Along with its insistence on nonviolence, the Noncooperation Movement, at the national and regional levels, couched its rhetoric from the outset in terms of "unifying issues," advocating causes that averted social and economic confrontations stemming from such potentially volatile issues as nonpayment of taxes to government and of rent to landholders. Gandhi pointedly spoke out against looting markets and withholding taxes from government and rent from landlords. For many ordinary people, however, the culture of caste remained too overpowering to be subverted by the weight of monastic opinion, however authoritative. This did not necessarily mean, however, that they succumbed to its epistemological weight. Rather, by the early twentieth century many former shudras (including, most importantly, millions of peasants) began to refashion themselves en masse as the kshatriya descendants of divine royal lineages and hence as equal members of the very elite that despised them. As part of that populist reform, and aimed directly at the caste systemic of agricultural and artisanal production, the new kshatriyas sought to transform the meaning of physical labor by questioning the social stigma attached to it. This would have dramatic-and often violent-repercussions in the countryside, as rural elites expressed resentment at the usurpation of their social and, hence, economic prerogatives. The history of kshatriya reform confirms, then, that as one descends to the perspective of those who suffer the brunt of social stigma, caste loses its epistemological force and is treated as ideology.The variety of arguments put forward in peasant and monastic redefinitions hinged on the histories and hagiographies of important Vaishnava personages. Among monks, Ramanand and the chain of gurus that preceded and succeeded him assumed major importance; among peasants, Ram and Krishna and their genealogies became paramount. Not unexpectedly, there was significant overlap. This book gives the complete history of these Indian communities and trades.
Bhujang R. Bobade (Born 1982) from last Nine years, Bobade is in the consulting world to take the helm in Archival and Museum field at a time of crisis and change. He went through a dramatic turnaround. He started bootstrapping growth. Now, he is on the doorstep of a major expansion. It's exciting and tiring and rewarding as ever building a rigorous strategic framework under his creative, community-based work. In his all last years, it was all about getting the programming moving, experimenting, and exploring the possibilities with spreading historical research in our community- History for Society Research. He is also working on different historical and educational Museums committees.
Dr. Omshiva Ligade (Born 1968) is an eminent Indian historian of medieval and Modern India, following the approach of Cultural historiography. He has a great experience of Under Graduate and Post Graduate teaching also. He is well known for his strong stance about Numismatic and research orientation work. He has authored a number of books, including Syllabus books chapters. He is head of History Dept., Shivjagruti Mahavidhyalaya, Nalegaon Dist. Latur from last 14 years. He was Chairman of State and National conferences, workshops about History and Gandhian thoughts. He is executive editor of different National and international research journals. He is said to be the first historian to use inscriptions and pictorial sources for the teaching of history which is what current day’s students of history do. He is said to be a pioneer in throwing light on judicial system in late medieval period.
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