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Books > Language and Literature > Dictionary > English-Pushto Pushto-English Combined Dictionary
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English-Pushto Pushto-English Combined Dictionary
English-Pushto Pushto-English Combined Dictionary
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From the Editor

In compiling this Dictionary of the Pushto Language (English—Pushto and Pushto English), I have experienced considerable difficulties in deciding upon the words of foreign origin, principally Arabic and Persian, but of common use in Pushto that should find a place in these pages.

As a rule, words of the Arabic and Persian that are used in an unaltered form in the Pushto have been omitted, excepting only those of very common or general use; for to have given place to all the words of those languages used in an unchanged form by Pashtoon authors, would have added unnecessarily to the bulk of the work without, in return, being of any practical utility in the study of the language, since their use is almost solely confined to literary works or to discussions on theological subjects.

Of the words purely Pushto, the most, it will be observed, are derived from the Persian. In most instances I have endeavoured to point out their sources in those languages, by quoting in brackets with each word, the original form from which it may be derived, with a preceding capital letter for the initial of the language to which each belongs.

In some instances the changes are very slight, in others more complex, and in a few complete, but still in general accordance with the regular laws of philology, which in Pushto are variously illustrated according to the diverse vocal and phonetic peculiarities of the different tribes, composing the Afghan nation.

I have not had leisure to follow out this enquiry as fully as the subject demands, owing to the scant opportunities at my disposal in the intervals between my professional and military duties. I have considered it necessary, however, to allude to the subject, and to note in brief some instances that have attracted my attention, in the hope that they will, whilst serving as illustrations of the changes which words from the Persian and Indian languages undergo on becoming Pushto, at the same time suffice to guide the student desirous of a further investigation of the subject.

The letters of cognate sound with j, viz. j and z, in Pushto are often replaced by g and dz respectively, as in kog. (crooked) from kaj, gala-i (hail) from jalah, and nmundz (prayer) from namaz. By some tribes, as the Yusufzais and Eastern Afghans generally, the letters j and g are habitually pronounced, and general also written as j and g respectively.

The letter d in words introduced from a foreign source, in the Pushto generally becomes replaced by L, as in las (ten) from the Hindi das, and lerver (husband’s brother) from the Hindi dervar; and in ids (hand) from dast, lum (a net) from dam, plar (father) from padar; plandar (stepfather) from padandar; lur (daughter) from dukhtar, lenvanai (mad) from diwanah, lwashal (to milk) from doshidan, etc., all from the Persian.

The letters rd when coming together without an intervening vowel, are rendered in Pushto by r, as in wral (to carry) from burdan, rawral (to fetch) from awurdan, khwural (to eat from khurdan, mral (to die) from murdan, kral (to do) from kardan, spiral or spardai (to undo) from saparda, maranai (manly) from mardanah, etc.; all from the Persian.

English-Pushto Pushto-English Combined Dictionary

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Item Code:
IHL476
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2010
ISBN:
8176502251
Size:
9.0 inch X 5.8 inch
Pages:
362
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$31.50
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From the Editor

In compiling this Dictionary of the Pushto Language (English—Pushto and Pushto English), I have experienced considerable difficulties in deciding upon the words of foreign origin, principally Arabic and Persian, but of common use in Pushto that should find a place in these pages.

As a rule, words of the Arabic and Persian that are used in an unaltered form in the Pushto have been omitted, excepting only those of very common or general use; for to have given place to all the words of those languages used in an unchanged form by Pashtoon authors, would have added unnecessarily to the bulk of the work without, in return, being of any practical utility in the study of the language, since their use is almost solely confined to literary works or to discussions on theological subjects.

Of the words purely Pushto, the most, it will be observed, are derived from the Persian. In most instances I have endeavoured to point out their sources in those languages, by quoting in brackets with each word, the original form from which it may be derived, with a preceding capital letter for the initial of the language to which each belongs.

In some instances the changes are very slight, in others more complex, and in a few complete, but still in general accordance with the regular laws of philology, which in Pushto are variously illustrated according to the diverse vocal and phonetic peculiarities of the different tribes, composing the Afghan nation.

I have not had leisure to follow out this enquiry as fully as the subject demands, owing to the scant opportunities at my disposal in the intervals between my professional and military duties. I have considered it necessary, however, to allude to the subject, and to note in brief some instances that have attracted my attention, in the hope that they will, whilst serving as illustrations of the changes which words from the Persian and Indian languages undergo on becoming Pushto, at the same time suffice to guide the student desirous of a further investigation of the subject.

The letters of cognate sound with j, viz. j and z, in Pushto are often replaced by g and dz respectively, as in kog. (crooked) from kaj, gala-i (hail) from jalah, and nmundz (prayer) from namaz. By some tribes, as the Yusufzais and Eastern Afghans generally, the letters j and g are habitually pronounced, and general also written as j and g respectively.

The letter d in words introduced from a foreign source, in the Pushto generally becomes replaced by L, as in las (ten) from the Hindi das, and lerver (husband’s brother) from the Hindi dervar; and in ids (hand) from dast, lum (a net) from dam, plar (father) from padar; plandar (stepfather) from padandar; lur (daughter) from dukhtar, lenvanai (mad) from diwanah, lwashal (to milk) from doshidan, etc., all from the Persian.

The letters rd when coming together without an intervening vowel, are rendered in Pushto by r, as in wral (to carry) from burdan, rawral (to fetch) from awurdan, khwural (to eat from khurdan, mral (to die) from murdan, kral (to do) from kardan, spiral or spardai (to undo) from saparda, maranai (manly) from mardanah, etc.; all from the Persian.

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