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Books > Buddhist > Buddha > Social Inclusion Atlas of Nepal (Set of 4 Volumes)
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Social Inclusion Atlas of Nepal (Set of 4 Volumes)
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Description
Foreword

The Social Inclusion Research Fund (SIRF was started in 2005 on the initiative of civil society of Nepal and the Royal Norwegian Embassy in Kathmandu: Government of Nepal welcomed this initiative as highly relevant and endorsed the formation of SIRF Screening Committee represented by civil society, international scholars and government agencies. SNV Nepal was entrusted with the task of managing the fund, which has now a track record of having funded 303 individual researches and two major institutional research collaborations. The Social Inclusion Atlas Ethnographic Profile (SIA EP is a truly joint collaboration involving all key stakeholders. SIRF Secretariat and SIA EP management team have worked closely with staff in SNV, the Nor-wegian Embassy, Norad Oslo and Tribhuvan University departments taking full advantage of the resources that each partner have been able to bring into the project. SIRF Secretariat facilitated processes of research design, making a public call for proposal, and an independent review and award of this research. SIRF Screening Committee provided guidance in defining the strategic focus and priorities of SIA EP research.

The SIA EP is a pioneer undertaking by the Central Department of Sociology Anthropology of Tribhuvan University, of institutional research involving a large team of multi-disciplinary team of academic researchers, policy makers, government agencies and civil society stake- holders. SIA EP management team earned this experience through hard work, determination and patience. The late arrival of Census data and the enormous pressure to complete the project in a given time-frame tested the crisis management capacity of the project. Prof Dr am Gurung managed the crisis efficiently and with team work, giving the team leaders full delegation to lead their respective teams. We are glad to have been collaborators in bringing forth the results of a very important undertaking. That the SIA EP has arrived at this stage of publication fills us with great happiness. We know that determination, positive outlook, team work and institutional collaboration in the face of challenges are a sure way to success.

The publication of Social Inclusion Atlas of Nepal Series is extremely important to Nepali people, state and society. While reading through each Volume of Atlas it gives immense sense of having derived huge variety of information about the people of Nepal and gives a sense of belonging to a very wealthy nation. This sense if instilled in our young generation of students and leaders, can take us far on the way to peace and prosperity. The Atlas Series will be immensely useful to policy makers, advocates, educationists, practitioners and students to conduct their own analysis and further research. We are confident that this Atlas Series publication will help to a better understanding and development of our society, culture, history, tradition, economy as well as specific conditions of social inclusion and exclusion. We hope that government and donors will continue to give importance to evidence based knowledge and fund such research in future.

 

Preface and acknowledgements

The Social Inclusion Atlas of Nepal series presents spatial information about Nepal's ethnic, caste, and language groups along with other relevant social and economic data. The primary purpose of the social inclusion atlas is to provide information about Nepal's social diversity and development status categorized by social group, and presented in the form of geographic maps so that it is easily accessible to decision-makers, planners, researchers, students and the general public.

This Atlas series is one of the four components of the larger research project: Social Inclusion Atlas and Ethnographic Profile (SIA-EP undertaken by the Central Department of Sociology/Anthropology at Tribhuvan University. The other three interrelated components include the Nepal Social Inclusion Survey (NSIS, further analysis of national level data including the 2011 Census and Ethnographic Profiles of the 42 highly excluded communities. This latter provides qualitative rather than quantitative information. The overall objectives of the SIAEP research were to promote a more informed understanding of Nepal's social diversity by producing research-based, up to date information on the country's cultural and linguistic diversity and the status of social development among different caste and ethnic groups. The quantitative and qualitative information produced through research, is expected to contribute to policy design and research; it can also be used for educational purposes.

The Social Inclusion Atlas of Nepal series has four volumes. This is the first of the series, and presents information on the population of ethnic and caste groups in Nepal distributed across different Village Development Committees (VDCs and municipalities. The second volume is an atlas of the languages spoken in the country. The final two volumes provide information about a range of social and economic indicators. The third volume covers indicators on demography, health and education, while the fourth volume focuses on economic activity, and household amenities, among other topics. Maps were produced using GIS technology and with the data from the 2011 Census made available by the Central Bureau of Statistics.

The successful completion of the SIA-EP research and the Social Inclusion Atlas of Nepal series was made possible with the generous support of a number of institutions, and with the effort of about 200 individuals. First and foremost, we would like to thank the National Planning Commission and the Central Bureau of Statistics for making available data on selected variables from the 2011 Census by VDC and by ethnic / caste group. We would also like to extend our sincere thanks to the Department of Surveys for providing a spatial digital database of Nepal, and to the Central Department of Geography at Tribhuvan University for providing GIS software.

We would like to express our gratitude to the Royal Norwegian Embassy (RNE in Nepal for providing the research funding through SIRF/SNV. We express our gratitude to Kristine H. Storholt and Lena Hasle from RNE for their valuable support and insightful feedback in accomplishing the task. We thank SIRF and SNV for managing the fund and Prof. Ganesh Man Gurung, Chair of the Screening Committee for supporting the research. Thanks also go to Prof. Shiva Kumar Rai, then member of the National Planning Commission, for chairing the Advisory Committee of SIA-EP Research. We would also like to thank Prof. Surya Lal Amatya, then Rector of Tribhuvan University, for giving permission to undertake the research project. Our heartfelt gratitude and special thanks go to Dr. Manju Thapa Tuladhar, Lead Advisor and Sita Rana Magar and team at SIRF Secretariat who provided invaluable support throughout the research work in many ways. We thank the team who worked tirelessly at Geographic Information System and Integrated Development Center (GISIDC to make this work possible.

 

Contents

 

Foreword iv
Preface and Acknowledgements v
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION  
Introduction 3
Ethnic and Caste Groups and their Population 6
Classification of Social Groups 11
Conclusion 13
CHAPTER 2: ADIVASI / JANAJATlS  
AdivasiIJ anaj atis 16
Hill Janajati 17
Aathpariya 18
Bahing 19
Bantaba 20
Bhote 21
Bote 22
Brahmu 23
Byasi 24
Chamling 25
Chepang Praja 2 6
Chhantyal Chhanted 27
Danuwar 28
Darai 29
Dolpo 30
Dura 31
Ghale 32
Gharti / Bhujel 33
Gurung 34
Hayu 35
Hyolmo 36
Jirel 37
Khaling 38
Kulung 39
Kumal 40
Kusunda 41
Lepcha 42
Lhomi 43
Lhopa 44
Limbu 45
Loharung 46
Magar 47
Majhi 48
Mewahang Bala 49
Nachhiring 50
Pahari 51
Rai 52
Raji 53
Raute 54
Samgpang 55
Sherpa 56
Sunuwar 57
Tamang 58
Thakali 59
Thami 60
Thulung 61
Topkegola 62
Walung 63
Yakkha 64
Yamphu 65
Newar 66
Tarai Janajati 67
Dhanuk 68
Dhimal 69
Gangai 70
JhangadlDhagar 71
Khawas 72
Kisan 73
Koche 74
Meche 75
Munda 76
PattharkattalKushwadiya 77
Rajbansi 78
Satar / Santhai 79
Tajpuriya 80
Tharu 81
CHAPTER 3: DALIT  
Dalit 84
Hill Dalit 85
Badi 86
Damai/Dholi 87
Gaine 88
Kami 89
Sarki 90
Madhesi Dalit 91
Bantar 92
Chamar 93
Chidimar 94
Dhobi 95
Dom 96
Dusadh/ P asawan / Pasi 97
Halkhor 98
Khatwe 99
Musahar 100
Tatma /Tatwa 101
CHAPTER 4: HILL BRAHMAN/CHHETREE  
Hill Brahman / Chhetree 104
Hill Brahman (Brahman 105
Hill Chhetree 106
Chhetree 107
Sanyasi/Dashnami 108
Thaku ri 109
CHAPTER 5: MADHESI CASTE  
Madhesi Caste 112
Madhesi Brahman 113
Brahman 114
Kayas tha 115
Nurang 116
Rajput 117
Madhesi Other Caste 118
Amat 119
Badhaee 120
Baraee 121
Bin 122
Dev 123
Dhandi 124
Dhankar 125
Dhunia 126
Gaderi/ Bhedhar 127
Hajam/Thakur 128
Haluwai 129
Kahar 130
Kalar 131
Kalwar 132
Kamar 133
Kanu 134
Kathbaniyan 135
Kewat 136
Koiri/ K ushwaha 137
Kori 138
Kumhar 139
Kurmi 140
Lodh 141
Lohar 142
Mali 143
Mallaha 144
Natuwa 145
Nuniya 146
Rajbhar 147
Rajdhob 148
Sarbaria 149
Sonar 150
Sudhi 151
Teli 152
Yadav 153
CHAPTER 6: MUSALMAN & OTHERS  
Musalman 156
Bangali 157
Marwadi 158
Punjabi/Sikh 159
CHAPTER 7: ETHNIC AND CAsTE POPULATION BY DISTRlCT 2011
Ethnic and Caste Population by District 162
Social Groups Population by District 180
TABLES  
Table 1: Population Distribution by Ethnic and Caste Groups, Census 2011 6
Table 2: Classification of 125 Social Groups in the 2011 Census 11
Table 3: Population distribution by Social Sub-Group 12
Table 4: Ethnic and Caste Groups witlt Population above 1% of the total 12
Table 5: Ethnic and Caste Groups with less than 2,000 population 13
FIGURES  
Figure 1: Administrative Division of Nepal 4
Figure 2: Population Size and Distribution 5
Figure 3: Ethnographic Map of Nepal 10

 

Vol-II

 

Introduction

In addition to the cultural, ethnic, and ecological diversity found in the country, the linguistic diversity in Nepal is immense. Despite its relatively small size, Nepal accommodates multiple lan~ages and dialects with more than 123 languages enumerated in the 2011 Census. Such linguistic diversity not only enables multiple expressions of culture and creativity, but also helps to preserve biodiversity (Maffi 2005. Understanding, preserving and managing such linguistic diversity is an important issue for Nepal during the current period of democratic transition.

Language is closely linked to issues of identity and human rights in Nepal. The language an individual speaks also has a major impact on his or her access to information and life opportunities. The Nepali language, which has been adopted as the official language of the country and promoted as such, is widely used. Despite the many justifications of the state's' one language' policy, it has had an adverse impact on linguistic diversity, with many of the country's minority languages suffering from truncated development or even the threat of extinction (Toba 1992. The loss of language has resulted in the erosion of a sense of cultural identity and self-esteem among many indigenous and minority language communities. Those who lack competence in Nepali and are unable to use their mother-tongue in the public arena face exclusion in a number of areas including access to education, information, economic opportunities, and social participation. Such a situation demands a language policy that views linguistic diversity as an asset rather than a threat to human wellbeing and that gives equal recognition and opportunity to all of the country's languages.

In order to facilitate the process of understanding and approaching diversity, the Social Inclusion Atlas series aims to provide spatial data about Nepal's ethnic, caste, and language groups, along with other relevant social and economic information. The primary purpose of the Social Inclusion Atlas series is to provide information about Nepal's social diversity and development status, categorized by social group, and presented in a series of geographic maps so that it is easily accessible to decision-makers, planners, researchers, students and the general public.

This volume presents the distribution of languages spoken in Nepal based on data from the 2011 Census. Languages reported as mother tongues are shown in map format by Village Development Committee (VDC and municipality. The detailed data for each VDC/municipality (together with a map is included in the attached DVD. Like other volumes in this series, linguistic mapping was carried out using VDC/ municipality level data generated by 2011 census. A summary of district level data can be found in the Annex to this printed volume.

THE LANGUAGES OF NEPAL The 2011 Census enumerated 30 new languages that did not appear in the 20m Census in which only 92 were reported (Gurung 2006. Nepal lacks comprehensive data on many of the languages spoken in the country; in addition there has not been a systematic study to explain the change in the number of languages reported in 2001 and 2011. The reported total seems to largely depend on the approach used to distinguishing languages from dialects. The Ethnologue catalogue of world languages lists 124 languages spoken in Nepal (Eppelle et al. 2012, similar to the number enumerated in the 2011 Census.

Contents

 

Foreword iv
Preface and Acknowledgements v
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION  
Introduction 3
The Languages of Nepal 3
Language Group and Speakers 5
Conclusion 7
CHAPTER 2: INDO ARYAN FAMILY  
Achhami 10
Angika 11
Avadhi 12
Baitadeli 13
Bajhangi 14
Bajjika 15
Bajureli 16
Bangla 17
Bhojpuri 18
Bote 19
Dadeldh uri 20
Dailekhi 21
Danuwar 22
Darai 23
Darchuleli 24
Dhuleli 25
Doteli 26
Ganagai 27
Hindi 28
Jumli 29
Khash 30
Kisan 31
Koche 32
Kumal 33
Magadi 34
Maithili 35
Majhi 36
Musalman 37
Rajbanshi 40
Rajsthani 41
Sanskrit 42
Sonaha 43
Tajpuri ya 44
Tharu 45
Urdu 46
CHAPTER 3: TIBETO BURMAN FAMILY  
Athpariya 48
Bahing 49
Bankariya 50
Banta wa 51
Baram 52
Belhare 53
Bhujel 54
Byansi 55
Chamling 56
Chepang 57
Chhantyal 58
Chhiling 59
Chhin tang 60
Dhimal 61
Dolpali 62
Dumi 63
Dungmali 64
Dura 65
Ghale 66
Gurung 67
Hayu / Vayu 68
Hyolmo / Yholmo 69
Jero / jerung 70
Jirel 71
Kagate 72
Kaike 73
Khaling 74
Kham 75
Khamchi (Raute 76
Koyee 77
Kulung 78
Lapcha 79
Lhomi 80
Lhopa 81
Limbu 82
Lingkhim 83
Lohorung 84
Magar 85
Manange 86
Meche 87
Mewahang 88
Nachhiring 89
Newar 90
Pahari 91
Phangduwali 92
Puma 93
Rai 94
Raji 95
Sam 96
Sampang 97
Sherpa 98
Sunuwar 99
Surel 100
Tamang 101
Thakali 102
Thami 103
Thulung 104
Tibetan 105
Tilung 106
Waling / Walung 107
Wambule 108
Yakkha 109
YamphuI / Yamphe 110
CHAPTER 4: AUSTRO ASIATIC FAMILY  
Khariya 112
Santhali 113
CHAPTER 5: DRAVIDIAN FAMILY  
Uranwl Urau 116
CHAPTER 6: LANGUAGE ISOLATE  
Kusunda 118
CHAPTER 7: FOREIGN/NOT CLASSIFIED  
Arabi 120
Assami 121
Chinese 122
Dzonkha 123
French 124
English 125
Gadhawali 126
Hariyanwi 127
Kuki 128
Kurmali 129
Malpande 130
Mizo 131
Nagamese 132
Oriya 133
Russian 134
Sadhani 135
Sindhi 136
Spanish 137
CHAPTER 8: OTHERS  
Sign Language 140
TABLES  
Table 1: Languages of Nepal 4
Table 2: Languages with more than 1 percent of Speakers 7
Table 3: Languages with Less than 500 Speakers 7
Table 4: Mother Tongue by District, 2011 142
FIGURES  
Figure 1: Linguistic Map of Nepal 6
References 7

 

Vol-III

 

Contents

 

Foreword iv
Preface and Acknotoledgements v
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION  
Introduction 3
Caste and Ethnic Groups of Nepal 3
Indicators of Inclusion 5
CHAPTER 2: FEMALE HEADED HOUSEHOLD  
Nepal 16
Adivasi /Janajatis 17
Hill Janajati 18
Newar 19
Tarai Janajati 20
Oalit 21
Hill Dalit 22
Madhesi Dalit 23
BrahmanlChhetree 24
Hill Brahman 25
Hill Chhetree 26
Madhesi Caste 27
Madhesi Brahman 28
Madhesi Other Caste 29
Musalman 30
CHAPTER 3: LITERACY RATE  
Nepal 32
Adivasi/ janajatis 33
Hill Janajati 34
Newar 35
Tarai Janajati 36
Dalit 37
Hill Dalit 38
Madhesi Dalit 39
BrahmanlChhetree 40
Hill Brahman 41
Hill Chhetree 42
Madhesi Caste 43
Madhesi Brahman 44
Madhesi Other Caste 45
CHAPTER 4: BASIC EDUCATION LEVEL  
Nepal 48
Adivasi / Janajatis 49
Hill Janajati 50
Newar 51
Tarai Janajati 52
Dalit 53
Hill Dalit 54
Madh esioalit 55
Brahmanl Chhetree 56
Hill Brahman 57
Hill Chhetree 58
Madhesi Caste 59
Madhesi Brahman 60
Madhesi Other Caste 61
Musalman 62
CHAPTERS: SECONDARY EDUCATION LEVEL  
Nepal 64
Adivasi / janajatis 65
Hill Janajati 66
Newar 67
Tarai Janajati 68
Oalit 69
Hill Dalit 70
Madhesi Dalit 71
BrahmanlChhetree 72
Hill Brahman 73
Hill Chhetree 74
Madhesi Caste 75
Madhesi Brahman 76
Madhesi Other Caste 77
M usalman 78
CHAPTER 6: HIGHER EDUCATION LEVEL  
Nepal 80
Adivasi / Janajatis 81
Hill Janajati 82
Newar 83
Tarai Janajati 84
Dalit 85
Hill Dalit 86
Madhesi Dalit 87
Brahmani Chhetree 88
Hill Brahman 89
Hill Chhetree 90
Madhesi Caste 91
Madhesi Brahman 92
Madhesi Other Caste 93
Musalman 94
CHAPTER 7: AGE AT 1ST MARRIAGE OF FEMALE BEWW 15 YEARS  
Nepal 96
Adivasi / Janajatis 97
Hill Janajati 98
Newar 99
Tarai Janajati 100
Oalit 101
Hill Dalit 102
Madhesi Dalit 103
BrahmaniChhetree 104
Hill Brahman 105
Hill Chhetree 106
Madhesi Caste 107
Madhesi Brahman 108
Madhesi Other Caste 109
Musalman 110
CHAPTERS: AGE AT 1ST MARRIAGE OF FEMALE BELOW 18 YEARS  
N epal 112
AdivasilJanajatis 113
Hill Janajati 114
N ewar 115
Tarai Janaj ati 116
oalit 117
Hill Dalit 118
Madhesi Oalit 119
BrahmaniChhetree 120
Hill Brahman 121
Hill Chhetree 122
Madhesi Caste 123
Madhesi Brahman 124
Madhesi Other Caste 125
Musalman 126
CHAPTER 9: SINGLE WOMEN POPULATION  
Nepal 128
Adivasi / Janajatis 129
Hill Janajati 130
Newar 131
Tarai Janajati 132
Oalit 133
Hill Dalit 134
Madhesi Dalit 135
BrahmaniChhetree 136
Hill Brahman 137
Hill Chhetree 138
Madhesi Caste 139
Madhesi Brahman 140
Madhesi Other Caste 141
Musalman 142
CHAPTER 10: DISABILITY RATE  
Nepal 144
Adivasi / Janajatis 145
Hill Janajati 146

 

Vol-IV

 

Preface and Acknowledgement v
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 3
Caste and Ethnic Groups of Nepal 3
Indicators of Inclusion 4
Absent Population 4
Household Facilities 4
Occupations 6
Communication 7
CHAPTER 2: OUT MIGRATI0N 9
ABSENT POPULATION 9
Nepal 10
Adivasi / Janajatis 11
Hill Janajati 12
Newar 13
Tarai Janajati 14
Hill Brahman 16
Hill Chhetree 17
Dalit 18
Hill Dalit 19
Madhesi Dalit 20
Madhesi Caste 21
Madhesi Brahman 22
Madhesi Other Caste 23
Musalman 24
CHAPTER 3: HOUSEHOLD FACILITIES 25
Nepal 26
Adivasil Janajatis 27
Hill Janajati 28
Newar 29
Tarai Janajati 30
Hill Brahman 32
Hill Chhetree 33
Dalit 34
Hill Dalit 35
Madhesi Dalit 36
Madhesi Caste 37
Madhesi Brahman 38
Madhesi Other Caste 39
Musalman 40
Nepal 41
Adivasil Janajatis 42
Hill Janajati 43
Newar 44
Tarai Janajati 45
Hill Brahman 47
Hill Chhetree 48
Dalit 49
Hill Dalit 50
Madhesi Dalit 51
Madhesi Caste 52
Madhesi Brahman 53
Madhesi Other Caste 54
Musalman 55
HOUSEHOLDS HAVING NONE OF THE HOUSEHOLD FACILITIES 56
Nepal 56
Adivasil Janajatis 57
Hill Janajati 58
Newar 59
Tarai Janajati 60
Hill Brahman 62
Hill Chhetree 63
Dalit 64
Hill dalit 65
Madhesi Caste 67
Madhesi Brahman 68
Madhesi Other Caste 69
Musalman 70
CHAPTER 4: OCCUPATION 71
Nepal 72
Adivasil Janajatis 73
Hill Janajati 74
Newar 75
Tarai Janajati 76
Hill Brahman 78
Hill Chhetree 79
dalit 80
Hill dalit 81
Madhesi dalit 82
Madhesi Caste 83
Madhesi Brahman 84
Madhesi Other Caste 85
Musalman 86
PROFESSIONAL WORKS 87
Nepal 87
Adivasil Janajatis 88
Hill Janajati 89
Newar 90
Tarai Janajati 91
Brahaman / Chhetree 92
Hill Brahman 93
Hill Chhetree 94
Dalit 95
Hill Dalit 96
Madhesi Dalit 97
Madhesi Caste 98
Madhesi Brahman 99
Madhesi Other Caste 100
Musalman 101
SERVICE AND TRADE WORKS 102
Nepal 102
Adivasi / Janajatis 103
Hill Janajati 104
Newar 105
Tarai Janajati 106
Brahaman / Chhetree 107
Hill Brahman 108
Hill Chhetree 109
DaIit 110
Hill Dalit 111
Madhesi Dalit 112
Madhesi Caste 113
Madhesi Brahman 114
Madhesi Other Caste 115
Musalman 116
CHAPTER 5: COMMUNICATION 117
HOUSEHOLD HAVING MOBILE PHONE 117
Nepal 118
Adivasi / Janajatis 119
Hill Janajati 120
Newar 121
Tarai Janajati 122
Brahman / Chhetree 123
Hill Brahman 124
Hill Chhetree 125
Dalit 126
Hill Dalit 127
Madhesi Dalit 128
Madhesi Caste 129
Madhesi Brahman 130
Madhesi Other Caste 131
Musalman 132
CHAPTER 6: DISTRICT WISE DATA OF HOUSEHOLD  
ECONOMY AND OCCUPATION 133
TABLES  
Table 1: Classification of 125 Social Groups in the 2011 Census 3
Table 2: Status of Indicators related to Household Economy by Ethnic / Caste Groups 7
Table 3: Percentage of Absent Population, 2011 134
Table 4: Percentage of Household using Modern Cooking Fuel, 2011 136
Table 5: Percentage of Household using Clean Source of Lightening,2011 138
Table 6: Household having None of the Household Facilities (in %, 2011 140
Table 7: Agriculture and Elementary Works Occupation (in %, 2011 142
Table 8: Professional Works Occupation ( in %, 2011 144
Table 9: Service Works Occupation (in %, 2011 146
Table 10: Household having Mobile Phone Facility (in %, 2011 148
FIGURE  
Figure 1: Ethnographic Map of Nepal 3

 













Social Inclusion Atlas of Nepal (Set of 4 Volumes)

Item Code:
NAO076
Cover:
Paperback
Edition:
2014
ISBN:
Vol-I-9789937524568
Vol-II-9789937524544
Vol-IV-9789937524575
Language:
English
Size:
9.0 inch X 13.0 inch
Pages:
730 (Throughout Color Illustrations)
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 3.0 kg
Price:
$125.00   Shipping Free - 4 to 6 days
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Foreword

The Social Inclusion Research Fund (SIRF was started in 2005 on the initiative of civil society of Nepal and the Royal Norwegian Embassy in Kathmandu: Government of Nepal welcomed this initiative as highly relevant and endorsed the formation of SIRF Screening Committee represented by civil society, international scholars and government agencies. SNV Nepal was entrusted with the task of managing the fund, which has now a track record of having funded 303 individual researches and two major institutional research collaborations. The Social Inclusion Atlas Ethnographic Profile (SIA EP is a truly joint collaboration involving all key stakeholders. SIRF Secretariat and SIA EP management team have worked closely with staff in SNV, the Nor-wegian Embassy, Norad Oslo and Tribhuvan University departments taking full advantage of the resources that each partner have been able to bring into the project. SIRF Secretariat facilitated processes of research design, making a public call for proposal, and an independent review and award of this research. SIRF Screening Committee provided guidance in defining the strategic focus and priorities of SIA EP research.

The SIA EP is a pioneer undertaking by the Central Department of Sociology Anthropology of Tribhuvan University, of institutional research involving a large team of multi-disciplinary team of academic researchers, policy makers, government agencies and civil society stake- holders. SIA EP management team earned this experience through hard work, determination and patience. The late arrival of Census data and the enormous pressure to complete the project in a given time-frame tested the crisis management capacity of the project. Prof Dr am Gurung managed the crisis efficiently and with team work, giving the team leaders full delegation to lead their respective teams. We are glad to have been collaborators in bringing forth the results of a very important undertaking. That the SIA EP has arrived at this stage of publication fills us with great happiness. We know that determination, positive outlook, team work and institutional collaboration in the face of challenges are a sure way to success.

The publication of Social Inclusion Atlas of Nepal Series is extremely important to Nepali people, state and society. While reading through each Volume of Atlas it gives immense sense of having derived huge variety of information about the people of Nepal and gives a sense of belonging to a very wealthy nation. This sense if instilled in our young generation of students and leaders, can take us far on the way to peace and prosperity. The Atlas Series will be immensely useful to policy makers, advocates, educationists, practitioners and students to conduct their own analysis and further research. We are confident that this Atlas Series publication will help to a better understanding and development of our society, culture, history, tradition, economy as well as specific conditions of social inclusion and exclusion. We hope that government and donors will continue to give importance to evidence based knowledge and fund such research in future.

 

Preface and acknowledgements

The Social Inclusion Atlas of Nepal series presents spatial information about Nepal's ethnic, caste, and language groups along with other relevant social and economic data. The primary purpose of the social inclusion atlas is to provide information about Nepal's social diversity and development status categorized by social group, and presented in the form of geographic maps so that it is easily accessible to decision-makers, planners, researchers, students and the general public.

This Atlas series is one of the four components of the larger research project: Social Inclusion Atlas and Ethnographic Profile (SIA-EP undertaken by the Central Department of Sociology/Anthropology at Tribhuvan University. The other three interrelated components include the Nepal Social Inclusion Survey (NSIS, further analysis of national level data including the 2011 Census and Ethnographic Profiles of the 42 highly excluded communities. This latter provides qualitative rather than quantitative information. The overall objectives of the SIAEP research were to promote a more informed understanding of Nepal's social diversity by producing research-based, up to date information on the country's cultural and linguistic diversity and the status of social development among different caste and ethnic groups. The quantitative and qualitative information produced through research, is expected to contribute to policy design and research; it can also be used for educational purposes.

The Social Inclusion Atlas of Nepal series has four volumes. This is the first of the series, and presents information on the population of ethnic and caste groups in Nepal distributed across different Village Development Committees (VDCs and municipalities. The second volume is an atlas of the languages spoken in the country. The final two volumes provide information about a range of social and economic indicators. The third volume covers indicators on demography, health and education, while the fourth volume focuses on economic activity, and household amenities, among other topics. Maps were produced using GIS technology and with the data from the 2011 Census made available by the Central Bureau of Statistics.

The successful completion of the SIA-EP research and the Social Inclusion Atlas of Nepal series was made possible with the generous support of a number of institutions, and with the effort of about 200 individuals. First and foremost, we would like to thank the National Planning Commission and the Central Bureau of Statistics for making available data on selected variables from the 2011 Census by VDC and by ethnic / caste group. We would also like to extend our sincere thanks to the Department of Surveys for providing a spatial digital database of Nepal, and to the Central Department of Geography at Tribhuvan University for providing GIS software.

We would like to express our gratitude to the Royal Norwegian Embassy (RNE in Nepal for providing the research funding through SIRF/SNV. We express our gratitude to Kristine H. Storholt and Lena Hasle from RNE for their valuable support and insightful feedback in accomplishing the task. We thank SIRF and SNV for managing the fund and Prof. Ganesh Man Gurung, Chair of the Screening Committee for supporting the research. Thanks also go to Prof. Shiva Kumar Rai, then member of the National Planning Commission, for chairing the Advisory Committee of SIA-EP Research. We would also like to thank Prof. Surya Lal Amatya, then Rector of Tribhuvan University, for giving permission to undertake the research project. Our heartfelt gratitude and special thanks go to Dr. Manju Thapa Tuladhar, Lead Advisor and Sita Rana Magar and team at SIRF Secretariat who provided invaluable support throughout the research work in many ways. We thank the team who worked tirelessly at Geographic Information System and Integrated Development Center (GISIDC to make this work possible.

 

Contents

 

Foreword iv
Preface and Acknowledgements v
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION  
Introduction 3
Ethnic and Caste Groups and their Population 6
Classification of Social Groups 11
Conclusion 13
CHAPTER 2: ADIVASI / JANAJATlS  
AdivasiIJ anaj atis 16
Hill Janajati 17
Aathpariya 18
Bahing 19
Bantaba 20
Bhote 21
Bote 22
Brahmu 23
Byasi 24
Chamling 25
Chepang Praja 2 6
Chhantyal Chhanted 27
Danuwar 28
Darai 29
Dolpo 30
Dura 31
Ghale 32
Gharti / Bhujel 33
Gurung 34
Hayu 35
Hyolmo 36
Jirel 37
Khaling 38
Kulung 39
Kumal 40
Kusunda 41
Lepcha 42
Lhomi 43
Lhopa 44
Limbu 45
Loharung 46
Magar 47
Majhi 48
Mewahang Bala 49
Nachhiring 50
Pahari 51
Rai 52
Raji 53
Raute 54
Samgpang 55
Sherpa 56
Sunuwar 57
Tamang 58
Thakali 59
Thami 60
Thulung 61
Topkegola 62
Walung 63
Yakkha 64
Yamphu 65
Newar 66
Tarai Janajati 67
Dhanuk 68
Dhimal 69
Gangai 70
JhangadlDhagar 71
Khawas 72
Kisan 73
Koche 74
Meche 75
Munda 76
PattharkattalKushwadiya 77
Rajbansi 78
Satar / Santhai 79
Tajpuriya 80
Tharu 81
CHAPTER 3: DALIT  
Dalit 84
Hill Dalit 85
Badi 86
Damai/Dholi 87
Gaine 88
Kami 89
Sarki 90
Madhesi Dalit 91
Bantar 92
Chamar 93
Chidimar 94
Dhobi 95
Dom 96
Dusadh/ P asawan / Pasi 97
Halkhor 98
Khatwe 99
Musahar 100
Tatma /Tatwa 101
CHAPTER 4: HILL BRAHMAN/CHHETREE  
Hill Brahman / Chhetree 104
Hill Brahman (Brahman 105
Hill Chhetree 106
Chhetree 107
Sanyasi/Dashnami 108
Thaku ri 109
CHAPTER 5: MADHESI CASTE  
Madhesi Caste 112
Madhesi Brahman 113
Brahman 114
Kayas tha 115
Nurang 116
Rajput 117
Madhesi Other Caste 118
Amat 119
Badhaee 120
Baraee 121
Bin 122
Dev 123
Dhandi 124
Dhankar 125
Dhunia 126
Gaderi/ Bhedhar 127
Hajam/Thakur 128
Haluwai 129
Kahar 130
Kalar 131
Kalwar 132
Kamar 133
Kanu 134
Kathbaniyan 135
Kewat 136
Koiri/ K ushwaha 137
Kori 138
Kumhar 139
Kurmi 140
Lodh 141
Lohar 142
Mali 143
Mallaha 144
Natuwa 145
Nuniya 146
Rajbhar 147
Rajdhob 148
Sarbaria 149
Sonar 150
Sudhi 151
Teli 152
Yadav 153
CHAPTER 6: MUSALMAN & OTHERS  
Musalman 156
Bangali 157
Marwadi 158
Punjabi/Sikh 159
CHAPTER 7: ETHNIC AND CAsTE POPULATION BY DISTRlCT 2011
Ethnic and Caste Population by District 162
Social Groups Population by District 180
TABLES  
Table 1: Population Distribution by Ethnic and Caste Groups, Census 2011 6
Table 2: Classification of 125 Social Groups in the 2011 Census 11
Table 3: Population distribution by Social Sub-Group 12
Table 4: Ethnic and Caste Groups witlt Population above 1% of the total 12
Table 5: Ethnic and Caste Groups with less than 2,000 population 13
FIGURES  
Figure 1: Administrative Division of Nepal 4
Figure 2: Population Size and Distribution 5
Figure 3: Ethnographic Map of Nepal 10

 

Vol-II

 

Introduction

In addition to the cultural, ethnic, and ecological diversity found in the country, the linguistic diversity in Nepal is immense. Despite its relatively small size, Nepal accommodates multiple lan~ages and dialects with more than 123 languages enumerated in the 2011 Census. Such linguistic diversity not only enables multiple expressions of culture and creativity, but also helps to preserve biodiversity (Maffi 2005. Understanding, preserving and managing such linguistic diversity is an important issue for Nepal during the current period of democratic transition.

Language is closely linked to issues of identity and human rights in Nepal. The language an individual speaks also has a major impact on his or her access to information and life opportunities. The Nepali language, which has been adopted as the official language of the country and promoted as such, is widely used. Despite the many justifications of the state's' one language' policy, it has had an adverse impact on linguistic diversity, with many of the country's minority languages suffering from truncated development or even the threat of extinction (Toba 1992. The loss of language has resulted in the erosion of a sense of cultural identity and self-esteem among many indigenous and minority language communities. Those who lack competence in Nepali and are unable to use their mother-tongue in the public arena face exclusion in a number of areas including access to education, information, economic opportunities, and social participation. Such a situation demands a language policy that views linguistic diversity as an asset rather than a threat to human wellbeing and that gives equal recognition and opportunity to all of the country's languages.

In order to facilitate the process of understanding and approaching diversity, the Social Inclusion Atlas series aims to provide spatial data about Nepal's ethnic, caste, and language groups, along with other relevant social and economic information. The primary purpose of the Social Inclusion Atlas series is to provide information about Nepal's social diversity and development status, categorized by social group, and presented in a series of geographic maps so that it is easily accessible to decision-makers, planners, researchers, students and the general public.

This volume presents the distribution of languages spoken in Nepal based on data from the 2011 Census. Languages reported as mother tongues are shown in map format by Village Development Committee (VDC and municipality. The detailed data for each VDC/municipality (together with a map is included in the attached DVD. Like other volumes in this series, linguistic mapping was carried out using VDC/ municipality level data generated by 2011 census. A summary of district level data can be found in the Annex to this printed volume.

THE LANGUAGES OF NEPAL The 2011 Census enumerated 30 new languages that did not appear in the 20m Census in which only 92 were reported (Gurung 2006. Nepal lacks comprehensive data on many of the languages spoken in the country; in addition there has not been a systematic study to explain the change in the number of languages reported in 2001 and 2011. The reported total seems to largely depend on the approach used to distinguishing languages from dialects. The Ethnologue catalogue of world languages lists 124 languages spoken in Nepal (Eppelle et al. 2012, similar to the number enumerated in the 2011 Census.

Contents

 

Foreword iv
Preface and Acknowledgements v
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION  
Introduction 3
The Languages of Nepal 3
Language Group and Speakers 5
Conclusion 7
CHAPTER 2: INDO ARYAN FAMILY  
Achhami 10
Angika 11
Avadhi 12
Baitadeli 13
Bajhangi 14
Bajjika 15
Bajureli 16
Bangla 17
Bhojpuri 18
Bote 19
Dadeldh uri 20
Dailekhi 21
Danuwar 22
Darai 23
Darchuleli 24
Dhuleli 25
Doteli 26
Ganagai 27
Hindi 28
Jumli 29
Khash 30
Kisan 31
Koche 32
Kumal 33
Magadi 34
Maithili 35
Majhi 36
Musalman 37
Rajbanshi 40
Rajsthani 41
Sanskrit 42
Sonaha 43
Tajpuri ya 44
Tharu 45
Urdu 46
CHAPTER 3: TIBETO BURMAN FAMILY  
Athpariya 48
Bahing 49
Bankariya 50
Banta wa 51
Baram 52
Belhare 53
Bhujel 54
Byansi 55
Chamling 56
Chepang 57
Chhantyal 58
Chhiling 59
Chhin tang 60
Dhimal 61
Dolpali 62
Dumi 63
Dungmali 64
Dura 65
Ghale 66
Gurung 67
Hayu / Vayu 68
Hyolmo / Yholmo 69
Jero / jerung 70
Jirel 71
Kagate 72
Kaike 73
Khaling 74
Kham 75
Khamchi (Raute 76
Koyee 77
Kulung 78
Lapcha 79
Lhomi 80
Lhopa 81
Limbu 82
Lingkhim 83
Lohorung 84
Magar 85
Manange 86
Meche 87
Mewahang 88
Nachhiring 89
Newar 90
Pahari 91
Phangduwali 92
Puma 93
Rai 94
Raji 95
Sam 96
Sampang 97
Sherpa 98
Sunuwar 99
Surel 100
Tamang 101
Thakali 102
Thami 103
Thulung 104
Tibetan 105
Tilung 106
Waling / Walung 107
Wambule 108
Yakkha 109
YamphuI / Yamphe 110
CHAPTER 4: AUSTRO ASIATIC FAMILY  
Khariya 112
Santhali 113
CHAPTER 5: DRAVIDIAN FAMILY  
Uranwl Urau 116
CHAPTER 6: LANGUAGE ISOLATE  
Kusunda 118
CHAPTER 7: FOREIGN/NOT CLASSIFIED  
Arabi 120
Assami 121
Chinese 122
Dzonkha 123
French 124
English 125
Gadhawali 126
Hariyanwi 127
Kuki 128
Kurmali 129
Malpande 130
Mizo 131
Nagamese 132
Oriya 133
Russian 134
Sadhani 135
Sindhi 136
Spanish 137
CHAPTER 8: OTHERS  
Sign Language 140
TABLES  
Table 1: Languages of Nepal 4
Table 2: Languages with more than 1 percent of Speakers 7
Table 3: Languages with Less than 500 Speakers 7
Table 4: Mother Tongue by District, 2011 142
FIGURES  
Figure 1: Linguistic Map of Nepal 6
References 7

 

Vol-III

 

Contents

 

Foreword iv
Preface and Acknotoledgements v
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION  
Introduction 3
Caste and Ethnic Groups of Nepal 3
Indicators of Inclusion 5
CHAPTER 2: FEMALE HEADED HOUSEHOLD  
Nepal 16
Adivasi /Janajatis 17
Hill Janajati 18
Newar 19
Tarai Janajati 20
Oalit 21
Hill Dalit 22
Madhesi Dalit 23
BrahmanlChhetree 24
Hill Brahman 25
Hill Chhetree 26
Madhesi Caste 27
Madhesi Brahman 28
Madhesi Other Caste 29
Musalman 30
CHAPTER 3: LITERACY RATE  
Nepal 32
Adivasi/ janajatis 33
Hill Janajati 34
Newar 35
Tarai Janajati 36
Dalit 37
Hill Dalit 38
Madhesi Dalit 39
BrahmanlChhetree 40
Hill Brahman 41
Hill Chhetree 42
Madhesi Caste 43
Madhesi Brahman 44
Madhesi Other Caste 45
CHAPTER 4: BASIC EDUCATION LEVEL  
Nepal 48
Adivasi / Janajatis 49
Hill Janajati 50
Newar 51
Tarai Janajati 52
Dalit 53
Hill Dalit 54
Madh esioalit 55
Brahmanl Chhetree 56
Hill Brahman 57
Hill Chhetree 58
Madhesi Caste 59
Madhesi Brahman 60
Madhesi Other Caste 61
Musalman 62
CHAPTERS: SECONDARY EDUCATION LEVEL  
Nepal 64
Adivasi / janajatis 65
Hill Janajati 66
Newar 67
Tarai Janajati 68
Oalit 69
Hill Dalit 70
Madhesi Dalit 71
BrahmanlChhetree 72
Hill Brahman 73
Hill Chhetree 74
Madhesi Caste 75
Madhesi Brahman 76
Madhesi Other Caste 77
M usalman 78
CHAPTER 6: HIGHER EDUCATION LEVEL  
Nepal 80
Adivasi / Janajatis 81
Hill Janajati 82
Newar 83
Tarai Janajati 84
Dalit 85
Hill Dalit 86
Madhesi Dalit 87
Brahmani Chhetree 88
Hill Brahman 89
Hill Chhetree 90
Madhesi Caste 91
Madhesi Brahman 92
Madhesi Other Caste 93
Musalman 94
CHAPTER 7: AGE AT 1ST MARRIAGE OF FEMALE BEWW 15 YEARS  
Nepal 96
Adivasi / Janajatis 97
Hill Janajati 98
Newar 99
Tarai Janajati 100
Oalit 101
Hill Dalit 102
Madhesi Dalit 103
BrahmaniChhetree 104
Hill Brahman 105
Hill Chhetree 106
Madhesi Caste 107
Madhesi Brahman 108
Madhesi Other Caste 109
Musalman 110
CHAPTERS: AGE AT 1ST MARRIAGE OF FEMALE BELOW 18 YEARS  
N epal 112
AdivasilJanajatis 113
Hill Janajati 114
N ewar 115
Tarai Janaj ati 116
oalit 117
Hill Dalit 118
Madhesi Oalit 119
BrahmaniChhetree 120
Hill Brahman 121
Hill Chhetree 122
Madhesi Caste 123
Madhesi Brahman 124
Madhesi Other Caste 125
Musalman 126
CHAPTER 9: SINGLE WOMEN POPULATION  
Nepal 128
Adivasi / Janajatis 129
Hill Janajati 130
Newar 131
Tarai Janajati 132
Oalit 133
Hill Dalit 134
Madhesi Dalit 135
BrahmaniChhetree 136
Hill Brahman 137
Hill Chhetree 138
Madhesi Caste 139
Madhesi Brahman 140
Madhesi Other Caste 141
Musalman 142
CHAPTER 10: DISABILITY RATE  
Nepal 144
Adivasi / Janajatis 145
Hill Janajati 146

 

Vol-IV

 

Preface and Acknowledgement v
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 3
Caste and Ethnic Groups of Nepal 3
Indicators of Inclusion 4
Absent Population 4
Household Facilities 4
Occupations 6
Communication 7
CHAPTER 2: OUT MIGRATI0N 9
ABSENT POPULATION 9
Nepal 10
Adivasi / Janajatis 11
Hill Janajati 12
Newar 13
Tarai Janajati 14
Hill Brahman 16
Hill Chhetree 17
Dalit 18
Hill Dalit 19
Madhesi Dalit 20
Madhesi Caste 21
Madhesi Brahman 22
Madhesi Other Caste 23
Musalman 24
CHAPTER 3: HOUSEHOLD FACILITIES 25
Nepal 26
Adivasil Janajatis 27
Hill Janajati 28
Newar 29
Tarai Janajati 30
Hill Brahman 32
Hill Chhetree 33
Dalit 34
Hill Dalit 35
Madhesi Dalit 36
Madhesi Caste 37
Madhesi Brahman 38
Madhesi Other Caste 39
Musalman 40
Nepal 41
Adivasil Janajatis 42
Hill Janajati 43
Newar 44
Tarai Janajati 45
Hill Brahman 47
Hill Chhetree 48
Dalit 49
Hill Dalit 50
Madhesi Dalit 51
Madhesi Caste 52
Madhesi Brahman 53
Madhesi Other Caste 54
Musalman 55
HOUSEHOLDS HAVING NONE OF THE HOUSEHOLD FACILITIES 56
Nepal 56
Adivasil Janajatis 57
Hill Janajati 58
Newar 59
Tarai Janajati 60
Hill Brahman 62
Hill Chhetree 63
Dalit 64
Hill dalit 65
Madhesi Caste 67
Madhesi Brahman 68
Madhesi Other Caste 69
Musalman 70
CHAPTER 4: OCCUPATION 71
Nepal 72
Adivasil Janajatis 73
Hill Janajati 74
Newar 75
Tarai Janajati 76
Hill Brahman 78
Hill Chhetree 79
dalit 80
Hill dalit 81
Madhesi dalit 82
Madhesi Caste 83
Madhesi Brahman 84
Madhesi Other Caste 85
Musalman 86
PROFESSIONAL WORKS 87
Nepal 87
Adivasil Janajatis 88
Hill Janajati 89
Newar 90
Tarai Janajati 91
Brahaman / Chhetree 92
Hill Brahman 93
Hill Chhetree 94
Dalit 95
Hill Dalit 96
Madhesi Dalit 97
Madhesi Caste 98
Madhesi Brahman 99
Madhesi Other Caste 100
Musalman 101
SERVICE AND TRADE WORKS 102
Nepal 102
Adivasi / Janajatis 103
Hill Janajati 104
Newar 105
Tarai Janajati 106
Brahaman / Chhetree 107
Hill Brahman 108
Hill Chhetree 109
DaIit 110
Hill Dalit 111
Madhesi Dalit 112
Madhesi Caste 113
Madhesi Brahman 114
Madhesi Other Caste 115
Musalman 116
CHAPTER 5: COMMUNICATION 117
HOUSEHOLD HAVING MOBILE PHONE 117
Nepal 118
Adivasi / Janajatis 119
Hill Janajati 120
Newar 121
Tarai Janajati 122
Brahman / Chhetree 123
Hill Brahman 124
Hill Chhetree 125
Dalit 126
Hill Dalit 127
Madhesi Dalit 128
Madhesi Caste 129
Madhesi Brahman 130
Madhesi Other Caste 131
Musalman 132
CHAPTER 6: DISTRICT WISE DATA OF HOUSEHOLD  
ECONOMY AND OCCUPATION 133
TABLES  
Table 1: Classification of 125 Social Groups in the 2011 Census 3
Table 2: Status of Indicators related to Household Economy by Ethnic / Caste Groups 7
Table 3: Percentage of Absent Population, 2011 134
Table 4: Percentage of Household using Modern Cooking Fuel, 2011 136
Table 5: Percentage of Household using Clean Source of Lightening,2011 138
Table 6: Household having None of the Household Facilities (in %, 2011 140
Table 7: Agriculture and Elementary Works Occupation (in %, 2011 142
Table 8: Professional Works Occupation ( in %, 2011 144
Table 9: Service Works Occupation (in %, 2011 146
Table 10: Household having Mobile Phone Facility (in %, 2011 148
FIGURE  
Figure 1: Ethnographic Map of Nepal 3

 













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