We gratefully acknowledge our indebtedness to the authorities of the Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi, for accepting our work on Panini's Astadhyayi as a publication of the Akademi.
We also thank Mr. Ninad Mate and staff of Aksharchhaya, Pune, for the interest shown and for the careful work done in preparing the press copy of the present volume.
Pune September 2006 S.D. Joshi J.A.F. Roodbergen
My sincere thanks are due to the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) for the grants awarded in 2005 and 2006.
P. 7.4 Survey of the pada
A. The main topic
The main topic is anga, the pre-suffixal stem, continued from P. 6.4.1. For details see AP IX, Introduction, p. ix.
B. The organization of P. 7.4
P. 7.3 ended with substitutions and augments taught for case endings of nominal base angas. P. 7.4 starts with substitutions taught for verbal base angas, which therefore offers a convenient break for the pada-division. '
Criteria for the division of pada 7.4 into sections and further divisions are provided by a common uddesya, a common vidheya, or a common condition. This corresponds to the traditional analysis of a rule in karyin, karya and nimitta. In the present context the karyin is represented by the sthanin and the karya by the adesa or iigama which is also the vidheya. Sections, sub-sections and further divisions are usually formed according to a combination of these criteria in a subtle weaving pattern based on the anuvrtti of particular criteria.
The main division of pada 7.4 is into two parts, P. 7.4.1-57 and P. 7.4.58- 97. Here the first part generally - but with digressions - deals with substitutions and augments introduced for the verbal base anga. The first part starts with vowel substitutions relating to the verbal base anga in the caus. aor. (P. 7.4.1-8,conditioned by nau cani). The second part deals with substitutions relating to the abhyasa, the reduplicating syllable of the verbal base anga. It ends with vowe( substitutions relating to the abhyasa of the caus. aor. (P. 7.3.93-97, conditioned by canpare nau) .
-. .4 . '- Sub-section (1) is formed by P. 7.4.1-12. Itdeals with replacements of the vowel of the verbal base anga. It is divided into two sub-sub-sections according to the conditions nau cani (P. 7.4.1-8) and liti (P. 7.4.9-12).
Sub-section (2) is formed by P. 7.4.13-15. It deals with taddhita formations. P. 7.4.16 mainly takes up the topic of verbal base angas again. We therefore submit that this sub-section is an insertion made at a later date, namely, when the taddhita section was added to the A.
., 11" Sub-section (3) is formed by P. 7.4.16-20. It deals with augments added to specified verbal base angas, when the question is of substitution. The condition continued in this sub-section is ani 'before aN: introduced by P. 7.4.16.
Sub-section (4) is formed by P. 7.4.21-23. It deals with substitutions pre- scribed for the vowel of specified verbal base angas on different conditions.
Sub-section (5) is formed by P. 7.4.24-25. It deals with substitutions pre- scribed for the vowel of a verbal base anga in the case of lIN-formations. Some conditions are continued from P. 7.4.22 and 23.
Sub-section (6) is formed by P. 7.4.26-28. Here P. 7.4.26 deals with the substitution of a long vowel for the final vowel of a nominal base anga. The condition is cvau 'before CvI.' P. 7.4.27 deals with the substitution of riN for the r in final position of a nominal base anga. The condition is expanded to yi akrtsarvadhatukayoh cvau in P. 7.4.27, with yi and akrtsarvadhatukayoh continued from P. 7.4.22 and P. 7.4.25 respectively, and with cvau from P. 7.4.26. The rule P. 7.4.28 deals with the substitution of riN for r in final position of a verbal base anga. The condition is sayaglinku (yi kniti asarvadhatuke) 'before Sa, yaK or lIN: with the bracketed portion continued from P. 7.4.22 and 7.4.25. This sub-section provides a good idea of the complex reasoning behind the grouping together rules.
Sub-section (7) is formed by P. 7.4.29-30. It deals with the substitution of a guna vowel for the r of the verbal base r- and of the r in final position of a verbal base beginning with a conjunct consonant. The conditions are (yaki lini yi asarvadhatuke) for P. 7.4.29, continued from P. 7.4.28, 7.4.22 and 7.4.25, and yani for P. 7.4.30.
Sub-section (8) is formed by P. 7.4.31-38, on the strength of the continued word asya 'in place (of a verbal base ending in) a.' The rules P. 7.4.33-38 deal with nipaianas and Vedic usage.
Sub-section (9) is formed by the condition ti kiti continued in P. 7.4.40-47. It may be divided into a number of sub-sub-sections, indicated as (9a), etc.
Sub-sub-section (9a) deals with the substitution of short i for the vowel in final position of specified verbal bases. The condition is ti kiti 'before a suffix beginning with t and marked with K.'
Sub-sub-section (9 b) is formed by P. 7.4.42-43. It deals with the substitution of hi for the verbal base angas dha- and ha- respectively. The conditions are ti kiti and ktvi 'before (the suffix) Ktva' respectively. The rules P. 7.4.44-45 deal with Vedic usage.
Sub-sub-section (9 c) is formed by P. 7.4.46-49. It consists of two overlap- ping parts. The first is P. 7.4.46-47 which deal with substitutions relating to the verbal base anga da- 'to give,' called ghu. The second is P. 7.4.47-49 which deals with the substitution of t for the final of different angas including da- (ghu) and verbal base angas ending in s, and one nominal base anga, namely, ap 'water' (P. 7.4.48). The conditions are respectively ti kiti 'before a suffix beginning with t and marked with K'; acah upasargat ti kiti 'after an upasarga which ends in a vowel' + ti kiti; bhi 'before a case ending which begins with bh,' and si ardhadhatuke 'before a suffix beginning with s which is saroadhatuka,',
Sub-section (10) is formed by P. 7.4.50-52. It deals mainly with substitutions (including lapa) relating to the s of the suffix tas (of the periphrastic future). P. 7.4.50 also deals with the s of the verbal base as- 'to be.' The conditions are si 'before a suffix beginning with s,' ri 'before a suffix beginning with 1" and eti 'before e' respectively. The condition si is continued from P. 7.4.49.
Sub-section (11) is formed by P. 7.4.54-57. It deals with substitutions for the vowels of specified verbal bases. The condition is (si) sani 'before the desiderative suffix saN beginning with s)'
The second main section starts from P. 7.4.58. Here we note the following divisions:
Sub-section (12) is formed by P. 7.4.59-63. These are general rules dealing with abhyasa. P. 7.4.59 prescribes shortening of the vowel of the abhyasa. P. 7.4.60 prescribes the retention of the initial consonant of the abhyasa only. P. 7.4.61 pre- scribes lopa of the sibilant in the group s + unvoiced stop in initial position of the abhyasa. P. 7.4.62-63 deal with the substitution of a cU-class sound for a kU-class sound in initial position of the abhyasa, and its prohibition in a particular case.
Sub-section (13) is formed by P. 7.4.66-68. They deal with vowel-replace- ments of r and of semivowels of the abhyasa. The latter two rules prescribe sam- prasarana.
Sub-section (14) is formed by P. 7.4.69-70. They deal with the substitution of a long vowel of specified verbal base angas.
Sub-section (15) is formed by P. 7.4.76-81. They deal with the substitution of short i for the vowel of the abhyasa on specified conditions and for specified verbal bases.
Sub-section (16) is formed by P. 7.4.82-92. It deals with substitutions, including the augments nik, nUK and rik, rUK and riK, for the vowel of the abhyasa, conditioned by yanlukoh. Here P. 7.4.85-87 form a sub-sub-section dealing with the augment nUK.
Sub-section (17) is formed by P. 7.4.93-97. It deals with sanvadbhava of the caus. aor. The condition is canpare nau.
Pada 7.4 offers a good example both of the amazingly detailed linguistic analysis performed by the author of the A. and of the complexity of the grouping together of rules. The pada is carefully organized .
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