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Gangesa on Yogarudhi (Containing the Original Text of the Yogarudhivada of the Sabdakhanda of the Tattvacintamani

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Gangesa on Yogarudhi (Containing the Original Text of the Yogarudhivada of the Sabdakhanda of the Tattvacintamani
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Item Code: NAB942
Author: Subas Chandra Dash
Publisher: Sri Satguru Publications
Language: With its English Translation and a Detailed Introduction)
Edition: 1992
ISBN: 8170303540
Pages: 220
Cover: Hardcover
Other Details: 9.0 inch X 5.6 inch
weight of the book: 365 gms
From the Jacket

Among four pramanas, the Sabdapramanas generates verbal understanding. The Naiyayikas argues in favour of a particular process of verbal understanding. The relation between a word and its meaning plays an important role in Indian philosophy. According to the Naiyayikas, there are two types of relations- the Primary and the Secondary. The primary relation again is divided into four types namely - Yoga, Rudhi, Yogarudhi, and Yaugikarudhi. In the present work an attempt is made to study the philosophy and the arguments and advanced for or against yogarudhi, as a third type of the primary relation. For this the textual portion of the Yogarudhivada from the Sabdakhanda of Gangesa’s Tattvacintamani is taken up. The first part of the book contains a detailed introduction, history and development of the concept of Yogarudhi in Indian Philosophy. The second part contains text of the Yogarudhivada along with the English translation and explanatory notes. The book also contains an Index.


It gives me great pleasure in writing a Foreword to this work of Dr. Subas Dash. Dr. Dash has received training in Navya Nyaya in the Centre of Advanced Study in Sanskrit, University of Poona. The present work has been prepared under my supervision. Dr. Dash has taken sufficient labour to work on the Concept of Yogarudhi. After thoroughly studying the section on Yogarudhi in the Tatvacintamani of Gangesopadhyaya and after presenting a readable translation of the text in English with notes wherever necessary in the second part, Dr. Dash has presented his detailed study, in part I, where he has given a brief history of the development of the Concept of Yogarudhi in Indian tradition. This is how the study has contributed to the furtherance of the study of the Concept of Yogarudhi.

The study provides the exact parameter for classification of words of a language in general and of Sanskrit in particular. The study reveals that there has been a long controversy over the acceptance of the category of Yogarudhi sabda and it discusses the logic for and against accepting such category. This study, I am sure, will be appreciated by Linguists as well, because it provides sufficient data to start meaningful inter-action between scientific texts in Sanskrit and Philosophy of Language and similar material outcome in the Western thought. I am hopeful that the recent work will attract the attention of scholars in allied modern fields to take up studies of Navya Nyaya more seriously.


The present work is the revised version of my Ph.D. Thesis submitted to the University of Poona in 1990. The book is divided into two parts. In part—I, a detailed introduction is given where I have discussed various concepts of Nyaya which are related for the study of the concept of Yogarudhi. Sasadhara, the Pre-Gangesa Navya-Naiyayika has also discussed this problem of Yogarudhi in his text Nyayasiddhantadipa. A reference is made to the arguments of Sasadhara for comparison. It is proved that Gangesa of Sasadhara those arguments of Sasadhara in detail and after examining he gives his own view regarding the acceptance of Yogarudhi. In part—II, I have given a free English rendering of the Yagarudhivada of the sabdakhanda of the Tattvacintamani of Gangesopadhyaya. The entire Sanskrit text has been divided into 172 passages from the standpoint of the logical presentation of the arguments.

Express my deep sense of respect and gratefulness to my guru Prof`. V.N. Jha, Director, Centre of Advanced Study in Sanskrit, University of Poona who has guided me for preparing this thesis. It is all due to him that I could study the fundamentals of Nyaya which gave me a proper direction in this field.

I am obliged to Prof. S.D. Joshi, Ex-Director, CASS. University of Poona for giving me an opportunity to work in the Centre.

I have been benefited from the fatherly love and affection, inspirations and guidance of Pandit T.S. Srinivas Shastri. I am very much grateful to him.

I express my thankfulness to Prof. Ashok Kelkar and Dr. Baliram Shukla for their constructive suggestions.

It is very difficult to put it in language my indebtedness to my parents, Father-in-law and family members whose love and affection and moral advice enabled me to come up to this stage. I cannot forget to keep on record my gratefulness to my wife Smt. Shantipriya Dash for the sacrifice rendered by her by relieving me of the domestic responsibilities and simultaneously helping me directly in my academic pursuits.

I am also very much thankful to my friends Dr. Kashinath Hota, Dr. Sasadhar Sahoo, Dr. Banamali Biswal, Mr. Suddhatattva Kar, Miss Kumuda Iyengar for their help during the preparation of this work.

I am sincerely thankful to the staff of the Cass Library, Jayakar Library, Bhandarkar Library for their cordial help. Finally, I also thank Indian Books Centre for taking up the publication of this work.


Foreword vii
Preface ix
Abbreviations xiii
Part - I 1
0. Plan of Work 3
1. General Concept of Pramana 5
2. Concept of Sabdapramana 18
3. Process of Verbal Understanding 22
4. Concept of Pada 27
5. Concept of Vakya 30
6. Concept of Padartha 32
7. Concept of Vakyartha 34
8. Concept of Sabdabodha 35
9. Classification of Words 39
10. Types of Words 42
1.1 Yaugika, Rudha, Yogarudha and Yaugikarudha 46
2.0 Concept of Samarthya 51
2.1 Concept of Ekarthibhava 53
2.2 Concept of Vyapeksa 55
3.0 Relation Between Word and Its Meaning 57
3.1 Sakti 58
3.2 Laksana 64
4.0 Concept of Samudaya 68
4.1 Concept of Avayava 71
4.2 Samudayasakti 73
4.3 Avayavasakti 75
5.0 History and Development of the Concept of Yogarudhi 77
5.1 Arguments in favour of Yogarudhi by the Systems other than Nyaya-Vaisesika 83
5.2 Arguments by Sasadhara 88
5.3 Arguments by Gangesa 95
6.0 Analysis 121
6.1 Necessity for accepting the category of Yogarudhi 123
6.2 Typology and Classification of Words in Western Thought 125
7.0 Conclusion 130
Part - II 135
Original Text - The Yogarudhivada of Gangesopadhyaya, its English Translation and Notes 137
Bibliography 191
I. Primary Sources 193
II. Secondary Sources 198
Index 201
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