In this book a deep analysis has been made on the
different aspects of Krsna, the saviour and the liberator.
Justification was made with special reference to
Harivamsa. that he was gradually deified. He was
deified in his life-time. The Mahabharata has also
described the causes of his deification. By applying the
Eastern and Western canons of criticism, this work has
tried to show how the tribal hero was assimilated into
the Hindu culture and came to occupy a pre-eminent
position in the Hindu pantheon.
Dr. Shantilata Tripathy was born
in Tigiria village of Cuttack district in
Odisha, did her post graduate
strudies in Sanskrit and Ph.D. at Utkal
University and taught in different
colleges in the state. She worked as
the principal of Satya Sai Women's
Collge, Bhubaneswar. She was
awarded with Meritorirous Medal
instituted in memory of "ANN CHARLOTI ESCHMANN"
for her reseach works leading to Ph.D. degree. More than
twenty articles written by her were published in
important journals in Odia, Sanskrit and English. She
had special interest in analysing mythological concepts
She passed away in February, 2017 at the age of 76.
In Indian history, religion and literature, Krsna is
one of the most interesting and important characters.
Scholars both in the East and the West have written
volumes on Krsna. There is no limit to the number of
papers written on the subject. As a matter of fact in com-
parison with any other subject of Hindu religion the
important and interesting figure of Krsna has attracted
the attention of the Indologists throughout the world.
To a Hindu, Krsna is a reality and He is consid-
ered as the saviour in distress and last resort of all. Even
today most of the Hindu families worship Krsna as their
Supreme Lord and accept the scriptures like the
Mahabharata. the Harivamsa and the Puranas as holy
and sacred as they depict the glories of Krsna, The
Hindu is never concerned with the historicity of Krsna.
He never raises any doubt or tries to investigate the
problem. Rather he takes it sinful to search for evidences
on him. It was only during the last century that the
western scholars raised doubt regarding the historicity
of Krsna. Numerous articles and papers were written
on this subject and in course of time it became a prob-
lem for Indolgists.
Eminent Western scholars like Wilson', Weber",
Barth", Grierson", Garbe", Hopkins', Jacobi", Kennedy",
Keith", Macnicol", Eliot", Barnett", Ruben", Conda"
and Eastern scolars like KG. Bhandarkar", V.S.
Sukthankar", S. Radhakrishnan", H.C. Raychaudhuri",
AD. Pusalkar", S.N. Tadpatrikar", Bhagavan Das, B.B.
Majumdar-", Bankimchandra Chatterjee" along with
other scholars have discussed and analysed the Krsna
problem from various aspects.
Scholars like Hopkins describe Krsna as a tribal
god". There are other scholars like Keith and Gonda
who are of opinion that Krsna represents the spirit of
reviving vegetation". Grierson and Barth have traced
the Solar origin of Krsna.
In the latter half of the 19th century and the 1st decade of this century some Western scholars pointed out
similarity between the cult of Krsna and Christianity.
They had the opinion that some aspects of the legend
of Krsna were borrowed from Christianity". But since
long such attempts to prove the child Krsna as the counterpart of Christ and to show the indebtedness of
Vaisnavism to Christianity have been given up.
At the first stage it was RG. Bhandarkar who dealt
with the problem of Krsna. He was of opinion that the
cowherd Krsna is different from the Vrsni prince
Vasudeva". E.W. Hopkins who devoted his whole life
to the study of the Epics distinguishes the three Krsnas
by reference to the chronology of the texts in which they
appear. Winternitz holds that "It is far more likely that
there are two or several traditional Krsna who were
merged into one deity at a later time. It is possible that
Krsna was the founder of the Bhagavata religion, and
ultimately made into an incarnation. It is possible that
Krisna does not figure at all in the original Epic, and
was introduced later perhaps to justify the actions of
the Pandavas'?', But the Indian view is reflected in the
Mbh and Hv. which is analysed by S. Radhakrishnan.
He is of opinion that the character of Krsna as we get in
the Epics and the Puranas is the fusion of three different entities: Krsna the teacher of the Bhagavadgita,
Visni the ancient Lord of the Sun and Narayana an
ancient God of the cosmic character and goal of the gods
Scholars find differences between the Vedic Krsna,
the Epic Krsna and the Puranic Krsna. Their identity
receives no support from the Puranic tradition. The
Krisna of the E.g Veda" who is a seer of Vedic hymns or
connected with Angiras is not mentioned in the Puranas.
Moreover the non-Aryan Chief Krisna referred to in E.g
Veda" who is an Asura according to Sayana is not identical with the Epical and Puralnic Krisna. Even the
Krisna Devakiputra of the Chandogya Upanisad and the
Krisna of the Mahabharata are not identical. Some scholars believed that the Krsna of the Mahabharata, the
Krisna of the Bhagavadgtta and the Krsna of the Puranas
are three different persons. The Mbh. contains no reference to the childhood of Krisna; and the Puranas like
Brahma, ViSDU, Brahmavaivarta and Bhagavata do not
refer to the connection of Krsna with the Pandavas. Further it is argued that Krisna who often advocated tricky
ways in the Mbh. war cannot be identical with Krsna
the propounder of the Bhagavadgita which is an
epitome of the essential religious text of Hinduism. It is
definite that the lustful immoral Krisna of Gokula is not
the same Krisna who is the friend of the Pandavas.
**Book's Contents and Sample Pages**
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