Science and Technology in India Through the Ages

Science and Technology in India Through the Ages

Item Code: NAB788
Author: Shri B.K. SrivathsaShri M.A.Narasimhan
Publisher: Academy of Sanskrit Research, Melkote
Edition: 2003
ISBN: 9788185929699
Pages: 310 (Illustrated in B/W & Color)
Cover: Hardcover
Other Details: 11.5 inch X 9.0 inch
Weight 1.36 kg
From the Directors Desk

Ancient Sanskrit texts are a repository for scientific wisdom contained as a capsule. The fragrance of this wisdom needs to be spread far and wide including every household in our sacred land of India. The "Cutting Edge Technologies" being presented in the forthcoming Science Congress , sharpened by the steely wisdom of our ancient seers should sprinkle intellectual thoughts making India a leader in "Science and Technology" in the foreseeable future . India should take leadership in the global movement of peace, moving with nature and environment, spearheading the scientific spirit of inquisitiveness in achieving the objectives of human upliftment for the benefit and welfare of the entire universe.

The Academy of Sanskrit Research with its vision of "Bridging the gap between the Past and the future through the present" has been making efforts to reach out to the public this valuable information for their benefits through several platforms of scientific research. The present venture, the book on "Science and technology in India through the ages” is one such humble effort.

The Academy of Sanskrit Research, Melkote based on successful handling of the project on "Cosmology" for ISRO, was asked to take up the challenging task of bringing out a book which can throw some light on Science and Technology in India through the ages. The academy accepted the challenge in spite of heavy odds like short time frame. The task of convincing the modern scientists and present generation about the wisdom contained in the ancient texts is really a daunting one.

But the academy, in its own humble and systematic way set forth to unearth the secrets of wisdom through ancient texts and view the modern scientific developments in the light of the above. Strange as it may seem, the results of many scientific researches are stunningly taking us back to the stark reality of the eternal truth of ancient wisdom.

The spread of “Ayurveda” and the spurt in the global demand of herbal medicine in the last decade is one such area where the healing effects of local herbs in several places around globe is being appreciated.

The Academy humbly dedicates this book to the great Sage “Maharsi Bharadvaja” who has contributed a lot of the development of Science and Technology in the world.

The Academy submits this book to the public for their kind review and unbiased analysis. The Academy requests knowledge seekers to send their valuable views to the Director and Chief Editor.

With best wishes

About the Book

This book "Science and Technology in India through the Ages" is a book written in a simple yet easy to understand style. The book traces the developments in different fields of science from ancient times to modern times. It analyses the requirements of modern times and how the same could be benefitted by capsules of ancient wisdom.

Unique, because the book attempts to unlock the mysteries of the past, compares the ancient visions and results of modern research based experiments and place the facts before the public in an unbiased way for their critical study and judicial implementation in life.

Covering a wide range of chapters from Agriculture to Ayurveda to Architecture: the book has 5 sections and 22 chapters. Chapters are grouped into Sections and is subdivided for clarity. Suitable illustrations make the study interesting. The book is thought simulating and follows a subtle pattern.

Efforts are made to give all documents on ancient wisdom with proper references to the stanza, the book, the author etc. This brings in certain discipline and ease in identifying the ancient books.

There are sections on
Physical Sciences covering Physics, Energy, Cosmology, Astronomy, Mathematics, Chemistry.
Earth Sciences featuring.

l. Seismology, how Varahamihira’s predictions are as close to recent studies in Seismological Zones in India.
2. On Gemmology, how gems can be identified.
3. On Geology.

Biological Sciences covering

l. Agriculture - highlighting the steps India need to take for withstanding the onslaughts of WTO trade barriers based on ancient agricultural practices.
2. On water management, highlighting the water supply and watershed programmes in remote corners of India.
3. Environment.
4. Ayurveda, Anatomy, Surgery, Vrksayurveda.

Industry & Technology covering Metallurgy, Aeronautics, Industry & Trade and Architecture.
General Section: This section covers achievements of masters in twentieth century and references.

We have used the relevant internet information and also information from similar books for the benefit of the public. We are grateful for the same.

This is a book to the read, enjoyed, digested, reviewed again and again, implemented judiciously in life. The editors will be extremely satisfied, if even a small piece of the wisdom highlighted in the book turns out to be of value addition in the life of respectable readers.


The Path Finders 1-12
i. Bharadvaja 1
ii. Patanjali 3
iii. Kanada 4
iv. Susruta 5
v. Caraka 7
vi. Aryabhata 8
vii. Varahamihira 9
viii. Brahmagupta 10
ix. Nagarjua 11
x. Bhaskara 12
Section I – Physical Sciences
Physics 13-18
i. Introduction 13
ii. The five kinds of motion 14
iii. Elasticity 14
iv. Gravity 15
v. The three layers of the Earth 15
vi. Measurements of Weights 16
vii. Linear Measurement 17
viii. Units of Time 17
ix. The units of Temperature 18
x. Light18
Energy 19-22
i. Introduction 19
ii. Types of Energy 19
iii. Sources of Energy 20
iv Electrical Energy 20
v. Chariot run by Electricity 20
vi. Thermal energy 21
Cosmology 23-27
i. Perspectives 23
ii. Nasadiyasukta 24
iii. Speed of light 25
iv Amusbodhini 26
v. Interferences 26
Mathematics 29-38
i. Algebra 29
ii. Geometry 29
iii. The concept of zero 30
iv Use of mathematics in Harappan Civilization 30
v. Vedic period 31
vi. To find six R sines 3
vii Infinitesimal calculus 35
viii. Paramesvara’s formula for circum radius of cyclic quadrilateral 35
ix. The Madhava – gergory series for Tan x 35
x. Indian form for third order Tyler series approximation of the sine. 36
Chemistry 39-54
i. Introduction 39
ii. Rasasala 40
iii. Equipments 40
iv. Technical Terms 41
v. Samskara’s of Parada 41
vi Musa 44
vii. Kosthi Yantras 45
viii. Puta 45
ix. Vargas or Groups 45
x. Upa-rasas 50
Section II: Earth Sciences
Geology 55-62
i. Introduction 55
ii. Reference to Ancient Texts 55
iii. Cycles of Geologic Activity 58
iv. Fields of Geological Study 59
Seismological zones of Varahamihira 63-66
Environment 67-76
i. Introduction 67
ii. The Origin of Atmosphere 68
iii. Weather 68
iv. Apascakra-Hydrological Cycle 68
v. Ganga Nadi 69
vi. Vidyut-Electrical Charge 69
vii. Indra70
viii. Agni 70
ix. Surya 71
x. Prthivi 72
xi. Apah 72
xii. Dhara 74
xiii. Paksaja Clouds 74
xiv. Pollution 75
xv. The range of Dhara Precipitation75
Gemmology 77-89
i. Introduction 77
ii. The gems 77
iii. History 77
iv. Jewellery 77
v. Gems cuts 78
vi. Diamond cutting 79
vii. References in ancient Texts 80
viii. Location 80
ix. Manikya (Ruby) 80
x. Mauktika (pearl) 81
xi. Pravala (Coral) 82
xii. Marakata (Emerald) 83
xiii. Pusparaga (Topaz) 83
xiv. Vijra (Diamond) 84
xv. Nilamani (Sapphire) 85
xvi. Gomeda (Agate) 86
xvii. Vaidurya (Cat’s eye) 86
xviii. Suryakanta (Sun Stone) 87
xix. Candrakanta (Moonstone) 87
xix. Rajavarta (Lapis lazuli) 88
xx. Sphatikamani (Rock crystal) 88
Section III: Biological Sciences
Agriculture 91-106
i. Introduction91
ii. Ancient Indian Agriculture 91
iii. Good Seed 95
iv. Technique of Agriculture 95
v. Organisation of Agriculture 96
vi. Agricultural Taxes 96
vii. Animal Husbandry 96
viii. Rain fall 97
ix. Irrigation 98
x. Manure 98
xi. Sequence of rotation of cropping 99
xii. Treatments of Seeds 100
xiii. Ancient Agricultural Tools 100
xiv. Agricultural Accessories 101
xv. Developments in the field of Agriculture in India over the years 101
xvi Conceptual changes in Agriculture from Vedic Times to Modern Ages 103
xvii Scientific Agriculture 104
xviii. Areas needing attention for future growth105
Water management 107-120
i. Introduction 107
ii. Sources of Water 107
iii. References in the vedas 107
iv. History 108
v. Water in life 108
vi. Natural water cycle 108
vii. Composition109
viii. Water purification 110
ix.Removal of Salt from sea water 110
x. Rain fall 110
xi. Forecast of rain fall 111
xii. Water management 111
xiii. Rain water harvesting 112
xiv. Water recycling 113
xv. Artificial rain113
xvi. Water drowsing 117
xvii. Meteorological predictions through the aphorisms in Krsi Parasara 118
xviii. Cloud 119
Forestry 121-125
i. Types of forests 121
ii. Classification of Flora 122
iii. The Vedic grasses 123
iv. Genetic Engineering 125
Vrksayurveda 127-134
i. Introduction 127
ii. The five varieties 127
iii. Vegetables 128
iv. Nightshades 129
v. Antidiabetic - Tulasi 129
vi. The Treatment of trees 130
vii. Nourishing Solution 133
Pausu Laksana 135-143
i. History 135
ii. Animal Husbandry 135
iii. General characteristics of all types of creatures 142
iv. Classification of Cattle 142
v. Measurement of different body parts of Horses 143
Ayurveda 145-175
i. Introduction 145
ii. The eight branches 145
iii. The Philosophy of the Ayurveda 148
iv The Secrets of Longevity 149
v. Vedic Ayurveda 151
vi. Anatomy 154
a. Cardiovascular system – Heart & Blood Vessels 154
b. Hyper Tension 161
c. Nature of Mind and Consciousness 163
d. Brain and the body165
vii. Surgery 166
a. Systematic Summation 166
b. Treatment of wound 173
c. Surgery of eyes 175
Section IV: Industry & Technology
i. Introduction 177
ii. References in ancient Indian texts – Iron & Steel 178
iii. Pure Metals 180
iv. Soft Metals/Sub-Metals 180
v. Alloys 180
Aeronautics 191-193
i. Man-Machine-Integration 191
ii. Different parts of an Aeroplane 192
Trade & Commerce 195-209
i. Introduction 195
ii. Economic ideas in ancient India 195
iii. Weights and Measures 196
iv. Trade Routes and Transport 196
v. Water Routes 197
vi. Markets 197
vii. Maccha Yantra 198
viii. The making of dyes and pigments 199
ix. The smelting of metals 199
x. Iron 199
xi. The processing Agro-based Products 199
xii. The manufacture of Textiles 201
xiii. Making of drugs and herbal compounds 203
xiv. The cultivation and process of spices 204
xv. The processing of timber 206
xvi. The manufacture of miscellaneous items 206
xvii. Mercantile terminology 208
xviii. Conclusion 209
Architecture 211-230
i. Introduction 211
ii. References in ancient texts 211
iii. History of architecture in India 211
iv. Developments of Architecture in India over the years 215
v. Buddhist architecture 215
vi. Construction materials 216
vii. Town planning 217
viii. Vidhana Soudha 218
ix. Architecture in temple construction 218
x. Developments in architecture in modern times 218
xi. Indian Architectural tradition overseas 219
xii. Town planning in Mohen—jo- daro 220
xiii. Rock cut architecture 221
xiv. Temple architecture 222
xv. Military residential architecture 223
xvi. The great public bath at Mohen-jo-daro 223
xvii The dock at Lothal 223
xviii. Vastu Vidya 225