The Nyayaratnadipavali of Anandanubhava is an Advaita classic written in a terse style using the syllogistic propositions in analysing the view-points of the rival schools of philosophy and establishing the Advaita principles. The present volume contains the English translation of the first chapter of the Nyayaratnadipavali, which is accompanied by annotations based on the Vedantaviveka, an elaborate and lucid commentary written on it by the illustrious Anandajnana (Anandagiri). Some of the important philosophical issues that have been discussed in the first chapter of the Nyayaratnadipavali are as follows: The validity of Vedic testimony, the non-human origin of the Vedas, the eternity of the varnas, the intrinsic nature of the validity of the Vedas, the criticism of the Mimamsa view- that the purport of the scriptural enunciations is action and that the scriptures do not expound anything that is not dwell upon an existent entity potency as a separate category, the deliberation on the scriptural statement 'neha nanasti kincana', the identical nature of Existence, Consciousness and Biliss, Bliss as the nature of Brahman, the positive nature of Bliss, self-luminosity of the soul, the nature of naya, Brahman in association with maya as the material and efficient cause of the creation, the impartite (akhanda) nature of the meaning of the identity propositions (the mahavakyas), etc. The i,portance of the present work is evident from the fact that none other than Citsukhacarya followed its style and method of presentation of philosophical issues, albeit with more precision and lucidity, and quoted and criticised its views on the intrinsic of validity, the import of verbal cognition, , etc. Their exposition is mainly based on the syllogistic propositions and fallacies of reason.
Kanshi Ram taught Sanskrit at Hans Raj College, University of Delhi for 36 years and retired as Associate Professor in 2007. Besides contributing several research papers on different aspects of Indian Philosophy, he has published the following works: Integral Non-dualism: A Critical Exposition of Vijnanabhiksu's System of Philosophy (MLBD, 1995), Unadisutras in the Sanskrit Grammatical Tradition (Shivalik Prakashan, 2001), the annotated Hindi translation of Tarkasangraha with the Tarkasangrahadipika of Annambhatta (MLBD, 2007) and a detailed three-volume commentary in English on the Laghusiddhantakaumudi of Varadaraja (MLBD, 2010-12). The Indian Council of Philosophical Research recommended his name to translate the Nyayaratnadipavali of Anandanubhava. He started working on the present project "An annotated translation of Nyayaratnadipavali of Anandanubhava" in 2009 and finally submitted the manuscript to the Indian Council of Philosophical Research in December, 2013.
The present volume Nyayaratnadipavali of Anandanubhava with a translation and annotation by Professor Kanshi Ram is the product of the translation project launched by Indian Council of Philosophical Research (ICPR), New Delhi. The Nyayaratnadipavali is an authoritative text that has inspired several post-Sankara Advaitins who have contributed to the debate on the Advaita tradition with its roots in the Upanisads and its continuity through the writings of Gaudapada and Sankara.
On the evidence of Style and diction, it is clear that Anandanubhava knew his Navyanyaya, through the works of Gangesa Upadhyaya. Anandanubhava formulated the logical framework of Advaita, and added to it his very insightful sastric analysis. His writings influenced great scholars Citsukha, the authors of Tattvapradipika and Vimuktatman, the author of Istasiddhi.
Professor Kanshi Ram's excellent modern translation of Anandanubhava makes available to the contemporary reader both in the east and the west an important works on Advaita, and is likely to prove to be a valuable contribution to I thank Professor Kanshi Ram for his painstaking and laudatory effort.
The Nyayaratnadrpavali, authored by Anandanubhava, is a significant work on the Advaita Philosophy written in a sastric style. It was critically edited by V. Jagadisvara Sastrigal and Kalyanasundara Sastrigal for the Government Oriental Manuscripts Library Series No. 166, Madras. It was published in 1961 along with the comprehensive and perspicuous gloss entitled 'Vedantaviveka' by Anandajnana (Anandagiri). As is clear from the colophon of this work, Anandanubhava was apupil of Narayanajyotis. His date appears to depend on the date of Vimuktatman on whom Anandanubhava commented, and Citsukhacarya who quoted and criticised Anandanubhava
in his well-known work CitsukhI. He is said to have written the Padarthatattvanimaya and the Istasiddhivivarana. The former seeks to refute the categories of-the Vaisesika system of philosophy. It was commented upon by the illustrious Ananadagiri. The latter work is a gloss on the Istasiddhi by Vimuktatman who is believed to have flourished between the last quarter of the tenth and the first quarter of the eleventh century. These chronological limits regarding Virnuktatman are based on the fact that he has quoted from the Naiskarmyasiddhi of Suresvaracarya.' The date of Citsukhacarya is
believed to be about 1220 A.D.2 Moreover, in the Nyayaratnadipavali there are references to Kumarila Bhatta, Prabhakara, Visvarupa, Mandana, Vacaspati, Sucaritamisra, Anandabodha, Udayana, etc. Anandabodha who wrote the Nyayamakaranda was a well-known exponent of the philosophy of Advaita. He is believed to have flourished in 1200 A.D.3 From what has been said in the foregoing, it is clear that Anandanubhava could not be earlier than Vimuktatman and later than the well-known Advaita Philosopher Citsukhacarya, that is, his period can reasonably be placed between 1000 A.D. and 1220 A.D.
The Nyayaratnadtpavali consists of four chapters. The scheme adopted in this work does not differ much from that which is followed in the Brahmasl1tras. It has been established in the first chapter that Brahman is both the efficient and the material cause of the universe. Besides, the philosophical issues of significance have also been discussed in the first chapter, for example, the validity of Vedic testimony, the non-human origin of the Vedas, the eternity of varnas, the intrinsic and extrinsic nature of validity, intrinsic nature of the validity of Vedic testimony, the criticism of the Mimamsa view' that the purport of the scriptural enunciations is action and that the scriptures do not expound anything that is not connected with action, to wit, they do not dwell upon an existent entity, potency
as a separate category, the deliberation on the scriptural statement 'neha nanasti kincana', the identical nature of Existence, Consciousness and Bliss, Bliss as the nature of soul, positive
nature of Bliss, self-luminosity of the soul, the nature of maya, Brahman in association with maya as the material and efficient cause of the creation, the impartite (akhanda) nature of the meaning of the identity propositions (the mahavakyas), etc. The second chapter discusses elaborately the theories of errors, which. is very essential to comprehend the indeterminability (mithyatva) of the phenomena. The positive nature of ajnana is also established in this chapter. In the third chapter, it is established that the immediate knowledge (aparoksajnana) can also arise from the verbal testimony. In this chapter the theory of the combination of knowledge and action (jnanakarmasamuccaya) as a means to Liberation has 'also been thoroughly discussed and refuted. A very significant philosophical issue, that is, the locus of avidya has also been discussed in this chapter. The fourth chapter discusses the nature of release and liberation during living state.
The importance of the present work is evident from the fact that none other than Citsukhacarya followed its style and method of presentation of philosophical issues, albeit with
more precision and lucidity, and quoted and criticised its views on the intrinsic nature of validity, the import of Vedic injunctions, the process of verbal cognition, etc. The significance of the Nyayaratnadtpavali becomes all the more clear from the fact the illustrious Anandajfiana (Anandagiri) wrote an elaborate and lucid commentary entitled Vedantaviveka on it. The work is difficult as it is written in a terse, sastric and logical style. The analysis of philosophical problems is done with the help of syllogistic propositions. Their treatment and the discussion based on the fallacies of reason render the work rather abstruse.
The present volume contains the annotated translation of the first chapter of the Nyayaratnadtpavali in which several important philosophical issues have been discussed as given above. Since the nature of the work is terse and also teems with logical niceties, the annotations based on the commentary of Anandajfiana- have helped in bringing out the import of the
philosophical issues more lucidly.
Although the Madras Government publication is critically edited, it contains many errors. It is the typographical and punctuational errors that sometimes make the comprehension of the text rather difficult. At some places in the text, even the topical headings are not consonant with the text so demarcated. The demarcation itself is defective at several places. I have tried my level best to give the correct text in the Devanagart and also punctuation marks wherever they help in making
the sense of the text easy of comprehension. On page 115 of NRD, I have emended the demarcated text. The topical heading 'Prabhakarasankasamadhanam' should have included the text beginning with 'na' occurring in the first line on page 115 of NRD, and not 'na' in the fourth line as is given in the present edition.
I have given the text in Devanagan along with its topical headings as I have found them in the Madras Government publication except some headings given in the Topical Contents'. The obvious errors have been corrected. This renders the text somewhat easy to understand.
The Sanskrit text is followed by the translation in English which is further followed by annotations based on the Vedanta- viveka by Anandajnana. I have tried to explain the syllogistic propositions with the help of illustrations from the basic Nyaya texts, such as Tarkasangraha, Nyayasiddhantamuktavalr, etc. so that the fallacies may be understood easily. This facilitates in appreciating the Advaita position vis-a-vis the Buddhist, Nyaya, Mtmarnsa, etc.
It is a relatively free translation so that it may enable the reader to understand what Anandanubhava has got to say on the philosophical issues he has taken up for deliberation. For the same reason, I did make the proposal to the ICPR to include the annotations based on the Vedantaviveka, the elaborate commentary on the present work written by Anandagiri so that the issues discussed in the tat may be rendered easy of comprehension.
I place this work before the learned readers. I hope that I would be benefited from the feedback both in respect of errors and conceptual inadequacy or ambiguity as these shortcomings might remain in such a work even though it has been carefully gone through and proof-read by me and Dr. Ratish Chandra Jha, I will definitely emend the present work in the light of the suggestions received whenever I am called upon to do so.
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