History and Culture of Tamil Nadu As Gleaned from the Sanskrit Inscriptions Volume-2 1310-C. 1885 AD)

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Item Code: IDI057
Author: Chitra Madhavan
Publisher: D. K. Printworld Pvt. Ltd.
Language: English
Edition: 2007
ISBN: 9788124603956
Pages: 201
Cover: Paperback
Other Details 5.4"X 8.2"
Weight 310 gm
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The present work embodies the result of the research carried out by me from 2001-03 as a recipient of the Junior Research Fellowship in Epigraphy from the Department of Culture, Government of India.

I am greatly indebted to Prof. K. V. Raman, Former Professor and Head, Department of Ancient History and Archaeology, University of Madras, for all his help, encouragement and guidance at every stage of my research. I deem it my good fortune to have had the benefit of his scholary advice. I also thank Dr. S. Swaminathan, Assistant Superintending Epigraphist, Archaeological Survey of India, for his help.

I wish to thank my parents for their constant support and encouragement throughout the period of my research work. My special thanks to my mother who helped me in the reading and translation of the Sanskrit epigraphs. My heartfelt thanks to Shri L. J. Krishnamurthi and Smt. Sobha Jayaraman for all the help have rendered to me.

To Dr. K. V. Ramesh, Formerly Director (Epigraphy) and Joint Director General (Retd.), Archaeological Survey of India, I convey my gratitude for going through my book and contributing his scholarly Foreword. My hearty thanks to Shri Susheel K. Mittal of D. K. printworld (P) Ltd., New Delhi, for the interest and enthusiasm he has shown in publishing this book.

Back of the Book

Epigraphy, or the study of inscriptions, has played a very important role in reconstructing the history of India. Tamil Nadu in Particular has a very large number of epigraphs, which have been of immense help to historians in writing about the history of the Tamil country. The majority of theses inscriptions are written in Tamil. However, beginning from the sixth century AD, a large number of inscriptions, both lithic and copper- plate grants came to be composed in Sanskrit as well.

This book deals with the Sanskrit inscriptions of the period of the Vijayanagara, Nayaka, Later Pandya and Maratha Kings who ruled over Tamil Nadu. These Sanskrit records provide interesting and valuable details regarding civil and military administration, social and economic life, education, literature and the religious and cultural conditions of those times.

This book is an important contribution not only to the field of epigraphy, but to the history of South India in general and the history of Tamil Nadu in particular.

Dr. Chithra Madhavan obtained her M.A. in Indian History and M. Phil. Degrees from the University of Madras. Subsequently, she obtained her Ph.D. degree in Ancient History and Archaeology from the University of Mysore. She was awarded the Junior Fellowship in Epigraphy by the Department of Culture, Government of India for the period 2001-03, and the present book embodies the results of this research work. She is now the recipient of a Post-doctoral Fellowship from the Indian Council of Historical Research, New Delhi.


  Foreword by K. V. Ramesh vii
  Preface ix
  Abbreviations xv
  Key to Transliteration xvii
  Introduction 1
1 Administration 9
  Duties of a King 9
  Kings as upholders of Social Order 10
  Divine Origin 11
  Coronation Ceremony 12
  Viceroys 13
  Emblems 15
  Ministers 17
  Military Administration 21
  Weapons wielded by the Kings 22
  Army Divisions 22
  Elephants 23
  Artillery 26
2 Social and Economic Life 27
  Brahmanas 28
  Other Castes 35
  Queens 36
  Queens of the Madurai Nayakas 44
  Queens of the Tanjavur Nayakas 45
  Brahmana Women 46
  Economic Life 48
  Crops 48
  Irrigation 49
  Tanks and Channels 50
  Special Privileges 53
  Medicine 55
  Temples 56
3 Education and Literature 59
  Harihara II 62
  Virupaksa 62
  Deva Raya I 64
  Deva Raya II 64
  Vira-Nrsimha 66
  Krsnadeva Raya 67
  Acyuta Raya 69
  Sriranga Raya 73
  Venkata II 73
  Venkata III 76
  Nayaka kings of Madurai 77
  Nayaka kings of Tanjavur 79
  Later Pandyan kings 81
  Marathas 83
  Mathas 84
  Poet-Composers of the Sanskrit Inscriptions 88
  Literary Beauty of the Sanskrit Inscriptions 94
  Manipravala Style 97
  Vaisnava Mythology 98
  Venkatesa 99
  Varaha 100
  Rama 103
  Krsna 104
  Bhudevi 105
  Saiva Mythology 106
  Ardhanarisvara 107
  Sarada 108
  Ganesa 108
  Murusa 111
  Indra 111
  Brahma 112
4 Religion 113
  Harihara II 115
  Virupaksa 115
  Deva Raya I 116
  Deva Raya II 117
  Mallikarjuna 118
  Krsnadeva Raya 118
  Acyuta Raya 122
  Sadasiva Raya 124
  Tirumala I 127
  Sriranga Raya 128
  Venkata II 129
  Venkata III 130
  Nayaka rulers of Madurai 130
  Nayaka rulers of Tanjavur 136
  Raghunatha Nayaka 139
  Later Pandyan Kings 140
  Marathas 146
  Vassal chieftains, ministers and officials 150
  Uttamanambis 153
  Tatacarya 158
  Spiritual preceptors 162
  Vidyaranya 162
  Mahadanas 171
  Tulapurusa 173
  Plates 177
  Bibliography 189
  Index 195


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