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Books > Language and Literature > Sanskrit > The Karaka Theory Embodied in the Rama Story (A Sanskrit Textbook in Medieval India)
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The Karaka Theory Embodied in the Rama Story (A Sanskrit Textbook in Medieval India)
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About the Book

There has been a steady flow of scholarship dealing with the karaka theory as expounded in various grammatical works. The purpose of the present book is to conduct a searching examination into a text which has received little attention from Paninian scholars and whose voice has remained unfamiliar, the Bhattikavya. One can see from Bhatti's illustrations of the karaka rules how he interprets them, and also how he interweaves the illustrations with the Rama story in his poetic work, which is intended as a textbook on Sanskrit grammar. In the introductory section, an outline of the Bhattikiivya and a summary of the author's findings in his previous work written in Japanese on this kavya (2017, Kyoto: Hozokan) are given. The present volume also includes two appendices that take up related questions concerning poetic composition and Vedic usage.

About the Author

Yuto Kawamura was born in Japan in 1986. He received a doctorate in letters from Hiroshima University in 2013, under the guidance of Professor Hideyo Ogawa. Yuto Kawamura is currently a research fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. Since 2015, he has been teaching at Kyoto University, where he is a lecturer of Indological Studies.

Foreword

THE preeminent poem of the kavyasastra literary form associated with Paninian grammar is Bhatti's Bhattikavya (alias Ravanavadha). Ksemendra (Suvrttatilaka 3.4cd: bhattibhaumokakavyadi kavyasa-stram pracaksate) refers to this work and Bhaumaka's poem (Ravana- rjuniya), at the head of works which are called kavyasastram. Another famous kavyasastra, illustrating the dhatupatha as transmitted by Bhimasena, is Narayana Bhattatiri's Dhatukavya, which has been well edited, with two commentaries, by S. Venkitasubramonia Iyer (Trivandrum: Department of Sanskrit, University of Kerala, 1970) and given a French translation, accompanied by the text, a study and notes, by Dominique Forthomme (Pondichery: Institut Francais de Pondichery and Ecole Francaise d'Extreme-Orient, 1993).

In accordance with its status, the Bhattikiivya has been published several times, with commentaries, and translated and commented upon not only in English but also other languages, including Hindi and Gujarati; the latest edition known to me, by Bankelala Misra, includes both Jayamangala's Jayamangala and Mallinatha's Sarvapathina commentaries (Varanasi: Sampurnanand Sanskrit University, 2004).

In 2013, Yuto Kawamura submitted his doctoral dissertation on the Bhattikavya, written under the direction of Professor Hideyo Ogawa, and this has recently been published (2017, Kyoto: Hozokan), in Japanese, with the English title (The Decryption of the Bhattikavya: Sanskrit Court Poetry and Paninian Grammar) and an extensive English summary. As Dr. Kawamura says in the preface to the present work (p. vii), 'The aim of this book was to carry out an accurate, careful, analysis of the grammatical sections of the work from the point of view of both Sanskrit grammar and poetics.' The present monograph is partly based on Dr. Kawamura's earlier book, 'but it has been substantially revised, incorporating the new results of my continuous investigations on Bhatti's verses' (preface, p. viii).

The core of this monograph is devoted to fifteen verses in the eighth sarga of the Bhattikavya (8.70-84), in which are used forms illustrating the classifications of karakas into the six major categories provided in Panini's Astadhyayi (1.4.23-55), a section of verses which Mallinatha introduces saying atha karakadhikara. The verses cited from the Bhattikavya are here accompanied by careful English translations with annotations, which include interpretations that Jayamangala and Mallinatha give. In addition, Dr. Kawamura cites and translates the pertinent Paninian sutras along with the examples with which the Kasikavrtti illustrates their import; again, annotations accompany the translations and include discussions not only from the commentaries of Jinendrabuddhi, Maitreyaraksita and Haradatta but also from the Mahabhasya and its commentators.

In an introduction preceding this central part of his work, Dr. Kawamura takes up the purpose and structure of the Bhattikavya as well as Bhatti's way of illustrating Paninian rules. In addition, he compares briefly the Bhattikavya and Ravanarjuniya, and considers poetic devices in grammatical sections of the former as well as relations among Bhatti, Katyayana, and Patanjali. The detailed discussions, accompanied by charts, of how Bhatti organized his work are, I think, particularly valuable. Finally, in two appendixes, Dr. Kawamura takes up related questions concerning poetic composition and Vedic usage. In the first appendix, he goes into Bhamaha's statement in the Kavyalankara (6.27cd: chandovad iti cotsargan nacapi cchandasam vadet) that a poet should not use any form that is strictly Vedic on the basis of the principal that non-Vedic usage may be like Vedic usage. In connection with this, Dr. Kawamura appropriately takes up two principles that Patanjali adduces in the course of some arguments: (a) sutras behave in the manner that Vedic does (chandovat sutrani bhavanti), (b) poets do as does the Veda (chandovat kavayah kurvanti). The second appendix deals with a related issue: Saranadeva's repeatedly maintaining, in his Durghatavrtti, that at times Vedic forms also are used in the non-Vedic language (chandasa api kvacid bhasayam prayujyante).

In all these discussions, Dr. Kawamura demonstrates not only great accuracy and command of the pertinent literature but also considerable originality and insight.

It is clear that Dr. Kawamura has produced a well composed and well argued monograph dealing with important topics in the history of vyakarana and associated areas of study. I welcome this work heartily and look forward to the scholarship we may expect from this talented young scholar.

Preface

THE Bhattikavya ('Bhatti's Poetic Work'), also known as the Ravanavadha ('The Slaying of Ravana'), is a poem of the type called kavya-sustra, which is intended to illustrate sastric matters in the form of a poetic creation. It is also of the type called mahakavya 'great poem'.

The Bhattikavya, narrating the story of Rama on the basis of the great epic Ramayana, is meant mainly for illustrating Panini's grammatical rules, thereby serving as a textbook to teach correct Sanskrit usage. This work became so popular that it was transmitted to Southeast Asia. It is well known that the Ramayana Kakawin (ca. 10th-11th c. CE), the first Javanese literary text, is based on the Bhattikavya and not the Ramayana itself.

Recently, I published a book-a revised version of my doctoral dissertation submitted to Hiroshima University in 2013-titled The Decryption of the Bhattikdvya: Sanskrit Court Poetry and Paninian Grammar (in Japanese) as an outcome of years of study on this brilliant work. The aim of this book was to carry out an accurate, careful, analysis of the grammatical sections of the work from the point of view of both Sanskrit grammar and poetics.

Now, it is a genuine pleasure to publish the present book as further outcome of intensive research on one certain section of the Bhattikavya, As its title indicates, this book is intended as an exciting venture into a set of Bhatti's verses illustrating one of the most important groups of rules in Paninian grammar, the karaka rules. The book at hand is partly based on my previous monograph mentioned above, but it has been substantially revised, incorporating the new results of my continuous investigations on Bhatti's verses.

It has been almost twelve years since I ambitiously plunged into the area of Sanskrit studies. It is now my pleasant obligation to convey my sincerest thanks to those with whom leading the way, I have been able to come this far.

I owe more than can be put into words to Professor Hideyo Ogawa, from whom I have learned Classical Sanskrit. It is also he who has introduced me to the beautiful world of Panini. The lessons given by him on various kinds of Sanskrit texts have laid the basis for my scholarly life.

Next, my profound gratitude goes to Professor Yoshichika Honda, who has initiated me into the Indian aesthetic tradition. Under the guidance of him, I read several poetic compositions together with traditional commentaries on them. This experience made it possible for me to go into the study of the Bhattikavya.

I would like to record my heartfelt gratitude to Professor Yuko Yokochi, Professor Somadeva Vasudeva, and Professor Diwakar Nat Acharya for their stimulating suggestions and criticisms on many things I have written. Their sharp eye and keen intelligence have always inspired and served me.

Dr. Werner Franz Knobl is the one who has drawn me into the deep and mystical world, the world of Veda. It was as if landing on another planet. His wonderful erudition and passionate love for Sanskrit struck me. I wish to extend my hearty thanks to him, from whom I have learned Vedic Sanskrit and who stood ready to help me at all times.

In this vein, I should like to express acknowledgement also to Professor Masato Fujii, Professor Eijiro Doyama, and Dr. Adam Alvah Catt, with whose help I could read some Vedic texts such as the Rgveda and Brahmanas. Their lectures have given me flesh insights into the Sanskrit language.

I have benefited much from profitable discussions with Professor Yuko Yokochi, Dr. Andrey Klebanov, Dr. Kiyokazu Okita, and Mr. Kenji Takahashi on several points concerning Bhatti's illustrations of the karaka rules. They were generous enough with their time to read the karaka section of the Bhattikavya with me in the reading session held in Kyoto.

I am indebted to Dr. Lidia Szczepanik-Wojtczak for having taken upon herself the task of sending me an academic book on the Bhattikavya which was unavailable in Japan.

Professor George Cardona did me the ultimate favor of reading through the draft carefully and making a great number of invaluable comments. I am inexpressibly grateful to him for his kind help. Of course, any remaining faults are mine alone.

Finally, my deepest thanks are due to my parents and grandparents for encouraging me all the time, and also to my wife Mai, who has brought boundless joy into my life. This book would not have seen the light of day without their backing and never-failing sympathies.

Contents

Foreword by GEORGE CARDONAiii
Preface vii
Introduction 1
The Aim of the Present Book 1
Framing2
Approaching the Bhattikavya 4
An Outline 4
Structure6
A Textbook on Grammar 8
The Keynote of the Bhattikavya 10
The Way of Illustrating Rules and Teaching Correct Usage11
The Bhattikavya and the Ravanarjuniya22
Poetic Devices in the Grammatical Sections 27
Bhatti, Katyayana, and Patanjali 38
lllustrations of the kiiraka Rules 53
Six karakas 53
Criteria53
BhK 8.70-84 and A 1.4.24-554
BhK 8.70-72 ~ A 1.4.24-3155
BhK 8.73-74 ~ A 1.4.32-35 67
BhK 8.75 ~ A 1.4.36-35 75
BhK 8.76 ~ A 1.4.38-39 79
BhK 8.77 ~ A 1.4.40-41 83
BhK 8.78 ~ A 1.4.42-44 90
BhK 8.79-80 ~ A 1.4.45-48 94
BhK 8.81 ~ A 1.4.49-50 99
BhK 8.82-83 ~ A 1.4.51-52 103
BhK 8.84 ~ A 1.4.53-55 109
Appendix 1 113
Appendix 2 123
Abbreviations and references 141
Index 175
Corrections 185

Sample Pages







The Karaka Theory Embodied in the Rama Story (A Sanskrit Textbook in Medieval India)

Item Code:
NAO395
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2018
ISBN:
9788124609194
Language:
English
Size:
9.0 inch X 6.0 inch
Pages:
199
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 415 gms
Price:
$30.00   Shipping Free
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About the Book

There has been a steady flow of scholarship dealing with the karaka theory as expounded in various grammatical works. The purpose of the present book is to conduct a searching examination into a text which has received little attention from Paninian scholars and whose voice has remained unfamiliar, the Bhattikavya. One can see from Bhatti's illustrations of the karaka rules how he interprets them, and also how he interweaves the illustrations with the Rama story in his poetic work, which is intended as a textbook on Sanskrit grammar. In the introductory section, an outline of the Bhattikiivya and a summary of the author's findings in his previous work written in Japanese on this kavya (2017, Kyoto: Hozokan) are given. The present volume also includes two appendices that take up related questions concerning poetic composition and Vedic usage.

About the Author

Yuto Kawamura was born in Japan in 1986. He received a doctorate in letters from Hiroshima University in 2013, under the guidance of Professor Hideyo Ogawa. Yuto Kawamura is currently a research fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. Since 2015, he has been teaching at Kyoto University, where he is a lecturer of Indological Studies.

Foreword

THE preeminent poem of the kavyasastra literary form associated with Paninian grammar is Bhatti's Bhattikavya (alias Ravanavadha). Ksemendra (Suvrttatilaka 3.4cd: bhattibhaumokakavyadi kavyasa-stram pracaksate) refers to this work and Bhaumaka's poem (Ravana- rjuniya), at the head of works which are called kavyasastram. Another famous kavyasastra, illustrating the dhatupatha as transmitted by Bhimasena, is Narayana Bhattatiri's Dhatukavya, which has been well edited, with two commentaries, by S. Venkitasubramonia Iyer (Trivandrum: Department of Sanskrit, University of Kerala, 1970) and given a French translation, accompanied by the text, a study and notes, by Dominique Forthomme (Pondichery: Institut Francais de Pondichery and Ecole Francaise d'Extreme-Orient, 1993).

In accordance with its status, the Bhattikiivya has been published several times, with commentaries, and translated and commented upon not only in English but also other languages, including Hindi and Gujarati; the latest edition known to me, by Bankelala Misra, includes both Jayamangala's Jayamangala and Mallinatha's Sarvapathina commentaries (Varanasi: Sampurnanand Sanskrit University, 2004).

In 2013, Yuto Kawamura submitted his doctoral dissertation on the Bhattikavya, written under the direction of Professor Hideyo Ogawa, and this has recently been published (2017, Kyoto: Hozokan), in Japanese, with the English title (The Decryption of the Bhattikavya: Sanskrit Court Poetry and Paninian Grammar) and an extensive English summary. As Dr. Kawamura says in the preface to the present work (p. vii), 'The aim of this book was to carry out an accurate, careful, analysis of the grammatical sections of the work from the point of view of both Sanskrit grammar and poetics.' The present monograph is partly based on Dr. Kawamura's earlier book, 'but it has been substantially revised, incorporating the new results of my continuous investigations on Bhatti's verses' (preface, p. viii).

The core of this monograph is devoted to fifteen verses in the eighth sarga of the Bhattikavya (8.70-84), in which are used forms illustrating the classifications of karakas into the six major categories provided in Panini's Astadhyayi (1.4.23-55), a section of verses which Mallinatha introduces saying atha karakadhikara. The verses cited from the Bhattikavya are here accompanied by careful English translations with annotations, which include interpretations that Jayamangala and Mallinatha give. In addition, Dr. Kawamura cites and translates the pertinent Paninian sutras along with the examples with which the Kasikavrtti illustrates their import; again, annotations accompany the translations and include discussions not only from the commentaries of Jinendrabuddhi, Maitreyaraksita and Haradatta but also from the Mahabhasya and its commentators.

In an introduction preceding this central part of his work, Dr. Kawamura takes up the purpose and structure of the Bhattikavya as well as Bhatti's way of illustrating Paninian rules. In addition, he compares briefly the Bhattikavya and Ravanarjuniya, and considers poetic devices in grammatical sections of the former as well as relations among Bhatti, Katyayana, and Patanjali. The detailed discussions, accompanied by charts, of how Bhatti organized his work are, I think, particularly valuable. Finally, in two appendixes, Dr. Kawamura takes up related questions concerning poetic composition and Vedic usage. In the first appendix, he goes into Bhamaha's statement in the Kavyalankara (6.27cd: chandovad iti cotsargan nacapi cchandasam vadet) that a poet should not use any form that is strictly Vedic on the basis of the principal that non-Vedic usage may be like Vedic usage. In connection with this, Dr. Kawamura appropriately takes up two principles that Patanjali adduces in the course of some arguments: (a) sutras behave in the manner that Vedic does (chandovat sutrani bhavanti), (b) poets do as does the Veda (chandovat kavayah kurvanti). The second appendix deals with a related issue: Saranadeva's repeatedly maintaining, in his Durghatavrtti, that at times Vedic forms also are used in the non-Vedic language (chandasa api kvacid bhasayam prayujyante).

In all these discussions, Dr. Kawamura demonstrates not only great accuracy and command of the pertinent literature but also considerable originality and insight.

It is clear that Dr. Kawamura has produced a well composed and well argued monograph dealing with important topics in the history of vyakarana and associated areas of study. I welcome this work heartily and look forward to the scholarship we may expect from this talented young scholar.

Preface

THE Bhattikavya ('Bhatti's Poetic Work'), also known as the Ravanavadha ('The Slaying of Ravana'), is a poem of the type called kavya-sustra, which is intended to illustrate sastric matters in the form of a poetic creation. It is also of the type called mahakavya 'great poem'.

The Bhattikavya, narrating the story of Rama on the basis of the great epic Ramayana, is meant mainly for illustrating Panini's grammatical rules, thereby serving as a textbook to teach correct Sanskrit usage. This work became so popular that it was transmitted to Southeast Asia. It is well known that the Ramayana Kakawin (ca. 10th-11th c. CE), the first Javanese literary text, is based on the Bhattikavya and not the Ramayana itself.

Recently, I published a book-a revised version of my doctoral dissertation submitted to Hiroshima University in 2013-titled The Decryption of the Bhattikdvya: Sanskrit Court Poetry and Paninian Grammar (in Japanese) as an outcome of years of study on this brilliant work. The aim of this book was to carry out an accurate, careful, analysis of the grammatical sections of the work from the point of view of both Sanskrit grammar and poetics.

Now, it is a genuine pleasure to publish the present book as further outcome of intensive research on one certain section of the Bhattikavya, As its title indicates, this book is intended as an exciting venture into a set of Bhatti's verses illustrating one of the most important groups of rules in Paninian grammar, the karaka rules. The book at hand is partly based on my previous monograph mentioned above, but it has been substantially revised, incorporating the new results of my continuous investigations on Bhatti's verses.

It has been almost twelve years since I ambitiously plunged into the area of Sanskrit studies. It is now my pleasant obligation to convey my sincerest thanks to those with whom leading the way, I have been able to come this far.

I owe more than can be put into words to Professor Hideyo Ogawa, from whom I have learned Classical Sanskrit. It is also he who has introduced me to the beautiful world of Panini. The lessons given by him on various kinds of Sanskrit texts have laid the basis for my scholarly life.

Next, my profound gratitude goes to Professor Yoshichika Honda, who has initiated me into the Indian aesthetic tradition. Under the guidance of him, I read several poetic compositions together with traditional commentaries on them. This experience made it possible for me to go into the study of the Bhattikavya.

I would like to record my heartfelt gratitude to Professor Yuko Yokochi, Professor Somadeva Vasudeva, and Professor Diwakar Nat Acharya for their stimulating suggestions and criticisms on many things I have written. Their sharp eye and keen intelligence have always inspired and served me.

Dr. Werner Franz Knobl is the one who has drawn me into the deep and mystical world, the world of Veda. It was as if landing on another planet. His wonderful erudition and passionate love for Sanskrit struck me. I wish to extend my hearty thanks to him, from whom I have learned Vedic Sanskrit and who stood ready to help me at all times.

In this vein, I should like to express acknowledgement also to Professor Masato Fujii, Professor Eijiro Doyama, and Dr. Adam Alvah Catt, with whose help I could read some Vedic texts such as the Rgveda and Brahmanas. Their lectures have given me flesh insights into the Sanskrit language.

I have benefited much from profitable discussions with Professor Yuko Yokochi, Dr. Andrey Klebanov, Dr. Kiyokazu Okita, and Mr. Kenji Takahashi on several points concerning Bhatti's illustrations of the karaka rules. They were generous enough with their time to read the karaka section of the Bhattikavya with me in the reading session held in Kyoto.

I am indebted to Dr. Lidia Szczepanik-Wojtczak for having taken upon herself the task of sending me an academic book on the Bhattikavya which was unavailable in Japan.

Professor George Cardona did me the ultimate favor of reading through the draft carefully and making a great number of invaluable comments. I am inexpressibly grateful to him for his kind help. Of course, any remaining faults are mine alone.

Finally, my deepest thanks are due to my parents and grandparents for encouraging me all the time, and also to my wife Mai, who has brought boundless joy into my life. This book would not have seen the light of day without their backing and never-failing sympathies.

Contents

Foreword by GEORGE CARDONAiii
Preface vii
Introduction 1
The Aim of the Present Book 1
Framing2
Approaching the Bhattikavya 4
An Outline 4
Structure6
A Textbook on Grammar 8
The Keynote of the Bhattikavya 10
The Way of Illustrating Rules and Teaching Correct Usage11
The Bhattikavya and the Ravanarjuniya22
Poetic Devices in the Grammatical Sections 27
Bhatti, Katyayana, and Patanjali 38
lllustrations of the kiiraka Rules 53
Six karakas 53
Criteria53
BhK 8.70-84 and A 1.4.24-554
BhK 8.70-72 ~ A 1.4.24-3155
BhK 8.73-74 ~ A 1.4.32-35 67
BhK 8.75 ~ A 1.4.36-35 75
BhK 8.76 ~ A 1.4.38-39 79
BhK 8.77 ~ A 1.4.40-41 83
BhK 8.78 ~ A 1.4.42-44 90
BhK 8.79-80 ~ A 1.4.45-48 94
BhK 8.81 ~ A 1.4.49-50 99
BhK 8.82-83 ~ A 1.4.51-52 103
BhK 8.84 ~ A 1.4.53-55 109
Appendix 1 113
Appendix 2 123
Abbreviations and references 141
Index 175
Corrections 185

Sample Pages







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