Please Wait...


Item Code: IDG233
Author: G. N. MUKERJEE
Publisher: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan
Language: English
Edition: 2006
ISBN: 8170843295
Pages: 935
Cover: Hardcover
Other Details: 9" X 6"
weight of the book: 2.250 kg


An adequate History of Indian Medicine has yet to be written, though the importance of the subject has been acknowledged by the eminent authorities. Professor Max Neuburger of the University of Vienna records the opinion that "the medicine of Indians, if it does not equal the best achievements of their race, at least nearly approaches them, and owing to its wealth of knowledge, depth of speculation and systematic construction, takes an outstanding position in the History of Oriental Medicine. Thanks to the inexhaustible fount of Sanskrit Literature, its development can be traced in outline at any rate from its primeval origins in empiricisms and theurgy to its height as a completed system of learning." (Neuburger: History of Medicine, translated by Playfair Vol. I, p. 43.) It needs no elaborate argument to establish that this "inexhaustible fount" requires for its complete exploration an army of scholars; and till this has been achieve, summaries of the history of Indian Medicine must continue to be incomplete and fragmentary. We cannot consequently express surprise when were find that Neuburger in his great work devotes only 18 pages to the subject, while Professor Buck of Columbia in his work on "The Growth of Medicine from the earliest times to the end of the 18th century" contents himself with a few paragraphs which occupy 8 pages only. In these circumstances, it is no wonder that the topic is not even mentioned in the brilliant lectures on "The Evolution of Modern Medicine" delivered by Sir William Osler at the Yale University in 1913.

I have stated enough to establish the importance of the work undertaken by Dr. Girindranath Mookerjee. In 1909 the University awarded him the Griffith Memorial Prize for the encouragement of advanced study in Science and Letters, in his valuable theses thesis dealing with the Surgical Instruments of the Hindus. This work has already been published in two volumes and its merits have been widely recognised. In 1911 the University again awarded the Griffith Prize to Dr. Mookerjee for his exhaustive thesis entitle "Notices, Biographical and Bibliographical of the Indian Physicians and their works on Medicine." This was followed in 1913 by a thesis on "the Science of Medicine in the Atharvaveda," which participated in the award for that year. The materials thus collected are of immense value and will occupy several volumes.



The first volume of the History of Indian Medicine is now offered to the public.

It is now many years since I undertook and completed the book. I submitted it as a thesis for the Griffith Prize for original research: "Notices Biographical and Bibliographical of the Ayurvedic Physicians and their Works on Medicine." It was commended and the prize was awarded in 1911. I regret that so long a time has elapsed in the publication of the book. During the last few years there have been advances in the study of history of medicine. Consequently, in this edition, not only has revision been exhaustive, but many portions have been entirely recast and largely re-written. While this volume represents data and conclusions drawn from individual research, it is at the same time largely indebted to the works of others. References have been given to all the authorities and original sources as far as possible.

I may at once disclaim all pretensions to scientific treatment of my subject. I crave the indulgence of the readers for many shortcomings of the work. The writer is not master of his time, and the incessant engagements of his practice leave little leisure for literary works.

To render the finding of any particular subject easy to the reader, I have enlarged the Table of Contents. The general index, which will be given at the end of the work, will facilitate references.

Before concluding this preface, I tender my thanks to the Vice-Chancellor of Calcutta University, Sir Asutosh Mookerjee, for assistance of the utmost value in the preparation and publication of this volume. In fact, it might have been deferred much longer if had not secured his valuable assistance. I have also to express my gratitude to him for his kindness in writing a foreword to this volume.


CONTENTS (Volume One)


Foreword (vii)
Preface (ix)
Sanskrit Alphabets Transliteration Chart (x)
The number of Sanskrit medical works. Brief survery of the work done by scholars. The neglect of Europeans. Importance of the study of History of Indian medical literature. Every chapter has as its heading the name of the physician whose life is described. It is an index of Sanskrit medical works. Study of history of medicine in Europe. Notes of some works on the history of medicine. Decline of historical research in Europe. Recent publications. The study of History of Medicine in England. Medical Biographies and History. Revival of the study in India. Translation of Susruta Samhita. Sanskrit medical books. A medical man should have wide culture. Recommendations of the Calcutta University commission for the establishment of Chairs of History of medicine and Pharmaeology. The importance of the study of Medical history: 1. Best method of popularising scientific studies; 2. Educational aspect; 3. Necessary for research 4. Attractions for the study; 5. Useful pastime for busy practitioners. Sidelines of physicians. The utility of study: I. Origin of medicines: (i) Gods, (ii) Animal instructors of medicines; II. Accounts of obsolete customs: (i) Visakanya or poison-girls, (ii) Suka-dosa, (iii) Temple Sleep; III. Therapeutic measures: (i) The immovable apparatus and rattan cane splints in fractures, (ii) Massage, (iii) Hypnotism, (iv) Exercise; IV. Indigenous drugs; V. Identification of diseases: (i) Leprosy, (ii) History of Cholera or Visucika, Small-Pox, Vaccination, Inoculation and vaccination, Sitala, Syphilis. The methods of popularising the study of medical history: 1. Museums, 2. Exhibition, 3. Library, 4. Pictures. 1-121
Notices, Biographical and Bibliographical, of the Ayurvedic Physicians and their Works on Medicine: 122-123
Brahma The originator of the Science of Life. His Ayurveda consisted of Salya Tantra or Major Surgery, Salakya Tantra or Minor Surgery, Kaya Cikitsa or Medicine, Bhutavidya or Demology, Kumarabhrtya the Science of Paediatrics, Agada Tantra or Toxicology, Rasayana or the Science of Tonics and Vajikarana Tantra or the Science of Aphrodisiacs. The Divine origin of medicines in Egypt, Greece and other ancient countries. Mss. Of Ayurveda. References to Brahma. His works. Formula attributed to Brahma. His disciples. 125-137
VisnuThe Preserver; the Sun-god. References to Visnu as a physician. Formulae ascribed to Visnu. 138-145
Siva The propounder of the Science of Medicine. Rudra, Tryamvaka. Who is Rudra? His names. His works. References to Rudra as a physician in the Vedas. Formulae ascribesd to Siva. Serpent worship. Snake the symbol of wisdom. 146-192
Bhaskara or the Sun. Bhaskara a physician in the Rgveda> Birth of the Asvin twins. Bhaskara is the god of the eyes. Books and Formulae ascribed to him. References to Surya and Savita in the Rgveda. 193-204
Indra as described in the Vedas and Puranas. He learned Medicine from the Asvins. His disciples. Atreya and Bhardvaja, Reference to Indra as a physician. Incidents of Indra's life. The hymns to Indra in the Rgveda. The skill of Indra as a physician. Formulae ascribed to him. 205-214
Kartikeya. His works. 215
Sarasvati as river and as the goddess of learning. Bharati and Ila. Formulae ascribed to Sarasvati. The hymns to Sarasvati in the Rgveda. 216-221
Raka, Sinivali, Gungu and Anumati. 222-223
Daksa or the Prajapati. He is the creator of living being. Genealogy of the teacher of medicines. Daksa and Aesculapius. Formulae ascribed to Daksa 224-226
Yama The ruler of the dead. His character in the Veda and the Mahabharata. Books written by him. Hymns to Yama in the Rgveda. 227-229
Varuna The god of the ocean. Mitra and Varuna in the Rgveda. Varuna's medicines. Varuna and Oannes the Sumerian deity. The epithets of, and hymns to Varuna in the Vedas. 230-233
The Asvini Kumara the twin sons of Vivasvat and Saranyu. Nasatya and Dasra. Descriptions of the Asvins in the Rgveda. Resemblance to Chiron the Centaur, and to Castor and Pollux. The Mitanian Gods. Incidents of their life. Hymns to Asvins in the Rgveda. References to Asvins as medical men in the Rgveda, Caraka Samhita, and Susruta Samhita. The epithets applied to them in the Rgveda. Their works. Formulae ascribed to the Asvins. 234-271
KasyapaReference to Kasyapa. Formulae ascribed to him. 272-273
Kasyapa The Elder. References to him in medical texts. Formulae ascribed to him. His works. 274-279
Soma in the Rgveda. Identification of the Soma plant. Manufacture of Soma juice. Properties ascribed to Soma juice. Soma as god. His divine powers. His wives. References to Soma as a god in the earlier hymns in the Rgveda. The dual character of Soma. The hymns in the Rgveda which treat of Soma. 280-290
Budha 291



CONTENTS (Volume Two)


Preface (vii)
Sanskrit Alphabets Transliteration Chart (viii)
The present state of Ayurvedic study. The Ayurvedic Committee of Bengal; its questionnaire. The reply sent by the author. Description of the work done by the Government to resuscitate knowledge in Ayurveda; the traditional system of training of the Kavirajas in Bengal; Lord Minto's recommendations. The establishment to the Sanskrit College in Calcutta; the teaching of medical science therein. Dr. Tytler and the Native Medical Institution. Pandit Madhusudana Gupta. Lord William Bentinck appoints a committee to revise medical education in Bengal. Macaulay's famous Minute. Dr. Grant and Dr. Duff. Foundation of the Medical College. Abolition of Native Medical Institution. Drs. Bramley, Goodeve, and Madhusudana. Study of European medical science. Restoration and Development of Ayurveda:- Its need; Demand for medical men in rural areas; Trained native doctors, Hospital Assistants, and Ayurvedic physicians. Its popularity. Methods of restoration:-Establishment of a Central College of Ayurveda; Hospital, Library, Translation of Sanskrit books, Editions of suitable text books, Exhibitions, Popular lectures, Therapeutic Gardens, and Museums. The establishment of teaching institution, Tols, Hospitals. The location and scheme of the Central College and Hospital; Qualification of the students and the question of their accommodation in the existing medical schools. The medium of instruction-English for the present and vernacular afterwards. Ayurveda is not a conservative science. Its literature; Status of the Ayurvedic practitioners; Recognition of certificates granted by the Kavirajas; Registration of qualified practitioners. Drugs, their collection, standardisation and sale. Duty of the Universities, District Boards, and Municipalities. 1-30
Oral evidence of the Author 31-37
Report of the Ayurvedic Colleges Amalgamations Special
Appendix I Memorandum of Association of Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Rules-Constitution, etc; Extracts from the Proceedings of the Governing Bodies of the three Ayurvedic colleges. 45-56
Appendix II The questionnaire of the Committee appointed by the Government of Madras on the Indigenous medicines. 57-59
Bibliography of Ayurvedic Books General Medicine, Botany Materia Medica and pharmacology, Surgery and Midwifery, History of Materia Medica and other Cognate Subjects. 61-74
Catalogues 75-76
List of Abbreviation 77-78
Agni His functions, Purohita, etc. His relationship with the other gods. His parents. Amantha and Prometheus. His appearance. Forms of Agni. His power. Divine honours. Agni's chariot and horse. His votaries. Agni as a physician. His character. Hymns to Agni in the Atharvaveda. The seven tongues of Agni 79-88
Vata and Vayu The Wind God. Hymns to Vata and Vayu. Authorship Vayu Purana 89-94
Vrhaspati The same as Brahmanaspati-The Lord of Prayer. His parentage. His works-Law books and astronomical tracts. A prescription of Vrhaspati for promoting bulkiness in the Bower MS. Reference in Cakradatta, and Ramayana. Relationship with other gods. His acts. Relationship with the worshippers. His attributes, weapons and sons. Hymns to the god in the Rgveda and Atharvaveda. 95-105
Usana or Sukracarya or Kavya The Preceptor of the demons. His sons, and daughter Devayani; Her story. His works. A prescription of Usana. 106-107
Agastya His birth and life. His acts. His books. The formulae ascribed to Agastya. 108-116
Cyavana His marriage with Sukanya. The legend of Cyavana and Asvins. Formulae ascribed to Cyavana. 117-121
Bharadvaja His parents. Went to Indra to learn medical science for the good of the people. Reference to him in the Ayurveda books. Authorship. Formulae attributed to him. Genealogy. 122-129
Bhrgu The ten great Seers,- the mental sons of Brahma. His wife and son. Genealogy. Bhrgu's acts. 130-132
Narada A Devarsi. His re-birth as Upavrahana. His books. The formulae ascribed to him. 133-136
Marici One of the Saptarsi. Reference to him in the Caraka Samhita. 137
Kaca Learned the science of restoration of the dead to life from Sukracarya. Devayani's curse. Formulae. 138
Visvamitra Learned medicine from Bharadvaja. He is a composer of Vedic hymns. Conflict between Visvamitra and Vasistha. His parents. The story of Hariscandra. Reference to Visvamitraas a medical author in Navanitaka, Nivandhasangraha, Vyakhyakusumavali, Vrnda Madhava, Tattva Candrika and Bhava Prakasa. Susruta was his son. Genealogy. 139-145
Vasistha His parents. Story of Kalmasada. His wife. Reference to him in the Caraka Samhita and Trimalla's Yogatarangini. His books. Hymns attributed him. Formulae. 146-149
Angira A Prajapati. His sons. As a law-giver and astronomer. 150
Vamadeva Reference to him in the Gadanigraha, Aitareya Samhita and Vamadeva Samhita 150
Sanatkumara His book Sanatkumara Samhita is one the treatment of eye diseases. 151-152
KamadevaHis wife-Rati. Rebirth as Pradyumna. Formulae. 153-154
Pulastya Progenitor of the Raksasas. 155
Jamadagni A Bhargava. His sons. Parasurama killed Kartyavirya. His remedy for the growth of hair. Reference in the Caraka Samhita and Atharvaveda. 156
Gotama Reference in the Caraka Samhita and Vyakhyamadhukosa. His wife Ahalya, and sons Satananda. Asita Gotama. 157
Garga And Gargya There were many Gargas. Reference to Garga as a medical author in Prayogaratnakara and Matsya Purana. His Books. 158
Vyasa His parents. The arranger of the Vedas. His works-Brahmasutra. Founder of a school of Vedanta. There were many Vyasa. Reference to him as a medical author in Sarvangasundari. His work--Gajalaksana. Formulae. Vadarayana and Vedavyasa. His date. Disciples of Vyasa. 159-162
Pariksi Maudgalya Reference in theCaraka Samhita. 163
Dhanvantari Origin of the medical science. Genealogy. His birth-the story of Galava. Theory of two Dhanvataris. His disciples. Formulae. His works. Story of Manasa in the Brahmavaivarta Purana. Taksaka and Kasyapa 164-183
Nimi Authority on diseases of the eye. Reference in the Susruta Samhita and Caraka Samhita. Mithi Janaka, Nimi, Videha and Maha Videha. Genealogy. Books Quotations from Nimi. Formulae. 184-201
Salihotra Knowledge of Veterinary science in Ancient India. Treatment of cattle, horse and elephant. Post-mortem examination of dead animals and cadaver in Kautilya's Arthasastra. his work on the Treatment of Horse. Relation of Salihotra to Susruta. Hayaghosa. Analysis of contents of Salihotra. Reference. Comparison of knowledge of the art in Ancient India, and in Europe, a century back. 202-234
PalakapyaOrigin of the science of treatment of elephants. His work-Hasti Ayurveda. Analysis of its contents. List of sages invited by Romapada, King of Campa to learn the Science. 235-252
Ravana The king of Lanka. His parents. His medical works-Editions. 253-255
Atri A Prajapati. His wife Anastiya gave Sita an ointment. His sons. 256
Atreya Punarvasu Learned medicine from Indra. His six disciples. Analysis of Atreya Samhita. His books. Reference. Formulae. 257-264
Krsna Atreya The identity of Krsna Atreya. Quotations from his works. Formulae 265-278
Dattatreya His works. 279-280
Hiranyaksa Reference in the Caraka Samhita, Vyakhyamadhukosa, and Cakradatta Kausika. 281
Vadisa 282
Sankrtyayana 283
Saraloma 283
Kapya 284-285
KankayanaReference Formulae. 286-289
JavalaHis work 290
Kumarasira Bharadvaja. Reference in the Caraka Samhita. 291
Rajarsi Vamaka 292
Rajarsi Varyovida 293-294
Saunaka. Bhadra Saunaka Reference. His works 295-298
Kanada His Works. Founder of Vaisesiki system. Editions of
Nadivijnna. Translations.
Maitreya 302-303
Sakunteya and Sakuneya 304
Paila 304
Karatha 305
Jajali 305
King Nala His life. Versed in the science of Cookery. His books. 306-307
Nakula and Sahadeva The Pandava. Treatment of horses and cows. Their medical works. Analysis of contents of Asvacikitsa by Nakula 308-311
Markandeya His parents. Longevity. The Amrta oil in Bower MS. His works. 312-314
Asvalayana Author ofSrauta Sutra 315
Sandilya Author of Bhakti Sutra 315
Sankhya-Kapila The legend of Sagara Colebrooke's opinion. The existing Sankhya sutras are spurious. Teachers of the system. Reference in theCaraka Samhita. Translation of the Sutras. 316-317
Devala A Vedic Rsi. 318
Dhaumya The family priest of the Pandavas. 318
Kaundinya Kaundilya is a mistake of the scribes. 318
AsmarathyaDisciple of Vyasa. 319
Sarkaraksa 319
Varksi Kaikeseya Lokaksa, Paingi, Vaijavapi Maimatayani and Abhijit are sages mentioned in the Caraka samhita but otherwise unknown 319
KatyayanaThe Varttika-Kara. His works. His age. 320
Galava The legend of Galava and Visvamitra. Galava and the birth of Dhanvantari. 320
Vaikhanasa and Valakhilya Munis Reference in the Vrhat Ramayana and Gada nigraha. Formulae of Brahmarasayana. 321-322
Kapisthala Not Kapinjala as in some editions of Caraka Samhita. 323
Parasurama The Bhargabha. Reference in the Caraka Samhita and Hasti-Ayurveda. 324



CONTENTS (Volume Three)


Preface (vii)
Sanskrit Alphabets Transliteration Chart (ix)
Comparative Medicine It can reveal the state of medical knowledge.  
Comparative Philology and Comparative Mythology Rosetta stone. The tri-lingual coneiform inscriptions of Darius and Xerxes. Sandrokoptos. Labour of Champ-ollion, Rawlinson, Grotefend, Burnouf, Jones, Bopp.  
In Medicine Egyptian papyri; Pali and Sanskrit Buddhist literature; Greek and Roman medicine; Veda and Zend; Tibetan Tangyur and Kangyur, Arabic and Persian, Tamil and Singalese Medicine in Java, Burma, China and Ceylon. The necessity to learn classical and modern European languages. Folk medicine. The different systems of medicine, and their classification. Empirical knowledge. Indian system is not a 'solitary system' but has much in common with the other systems-Persian, Mesopotamian. The use of such a study. Revival of Hindu medicine--Journal of Ayurveda. Text-books.  
Examples of the use of the comparative method-Surgical instruments and operations, Forceps, Catheters, Parasites, Midwifery forceps, Kalaya-Khanja, Inoculation of Small-pox and vaccination, the Hippocratic oath; Ant's head as suture material, Glass knife, Leeches, Dissection and The snake symbol. 1-9
AgnivesaDisciple of Atreya Punarvasu, author of Agnivesa Tantra. References to and quotations from it. Formulae. His works. MSS. Commentary. 13-20
Bhela or Bheda Bhela Samhita. Bhaluki Samhita- a surgical treatise. Quotations from Bhaluki and Bheda. MS. Of Bhela Samhita in Tanjore Catalogue. Formulae of Bhela and Bhaluki. 21-37
Jatukarna A disciple of Atreya Punarvasu. Jatukarna Samhita or Tantra. Quotations from it. Formulae. 38-41
Harita I, or Vrddha Harita Pseudo-Harita or Harita II. Quotations from Harita Samhita. Formulae. 42-50
Ksarapani One of the six disciples of Atreya Punarvasu, Ksarapani Tantra. Quotations from it. Formulae. 51-55
Vrddha Parasara or Parasara I Parentage. Parasara Samhita. One of the eight original authors of medical text books. Table of teachers and disciples of Vedic studies. 56-57
Parasara II One of the disciples of Punarvasu Atreya, author of Parasara Samhita. Quotations from it. Takrakalpa. MS. Formulae. 58-61
Vrddha Susruta or Susruta ISusruta Tantra and Susruta Samhita. Dhanvantari and Susruta. Age of Susruta- Its uncertainly. Two period of Hindu medicine. Absurdity of Haas' theory, Redaction-Nagarjuna, Candrata. Laghu Susruta and Susrutasara. Commentaries. Editions, Translation, Quotations from Susruta Tantra. Its eight sections. Index of Susruta Samhita-its six sections. Analysis of its contents. MSS. 62-85
Aupadhenava Aupadhenava Tantra Not available. 86
AurabhraAurabhra Tantra Not available. 86
Puskalavata One of the earliest writers on Surgery. 87
Karavirya A disciple of Dhanvantari-author of a treatise on Surgery. 88
Gopura-Raksita Disciples of Dhanvantari. Quotations. 88
Vaitarana Disciple of Dhanvantari. Quotations. 89
Caraka Caraka Samhita its origin. Age of Caraka. Editions. Translations. The commentators of Caraka and their commentaries. His works. MSS. Of Caraka Samhita. The list of medical authors mentioned in it.  
Drdhabala Identification of Pancanadappura. The last seventeen chapters of the Caraka Samhita- The arrangement of the chapters. B. C. Sengupta's view. The age of Drdhabala. - Hoernle's opinion. The authorship of the Caraka Samhita. Its MSS. Caraka is quoted in later books. Analysis of the Caraka Samhita. Dr. Sirear's notes on it. Translation. The origin of medicine as narrated by Caraka. 101-125
Bhiksu Atreya The teacher of Jivaka. His books--Atri Samhita. Formulae in Navanitika. 126-134
Sambavya Quoted in the Bower MS. Krtasambhava in the Kasyapa Samhita. 135
Suprabha A royal sage, quoted in Bower MS. 136-137
Vadvali Quoted in the Bower MS. 138-139
Bodhisattva Sakya Muni. His life and cures. Formulae. 140-141
Kasyapa, the younger Contemporary of Buddha. Kasyapa, the toxicologist, in the Mahabharata. The Kasyapa Pills. 142-145
Jivaka Physician of Buddha. His parentage. His cures. Formulae. Life of Jivaka in detail. Quoted from Mahavagga, Hardy's Manual of Buddhism, Scheifner's Tibetan Tales and Oldenburg's Buddha. 146-189
Parvataka and Bandhaka 190
Manibhadra A Buddhist Maha-Yaksa. Formulae. 191-193
Mahavagga On Medicaments. An analysis of its contents. 194-200
Vyadi 201-202
Alambayana 203
Ladyayana 204-205
Kharanada and Kharanadi- Quotations from their works.
Karala Bhatta 213
Caksusyena 214-217
Satyaki 218-219
Patanjali His parentage-His works. Caraka and Patanjali. Patanjali and Nagarjuna. The Age of Patanjali-internal and external evidence.
Kapilavala 226-227
Simhagupta 228-229
Vagbhata Chronology. I'tsing's remarks. Hoernle's opinion about his age-objections. I'tsing refers to Vagbhata II. Editions of Astanga Sangraha. Commentary. Analysis of its contents. Authors quoted in
Psedo-Harita or Harita II Editions of Harita Samhita. Analysis of its contents. Goldstucker's analysis. MSS. The medical Authors mentioned in it. 245-254
Nagarjuna His life. His date. His works. MSS. Dialogue between Nagarjuna King Salivahana and Ratnaghosa in the Rasaratnakara. He is quoted by later authors. Formulae. 255-274
Rsyasrnga 275
Ramacandra The Hero of Ramayana. His life. Opinion of Mr. B.C. Mukherjee about the identity of King Ramacandra and Ramaraja. Objections against it. Ramacandra Guha, author of Rasendra-cintamani, Dhundukanatha and Dandakanatha. Who was Ramaraja? Rama Raya of Vijayanagara. Rama Raja of Kastha, the author of Rasaratnapradipa. 276-281
Susena 282-283
Astika 284
Yajnavalkya 285
Vatsyayana Author of Vastyayana Sutra. Its MS. Commentary by Bhaskara Nrsimha Sastri. Translations. 286-291
Bhimasena Supasastra. Its MS. 292-293
Mandavya 294-295


Sample Pages




Add a review

Your email address will not be published *

For privacy concerns, please view our Privacy Policy

Post a Query

For privacy concerns, please view our Privacy Policy


Related Items