I have been residing in Bangkok-the capital of
Thailand for the last several years engaged in the worship of gods which is the
routine of my life, you may call it 'paurohitya'. It
is only because of the 'Vrtti' that I got a chance of
going to 'Canghava'-the city of Tyvan
(Formosa) in July 1990 in order to perform 'pranapratistha'
of a large idol of 'Brahma'. Since then, I have to go there on the occasion of
the annual and half-yearly functions to perform special worship and yajna. Though there is not even a single Indian in that
area, yet the entire process of worship is fulfilled by the natives (the
Chinese people) and they themselves are the devotees. The language- problem is
solved by the translator who translated the version from Thai to Chinese and
from Chinese to Thai.
There has ever been the demand from the Chinese
devotees specially from Mr. Feng Younglin
on the occasion of my every journey to make them familiar with the
worship-system, the mantras and stotras of Brahma,
and if possible to make available some authentic book so that they may worship
Lord Brahma in accordance with the proper way of the classical system of
worship to their satisfaction.
In this connection, I came in contact with learned
scholars, book-sellers and the librarians of Thailand and India but their
response was negative and however, I was disheartened.
Motivation for collection of subject-matter of the book
On one auspicious day, fortunately I happened to get
'Sanksipta Brahmavaivarta Purananka' of the thirty seventh yearly Visesanka
of Kalyana'. I read a myth in the eighth chapter of
the Brahmakhanda. There was a description of curse by
Brahma to Narada and by Narada to Brahma. Narada cursing his father-Brahma, says:
(Brahma having four mouths) you have cursed me for no guilt for mine, against
that if I also curse you that will not be improper. Due to my curse, your Kavac'a, the stotras and mantras alongwith
your worship will vanish from all the three lokas.
You will be unworthy of worship till three Kalpas are
passed. During this interval of time, you will be deprived of your share in yajnas,
You will not be worshipped by the devotees even at the time of their fast etc.
But there will be one thing that you will be respected by gods and
After reading this myth, an idea came to me that
worship-system of Brahma was prevalent even before Narada had cursed Brahma and
stotras and mantras pertaining to the worship were
essentially there in the three lokas. If it were
true, after research they could be traced, if three kalpas
It is evident from the study of Ramac'arita
Manasa that several kalpas
basata mohi sunu khaga
sata aru bisa."
Thus Kaka Bhusundi, narrating
the stories of his life and his various births said to Garuda that he had been
residing there for the last twentyseven kalpas. The sankalpa that we take
in worship and in the religious rituals has the content of 'Brahmano
dvitiyaparardhe' which clearly indicates that fifty
years out of Brahmas hundred years' age have passed.
So within fifty years (at the rate of two kalpas equal to one ahoratra or day) several kalpas
have passed. This, indeed, is a matter of research in which kalpa
did Narada cursed Brahma.
It appears that Brahma had become free from the
period of curse of Narada because in every yajna, at
several steps, he is being provided the share of yajna.
Brahma in South-East Asia
Among the South-East Asian countries, Thailand is
such a country in which there is a glimpse of Indian culture in the day to day
behaviour of father and son, the teacher and taught, old and young ones, in the
literature, in sculpture, in festivals, in samskaras
and also in traditional religious activities and beliefs.
At present, since last two decades, there has been a
growing tendency of 'Devavada', One can easily find some where or the other, a glimpse of various forms of Lord
Siva, Narayana; Ganesa, Indra,
Sakti (Durga, Kali, Laksmi
and Sarasvati etc.) in the house of thousands of
people, at the public places and on business-centres. One can find a glimpse of
a maximum group of gods in the houses of several gentlemen only at one place
along with the idols of Lord Buddha but Brahma has the unique importance of his
own. If you go for a walk on the road and pay attention to the buildings on
your both sides, you will be having a splendid glimpse of idols of Lord Brahma
in various forms, Four headed Brahma, eight armed
Brahma (Astabhuja Brahma), the creator at an interval
of ten to twenty houses.
Some scholars are of opinion that with the spread of
Buddhism, Brahma came to be worshipped in Thailand and it were
Brahmins who brought 'the worship-system. It is my personal opinion that this
worship-system of deities must have been on the earth even before the spread of
Buddhism, as it is evident from the archeological
excavations of the ancient remains where from idols of deities and Sivalingas have been found. Needless to say, it is entirely
a matter of research by archeologists.
In any form or the other, there is a description of
Brahma and Indra in the sacred books of Buddhism,
that is why people of Thailand have been familiar with those deities since much
before, which is being seen in a developed form in the present age and among
them Brahma holds the highest position.
In the corner of a crossing in the middle of the
city of Bangkok (the name of the crossing is Siaikarachaprason)
there is a famous idol of Brahma with four heads and eight arms widely known as
Phra Phroma Airavan' (Vara Brahma Airavata) which has got great recognition from the common
people. Even people from various countries of the South- East Asia come with
all their preparations to worship Airavan Brahma. It
has been the belief of the common people that one who worships Brahma with a
wish to get what he desires, Brahma fulfils it.
In order to facilitate the devotees coming for a 'darsana' everywhere on the footpath there sit sellers with
their decorated shops of garlands, candle-sticks (in place of lamp), fruits and
elephants made of wood and some sellers are also seen moving hither and thither
selling items of worship. After their wishes arc fulfilled they arrange a
programme of dancing by female professional dancers-the 'Kinnaris'
and some times they do so even before their wishes
are fulfilled. This programme of dance is performed by a group of eight, twelve
and sixteen dancer. Usually, there are four female dancers. in
a group. If someone likes to get the programme performed by four dancers, he may
do so. There is a fixed daksina for every group. All
the arrangements are made by a committee set up by Archeological
Department, Ministry of Education. The money that is collected through offering
is spent in public welfare.
It is that place where from rays of the worship of
Brahma have begun to spread and reach not only throughout Thailand but Tywan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Korea and Japan also. Now it
is gradually reaching China. After Thailand it is most prevalent in Formosa and
it is in progress day.-by-day.
According to Buddhism 'jiva' can reach 'Brahmaloka' by virtue of his noble deeds. In Hindu
scriptures, only males have attained the position of Brahma, but in Buddhism
even a female can attain the position of Brahma. In Buddhist scriptures there is
a description of sixteen 'Brahmalokas' and four 'Maha Brahmalokas'. In the highest
Brahmaloka the average age is 16000 kalpas. Which noble doers go to which 'Brahmalokas'
is the matter of further research.
During my stay at Bangkok (Thailand), I was
astonished to see worship of Brahma from place to place. Brahma is worshipped
in that country to the same extent and with the same spirit as Hanuman or Lord Siva is worshipped in India.
In Indian literature, too, Brahma occupied the first
and main place among the Trinity (Brhaddevatrayi).
Seeing Him unimportant in our own country (India) and main deity worth
worshipping in other countries, who fulfils all the wishes of devotees and who
is the giver of pleasure, is placed on so high eat of honour in the form of Asutosa, I was moved to accept his importance and was
curious to know the secret of his importance and his worship- system.
In the year 1994, Pandit Vidyadhara Sukla the honourable Pradhana Hindu Purohita of
Thailand, who is originally Indian came to Varanasi. Like me, he was also
influenced by the keen interest and aptitude towards worship of Brahma in the people of Tywan (Formosa), Thailand, China
etc. Therefore, seeing the insignificance of Brahmadeva and lack of systematic approach to the worship.
Brahma in Indian Karrnak anda,
he was not only anxious but was determined and alert to provide a system of
worship at his own level also. He has been the classmate of my respected father
and has father-like affection for me. There was a long discussion on this issue
and it was decided that an attempt would be made to solve the problem of the
worship-system of Brahma. As a result, after three years, due to continuous
inspiration and motivation of Pandita Suklaji, this small collection is being' made available to
the devotees, which is classical and approved by the oriental scholars.
The classical Evidence
about Adideva Brahma:
According to the decision taken by us, first of all
we found out some, authentic evidences from the Indian literature, specially from Vedas, Puranas, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Bauddha and Jain literature. Then we gave the shape of
classical worship system in accordance with system recognised by Sastras. We at first want to give
here the details of vedic
In Vedic literature the place of Brahma has been
accepted first of all in the 'Trinity'. According to Vedas, in the beginning of
the creation, when everywhere there was water only, the seniormost
among gods-Brahma (Prajapati ) appeared first. It was be who
further created various lobs, groups of gods and various creatures of land and
water. Therefore, He
became famous as Creator of the world. In Vedas several words have been used
for this deity the 'Creator', 'Visvakarman', 'Brahmanaspati', 'Hiranya garbha'. Brahma has been accepted as 'Parabrahma
Paramatman' who came into being first. It is as
'Brahma Devanam prathamah sambhuva
Visvasya karta bhuvanasya gopta.
In the Hiranyagarbhasukta
(101121) of Rgveda and according to Satapatha Brahmana, Brahma incarnated
himself as Matsya, Karma, Varaha
in the interest of the world. We can find references in 'Vayupurana'
and 'Brahmanda Purana'· the ancient puranas. In all auspicious occasions there has been a
system of his worship. Even today, it is in prominence in Sarvatabhadra,
Pratistha of 'Brahmagranthi'
in the granthis (knots of 'yajnopavita,
the importance of Rtvik namely Brahma in yajnas and importance of Brahmamuhurta
clearly indicates the supremacy of Brahma.
The same Brahma is known as Narayana, Purusa ,
Mahan (the Great) in sastras. Therefore Purusa Sukta and 'Hiranyagarbha
Sukta' of Rgveda, Visvakarman
Sukta of Yajurveda, Jyestha Brahma Sukta of
Atharvaveda appear to be the Suktas
regarding Brahma. Placing of Visvakarman Sukta before
'Rudra Sukta' certifies the supremacy of Brahma.
Brahma the creator has created Prajapatis,
according to his free will (Samkalpa). These Prajapatis perform the process of creation. These are-1. Maric'i, 2.
5. Pulaha, 6. Kratu, 7. Bhrgu, 8. Vasistha, 9. Daksa, 10. Kardama. Narada, Rudra, Dharma, Svayarnbhuva Manu and Karna etc. are his sons. All the gods
are the grandsons of Brahma. So, Brahma is famous as Pitamaha
(the grand father) of Devas,
as Danavas, Yaksas, Raksas and Kinnaras. Moreover,
owing to creation He favours religion. Whether Deva, Danava or Manava-' They all get the proper solution of their problems by going
in his retreat and get what they wish to get.
Removal of the hindrance caused in the way of the
Sun by 'Vindhya Parvata' and liberation from Tarakasura, Hiranyakasipu, Ravana etc.-the wicked kings of that time could be possible
only by going under the retreat of Brahma. There are several such references
and evidences in various puranas. The
base of the prayer by 'Sakra' and other gods in
'Matsya Purana and Abhistada Brahma-Stava of Skanda Purana which is
the giver of the desired result is Brahma. According
to Padma Purana, Lord Siva and Visnu
at the time of 'Puskarayajna and Rama at the time of
a vist to Puskara Ksetra have prayed Brahma. Hiranya
Kasipu the 'Adidaitya
composed an excellent stotra for the worship of
Brahma in which Brahma has been accepted as Parabrahma.
In Agamas, there has been a special school of
thought of worshipping Brahma like Saiva and Sakta Agamas which was famous as 'Vaikhanasa
There is a great recognition of Vaikhanasa Agama among
all Agama-schools of thought. In Safikara sampradaya in almost all worships this sampradaya
has been accepted as most authentic. Under this sampradaya
Vaikhanasa Srauta sutra, grhya
sutra, smartasutra and vaikhanasa
and Prajapati smrtis are
also available. Brahma has been accepted .as the original founder of Madhva Saupradaya.
Birth of Brahma
There is a reference of the existence of Brahma in
the form of Svayambhii from Hiranyagarbha
in the beginning of the creation. In Sakta scriptures
goddes Mahalaksmi created
Brahma and Laksrni, created by 'Paraprakrti',
Brahma came into being in the form of variety of C'aitnya
Purusa-there is also such a reference. In Vaisnava Scriptures there is a description of the creation
of Brahma from the 'Nabhikarnala' of Visnu.
Brahma: His form and
The colour of Brahma has been described as yellowish
red. In Visnudharmottara Purana the secret of the
form of Brahma and His ornaments have been widely described. According to it,
His eastern mouth is associated with Rgveda, the
southern mouth with Yajurveda, western with Samaveda and northern with
Thus his four arms have been described as four
directions. Water is the essence of the world and the entire world is based on
water. All sthavara and jan gama creatures are
alive only due to water. Therefore, Brahma in the form of the symbol of water
keeps a Kamandalu in his
He has a garland of Rudraksa
which is the symbol" of counting of time right from the moment to kalpa. The performance of rituals of yajna with the combination of
various karmas (actions) takes place. There are several actions which are very
prominent but some are general which have been called Suklasukla.
So, as the symbol of yajna, Brahma wears krsnamrgac'arma (the black deer
skin) the half of which is white and the other half is black.
Plants and herbs that grow
in the world inhance its grace and continuously serve
the interest of the creatures of the world. Brahma's head are equipped
with hair which are symbols of herbs (osadhis). The Sun that lightens up the world, the Moon that
shines, the jyotisc'akra and senses that reveal
intelligence look graceful in the form of ornaments round the neck and throat,
on chest and arms.
(Vehicle and Seat) of Brahma
There are seven lokas in the
upper layer of the universe-Bhuh, Bhuvah,
Svah, Mahah, Janah, Tapah and Satyam. Swan has
been called the symbol of all these seven lokas in
the places of the chariot of Brahma.
The Padmasana (the seat of
lotus) is the lotus produced from the navel of Visnu Karnikas, of that lotus
have been supposed to be the form of Sumeru
Brahma Stotra Sangrahah
Jyestha Brahma Suktam
Hiranyakasipu Krtam Brahmastotram
Maharsi Vyasakrta Brahmastutih
Rudra Proktam Brahma Kavac'am
Brahma Satanama Stotram
Brahma Sambandhi Vratam
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