climbing up the roof of the building and placing the bricks (144-147a); placing a sacred deposit under the axis of finial (147b-151); hanging a banner and clothing the building (152-154); honoraria for the architect and others (155-156); where to place the deposit in various kinds of building (157-158).
-General rules for the completion of the building work (159-169).
-Summary of what has been already told in this chapter (163)
-Axis of the finial (cont.): suitable woods (164).
-Consecration rites:
-Choice of a correct time (165); preparatory rites: arrangement of a consecration pavilion (166-170a); placing twenty-five vases and invoking the gods (170b-172); setting of the architect for the night (173-174); arrangement fo a sacrificial pavilion (175-178a); placing the murtikumbha in that pavilion and dressing the temple (178b-181); offerings to the divinities of the site (182-184).
-The opening of the eyes (185-188); climbing up again the temple roof and handing banners (189-193a); making the vase of the finial and setting it in place (193b-195); consecration formula (196-198); end of the architect and others (202-206).
-General rules for the consecration:
-Necessity for the consecration ritual (207-210); the architect officiates in the consecration (211-212); the time for consecration (213-214); placing the vases (215).
Envoi: the rules to be followed for success.
 
Chapter19: One storeyed temples 307
  General features of single storeyed temples:
-Dimensions and proportions (1-3a); shapes (3b-4a).
General points regarding temples:
-The pavilion in front of the shrine (4b-9); synonyms designating buildings (10-12); dimensions of the sanctum (13-15a); proportions of the finial (15b-17); false-dormer windows set in the roof (18-19a); the attic stereo bate (19b); the door (20-22); the gargoyle: position (23-24); description (25-28); alternative position (29).
General appearance of single storeyed temples (30-34).
General points regarding temples (cont.):
Nagara, dravida and vesara categories (35-38); images to be set on temple facades: ground floor (40-43); second floor (44-45a); third floor (45b-46); attic (47-48a).
Envoi: decorative elements which may used. (48b-49).
 
Chpater20: Two storeyed temples 325
  Dimensions and proportions of two storeyed temples (1-5)
Descriptions of two storeyed temples:
-Svastika type (6-7); vipulasundara type (9b-10a)
General points regarding temples:
-Aediculae (10b-12a).
Description of two storeyed temples (cont.):
-Kailasa (12b-13a); parvata (13b-16a); svastibandha (16b-18a); kalyana (18b-19); pancala (20); visnukanta (21); sumangala (22-23); gandhara (24); hastiprstha (25-26); manohara (27a); isvarakanta (27b-28a); urttaharmya (28b-29a) and kuberakanta (29b-30a).
Envoi: there are fifteen types of two storeyed temple (30b-31a).
General points regading temples (cont.):
-Male,female and neuter building (31b-34a).engaged structures (35); arcatures: proportions (36-37) and positions (?) (38-39).
 
Chapter21: Three storeyed temples 337
  Dimension and proportions of three storeyed temples (1-2a).
Description of three storeyed temples:
-Svastika type (2b-10); vimalakrti type (11-14); hastiprstha type (15-18a)
General points points regarding temples:
-The pavilion in front of the shrine: proportions (18b); decorative features (19-20); position of the reference line(21-23a).
Descriptions of three storyed temples (cont.):
-Hastiprstha type (cont.)(23b-29a).
General points regarding temples (cont.):
-Arcatures: tambhatorana (29b-33).
Descriptions of three storeyed temples (cont.)
-Hastiprstha type (cont.) (34-40a); bhadrakostha type (40b-48a); vrttakuta type (48b-49); sumangala type (50-51); gandhara type (52-59); sribhoga type (60).
General points regarding temples (cont.):
-Aediculae (61-64a); new classification: buildings with and without aisle (64b-65); the sanctum (66); stereobate (67); arcatures (cont); patratorana, makaratorana and citratorana (68b-80a); other decorative elements; kumbhalata (80b-81), stambhakumbhalata (82-83) and vrttasphutita (84-86a); stairs: four types of stairs (86b-90), rule for step (91-92), proportions and location of stairs(93-97).
Envoi: arcatures and stairways have been described in this chapter (98); nagara, dravida and vesara temples (99).
 
Chapter22: Temples with four or more storeys 363
  Four storeyed temples:
-Dimensions and proportions (1-2); Descriptions: subhadraka type (3-12); srivisala type (13-14); bhadrakostha type (15-24a); jayavaha type (24b-34a); bhadrakuta type (34b-36).
General points regarding temples:-The kapotapanjara (37-42).
Descriptions of four storeyed temples (cont.):
-Bhadrakuta type (cont.) (43-46a); manohara type (46b-47a); avantika type (47b-48); sukhavaha type (49-54).
Five storeyed temples (55-57).
Temples with six to eleven storeys (58-66a).
Twelve storeyed temples (66b-71a).
General points regarding temples (cont.):
-Odd and even measurements: proportion of aediculae (71b-73); engaged structures for temples with four storeys or more (74-75); aediculae:proportions (76-78a), arrangement (78b-79a), projection (79b-81), roof shapes (82-85), other kinds of arrangement (86-92a); dimensions are to be in whole numbers of units (92b-93a).
Envoi: thus have been described temples …(93b-94).
 
Chapter23: Enclosures and Attendants' shrines 387
  Enclosure:
-Aim of temple enclosure (1); dimensions of the five enclosures: according to even and odd diagrams (2-5) or according to main temple size (6-16); position of reference line (17); enclosure walls: dimensions (18-22) and decoration (23-25); cloister-like gallery (26-31); decoration of wall coping (32a); height of enclosures base (32b-34).
Attendants shrines:
-General features (35-38);lists of eight (39-40a), twelve (40b-42a), sixteen (42b-45a) and thirty-two (45b-52) Siva's Attendants; arrangement of Attendants shrines: ccording to odd and even diagrams (53a); according to number of enclosures (53b-54a); according to orientation of main temple (54b-57a); appearance of Attendants shrines.
Storeyed galleries:
-General features (58b-61a); proportions (61b-69); temple storeyed gallery and dwelling house annexes (70-71a); storeyed galleries and Attendant's shrines or other features (71b-73).
Enclosures arrangement:
-Altars (74-81); flag mast (82-83a); various buildings within the enclosures (83b-88a); flag mast 9cont.) (88b-91);other buildings (92-97).
Attendants of Visnu:
-Lists and arrangement of eight (89-100a); twelve (100b-102), sixteen (103-105a) and thiry-two (105b-106) Visnu's Attendants.
Characteristics of the image of Vrsa:
-General proportions (107-110a); detailed proportions (110b-127a); general features (127b-131).
 
 
Vol.II
 
  Text and translation of Mayamata (chapter 24 to Appendix)  
Chapter24: Gateway 421
  The five gateways:
-Dimensions in relation to that of the main temple (1-10); names (11); dimensions and proportions (12-22); dimensions of doors (23-25), based (27-28) and pillars (29-30); position of foundation deposit (31a).
General rules:
-List of fifteen types (31-34a), number of storeys (34b-35); elevation: proportions for single storeyed (36-38), two storeyed (38b-40), three storeyed (41-43a), four storeyed (43b-46a), five storeyed (46b-49), six storeyed (50-54a) and seven storeyed (54b-59a) gateways; horizontal proportions for single storeyed (59b-60a), two storeyed (60b-63), three storeyed (63-68a), four storeyed (68b-70), five storeyed (71-72a), six storeyed (72b-74a) and seven storeyed (74b-77) gateways; doors and stairways (78-80).
The five gateways(cont.):
-Shapes (81-84a); dvarsasobha or gateway of first enclosure: srikara type (84b-88), ratikanta type (89-91a) and kantavijaya type (91b-94a);dvarasala or gateway of second enclosure: vijayavisala type (94b-97), visalalaya type (98-100a), and vipratikanta type (100b-103a); dvaraprasada or gateway of third enclosure: srikanta type (103b-106a); srikesa type (106b-110) and kesvisala type (111-113), dvaraharmya or gateway of fourth enclosure: svastika type (114-116), disasvastika type (117-120a) and mardala type (120b-123a); dvaragopura or gateway of fifth enclosure: matrakanda type (123b-126), srivisala type (127-129); caturmukha type (130-134); rule for gutters (135).
Envoi: the wide diversity of the five gateways (139-137).
 
Chapter25: Pavilions and halls 451
  Pavilions:
-General rules:
-Position (1-3a) and functions (3b-5) of pavilions; names square (6-8a) and rectangular (8b-11a) pavilions; features to be described in this chapter (11b-12); proportions and dimensions: value of intercolumniation (13-16), dimensions of pillars (17-20a), base (20a-21) and socle (22-24); definition of pavilion (25); etymology of the term mandapa (26a); definition of light building (26b-29), canopy (30-34) and malikamandapa (35-36a).
Square pavilions:
-Meruka type (36b-37a); vijaya type (37b-39a); siddha type (39b-41).
The sacrificial pavilion:
- Inside arrangement (42); quadrangular (43-44), vulva-form (47), semicircular (48), triangular (49a), circular (49b), hexagonal (50), lotiform (51), octagonal (52), heptagonal (53) and pentagonal (54) firepits; other method to draw firepits (?) (55-56)
-Square pavilions (cont.):
 
Chapter26: Houses 515
  The main buildings:
-Number and general features (1-3a); dimensions: width (3b-6a), length (6b-9a) and height (9b-10).
Houses with a single main building:
General characteristics (11-12a); names (12b-13a); other features (13b-16a); orientation (16b-17).
-Orientation (18-20); use and arrangement (21).
Houses with a single main building (cont.):
-First and second type of dandaka houses (22b-25); arrangement fo doors (26-27); third (28-31a), fourth (31b-32) and fifth (33-35) type of dandaka houses.
Proportions of the verandah for houses with one, two or three main buildings (36),
Houses with a single main building (cont.):
-dandaka houses (cont.) (37); maulika house (38-39a); svastika house (39b-40); caturmukha house (41-43); features common to dandaka and other types (44-46).
Houses with two main buildings:
-Caturmukha type (47-51a); svastika type (51b-53); dandavaktra type (54-55).
Houses with three main buildings.
-Merukanta type (56-58); maulibhadra type (59-62); dimensions of houses with three main buildings:
-Dimensions (64-66a) and types (66b-67); calculating the length (68-72).
Sarvatobhadra houses with four main buildings:
-First type (73-85); second type (86-87); third type (88-91); fourth type (92-95a); fifth type (95b-99).
Definitions of verandah (?) (101)
vardhamana houses with four main buildings:
-First type (102-109a); second type (109b-112a); third type (113b-115a); fourth type (115b-118); fifth type (119-133); sixth type (134-137a); seventh type (137b-151).
Nandyavarta houses with four main buildings:
-Firth type (152-159a); second type (159b-161a); third type (161b-167); fourth type (168-172a); fifth type (172b-177a).
Other types of houses with four main buildings.
-Svastika houses with four main buildings:
Svastika house (177b-185); rucaka house (186-187).
General rules for houses with four main buildings (189).
Houses with seven and ten main buildings (190-193)
General features of houses:
-Verandah and porch (194); 'limitless' house (195); even and uneven numbers )196a); placing the door (196b); placing the foundation deposit (197-198); auspicious and inauspicious axial door (199).
Monasteries (200-202)
General features of houses (cont.):
-Dimension of houses pillars (203-205); how to build an auspicious house with reference to ayadi (206-211); annexes of houses (212-213); buildings within the house enclosures (214-218); number of enclosures (219-220). (
 
Chapter27: Features of houses for the four classes 573
  The enclosure:
-Dimensions (1-4); plan (5); endclosure wall (6-9); annexes built around the house (10).
Rules for laying out:
-Houses with main buildings separated or in blocks (11-13), small and large sizes (14-15a); drawing the house diagram (15b-19). The central pavilion:
-Dimensions (20-23); the central platform (24-26); characteristics of central pavilion (27-35).
Laying out the principal main-building of a catussala:
-General rules (36-39a); laying out the sukhalaya for Brahmins (40-41).
General proportions for houses (42-44):Laying out the principal main-building of a catussala (cont.):
-The sukhalaya (cont.) (45); the annalaya for ksatriya (46-48); the Elements of the upper part of the house (55-57).
Proportions for dwelling pavilions (?) (58-59).
Foundation deposit:
-Position (60-65); the muhurtastambha (66-69).
General points:
-Doors (70-73a); placing the gods (73b-75a); pillars (75b-80); the verandah (81-83a); the chamber of the master (83b-91). Roofing of the main building (95a) materials (95b-96a); base (96b-99); distribution of appurtenance (100), the heart (101-103); number of finials (?) (104); distributing oappurtenaces (cont.) (105-108)
The four types of dwelling:
-List (109-110a); disibhadra dwelling (110b-111); garudapaksa dwelling (112a); kayabhara dwelling (112b-120a); tulaniya dwelling (120b-125a).
General rules (cont.)
-Why to protect the external wall (125b-126); auspicious proportions (127); door proportions (128-129); time for construction (130-131); auspicious door positions (132); placing the master's apartment and the gynaeceum (133); period for beginning the construction (134).
 
Chapter28: First entry into a house 611
  When to enter the house (1-2)
First rites:
-Preparatory ceremony (3-5); putting in place of the vases (5-6); preparing the food for offering (7-9); installing the gods (10-11a); offerings (11b-23); departure of the architect (24-25a); preparing the house (25b-27).
The entering in of the master and mistress of the house:
They enter (28); the first meal (29-30); the perfect house (31-33); errors to be avoided (34); the entry is to be joyful(35);
Offerings in villages, etc.(36)
 
Chapter29: Royal palaces 623
  Proportions (1-12a).
Features of a small palace:
-Plan (12b-21); gateways (22-24a); arrangements of buildings (24b-26); the moat (27-29a); arrangement of buildings (cont.)(29b-30a); first enclosure (30b-42); second enclosure (43-55); third enclosure (56-64).
The town:
-General features (65-69); the town's wall (70-72a).
Palace gateways (72b-78); number of storeys for palaces (79-86).
The palace of narendra:
-Enclosure walls (87-94), inner arrangement of the palace (95-102); external enclosure (103-107).
Saubala palace:
-First enclosure (108-111a); second enclosure (111-118a); third enclosure (118b-120); fourth enclosure (121-122a); fifth enclosure (122b-129).
Saubala palace:
-First enclosure (108-111a); second enclosure (111b-118a); third enclosure (118b-120); fourth enclosure (121-122a); fifth enclosure (122b-129).
The adhikaja palace:
-Arrangement of buildings (130-157); walls and most (158-161).
Different kinds of royal cities (162-167).
Miscellaneous palace buildings:
-General features (65-69); the town's wall (70-72a).
Palace gateways (72b-78); number of storeys for palaces (79-86).
The palace for narendra:
-Enclosure walls (87-94); inner arrangement of the palace (95-102); external enclosure (103-107).
Saubala palace:
-First enclosure (108-111a); second enclosure (111b-118a); third enclosure (118b-120); fourth enclosure (121-122a); fifth enclosure (122b-129).
The adhiraja palace:
-Arrangement of buildings (130-157); walls and moat (158-161).
Different kinds of royal cities (162-167).
Miscellaneous palace buildings:
-Elephant stable (168-180); the horses stable (181-187); various buildings (188-190); the council chamber, etc. (191-195a); the bath house (195b-200a); the coronation building (200b-205a); ritual weighing place (205b-215); place for gold embryo ceremony (216-225); the guard lodgings (226); underground apartment (227).
Envoi: all is to be arranged according to king's best pleasure (228).
 
Chapter30: Doors 681
  General features:
-Dimensions of doors (2-11a); dimensions of door jambs (11b-12); door leaves (13-32); auspicious and inauspicious characteristics of doors (33-42); positions of doors(43-51).
Gateways:
-Dimensions of the door(53-55a); single storeyed gateways; srikara, sita and sribhadra types (61b-67); two storeyed gateways: ratikanta, kantavijaya and sumangala types (68-75a); three storeyed gateways: mardala, matrakhanda and sriniketana types (75b-94a); seven storeyed gateways: bhadrakalyana, subhadra and bhadrasundara types (94b-108a): six storeyed gateways (108b-109); five storeyed gateways (110-114); four storeyed gateways (115-116); general rules (117-118); definition of stereobate (119).
Envoi: for whom are intended the various kinds of gateways (120-121).
 
Chapter31: Vehicles 715
  Definitions (1-2a).
Palanquins:
-Names (2b-3): pitha type(4-24a); sekhara and maundi types (25-28).
Chariots:
-Dimensions (29-30a); frame (30b-38); wheels (39-42a); assembly (42b-48a); uses (48b-49); pavilion-shaped cart (50-53); temple-shaped cart (54-56a);canopy-shaped cart (56b-57); elements of card elevation(?) (58-61).
 
Chapter32: Beds and seats 731
  Beds(1-6) and divans(7-10a).
Seats
-General rules (10b-13a); lion throne (13b-19); stand for worship(20-23). Rules regarding ayadi series (24).
 
Chapter33: The Linga 739
  General points:
-Different kinds of divine representation (1-3); characteristics of stones(4-7); male, female and neuter stones and when to use them(8-12); young, mature and aged stones (12b-16a) pregnant stones (16b-17a); position of the 'face' of a stone (17b-19a); searching for stones: time and place (19b-21), preliminary rites (22-28a); quarrying a stone (28b-31a) and taking it to workshop (31b-33); how to proceed when a suitable stone is not found(34-36).
Dimensions of Linga:
Linga and temple dimensions (37a); place of Linga in the sanctum (37b-40a); dimensions of nagara Linga (40b-43a); dimensions of dravida Linga (43b-45a); dimensions of vesara Linga (45b-48a); dimensions expressed in cubits (48b-53); dimensions of vesara Linga (45b-48a);dimensions expressed in cubits (48b-53); dimensions calculated from those of door and other elements of the temple (54-57); rule regarding ayadi series (58-64).
Fashioning the Linga:
-Shapes to be given to the block at the start (65-66); the three parts of the Linga(67) and the way to draw them (68-71).
Proportions:
-Sarvatobhadra, svastika, sivadhika types of Linga (72-79); surarcita, dharalinga, sahasralinga and trairasika type (80-84).
Linga installed by Rsi (85-86).
Self-generated Linga (87-92a).
The cutting of a rounded shape at the top of the Linga (92b-100)?
Bringing out the characteristic signs:
-Preparing the Linga (101-102); preliminary rites (103-105); drawing the lines (106-109a); bringing out the characteristics of nagara Linga (109b-114a); of dravida Linga (114b-117a); and of vesara Linga (117b-119a); width and depth of lines (119b-127a); general rules (127b-135); shapes of the frenum (136-143).
Other types of Linga:
-Crystal Linga (144-152); Linga of various material such as earth (153-158a); banalinga (158b-159).
Envoi:
-Installation of Linga (161); fruits of installing a Linga (162).
 
Chapter34: Pedestals 783
  General rules:
-Materials (2-3); dimensions (4-10); shapes (10-13a); names (13b-15).
Descriptions:
-Bhadra pedestal (16-17); padma pedestal (18); vajrapadma pedestal (19-20); mahabja pedestal (21-22); srikara pedestal (23-24); pithapadma pedestal (25); mahavajra and saumya pedestals (26-28a); srikamya pedestal (28b-29).
Common features (30-43)?
Placing the pedestal:
-The liners: Brahma stone (44-49) and nandyavarta stones (50).
Pedestals for statues (51-56a).
Temple, pedestal and image(?):
-Dimensions of temples as calculated from those of pedestals (56b-60); dimensions of temples as calculated from those of the images (61-64a).
Making of the eight (ingredients)mortar (64b-66).
The gods in the shrine:
-Number of gods (67); the biggest shrine is that housing the Linga (68); diagram of the sanctum and place of the gods (69-71).
Envoi: all attention is to be given in placing divine representation in the sanctum (72); formless and man-made Linga (73); contents of the chapter (74).
 
Chapter35: Renovation work 803
  -Temple renovation (2b-14); renovation of Linga (15-33a); renovation of pedestal (33b-36); renovation of images (37-40a); general rules (40b-44); renovation of villages, etc.(45-47).
Provisional installation:
-Why a provisional installation (48); provisional shrine (49-50); provisional Linga (51-53); provisional image (54-55); provisional pedestal (56); materials?(57); how long may last a provisional feature(580.
Envoi: rules for renovation have to be followed (59).
 
Chapter36: Iconography 821
  Brahma(2-7).
Visnu's images:
-Visnu (8-12a); Varaha (12b-14a); Trivikrama (14b-15a); Narasimha (15a-24); Anantasayin (25-35a).
Mahesvara (35b-43a).
The sixteen manifestations of Siva:
-The sixteen manifestation of Siva:
-List (43b-46a); common features (46b-48); Sukhasanamurti (49-51a); Vaivahamurti (51b-58); Umaskandamurti (59-62a); Vrsarudhamurti (62b-64a); Tripurantakamurti (65-67a); Dancing forms (67b-89a); Candrasekharamurti (80b-81a); Ardhanarisvaramurti (81b-89a); Hariharamurti (90-91); Candesanugrahamurti (92-93); Kamarimurti (94-95a); Kalanasamurti (95b-97); Daksinamurti (98-101); Bhiksatanamurti (102-103); Kankalamurti (104-107a); Mukhalinga (107b-118).
Sanmukha (119-121).
Ganadhipa (122-126)
Surya (127-136a).
Lords of the directions:
Indra (136b-138); Agni (139-143); Yama (144-149); Nirrtti (149b-150); Varuna (151-152); Vayu (153-154a); Kubera (154b-156); Candra (157-161a); Isana (161b-162a).
Other gods and goddesses:
-Kama (162b-167a); the two Asvin (167b-170); the eight Vasu (171-173a); the eight Marut (173b-174); the Rudra and the Vidyesvara (175-177); Ksetrapala (178-185); Candesvara (186-188); the twelve Aditya (189-191); the seven sages (192-194a); the seven Rohini (194b-195a); Garuda (195b-198a); Sasta (198b-210).
The Mothers:
-List (211-212); Virabhadra (213-214a); Brahmani (216-217); Mahesvari (218-219); Kaumari (220-222a); Vaisnavi (222b-224a); Varahi (224b-227a); Indrani (227b-228); Camundi (229-234a); Vinayaka (234b); installation of the Mothers (235-240a); Camundi (cont.) (240b-242); the Mothers Attendants (234-247a).
Goddesses:
-Laksmi (247b-255); Yaksini (256-257); Katyayani (258-262); Durga (263-264); Sarasvati(265-268a); Jyestha (268b-273); Bhumi (274-275); Parvati (276-278a);Saptamata (279-280).
Buddha (281-283).
Jina(284-291).
General Points:
-Proportions of images (293-303); dimensions of portable images (304-309).
Guardians of the doors (310-314).
Envoi: What has been told in that chapter(315).
 
Appendix: Where and when a well is to be established 899
  Choice of the place(?)(1-5);choice of the day (6-7); choice of the asterism (8-13); choice of the place(?)(cont.)(14-15).  
  Bibliography 905
  Editions and Manuscripts of Mayamatajj used for the establishment of the Sanskrit text 911
  Index-Glossary 913

 

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