Subscribe for Newsletters and Discounts
Be the first to receive our thoughtfully written
religious articles and product discounts.
Your interests (Optional)
This will help us make recommendations and send discounts and sale information at times.
By registering, you may receive account related information, our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. Please read our Privacy Policy for details.
.
By subscribing, you will receive our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. All emails will be sent by Exotic India using the email address info@exoticindia.com.

Please read our Privacy Policy for details.
|6
Sign In  |  Sign up
Your Cart (0)
Best Deals
Share our website with your friends.
Email this page to a friend
Books > Philosophy > Hindu > Virtue, Success, Pleasure, Liberation - The Four Aims of Life in The Tradition of Ancient India
Subscribe to our newsletter and discounts
Virtue, Success, Pleasure, Liberation - The Four Aims of Life in The Tradition of Ancient India
Pages from the book
Virtue, Success, Pleasure, Liberation - The Four Aims of Life in The Tradition of Ancient India
Look Inside the Book
Description
About the Book

What is the nature of the social order that unquestionably produced one of the greatest and longest lasting civilizations known to humankind? Alain Danielou, distinguished Orientalist, musicologist, and linguist, reveals the foundations of India’s culture and the four aims of human life as they are viewed in traditional Hindu society: virtue on a moral plane; success on the material and social planes; pleasure on a sensual plane; an liberation on a spiritual plane, Coexistent with these aims are the four stages of life: quest for knowledge, family life, retreat into the forest, and renunciation.

A four fold division can be found in all traditional societies throughout the world, symbolically representing the progression of creative consciousness into order that differs profoundly from those accepted in the contemporary Western addresses issues of race, individual rights, sexual mores, marital practices, and spiritual attainments. In this light, he exposes the inherent flaws and hypocrisies or our modern egalitarian governments and shows how the shadow side of the ancient caste system persists, disguised and unacknowledged, beneath contemporary economic regimes. Danielou explains how Hindu society has served as a model for the realization of human potential on many levels, addressing sociological and human problems that are both timeless and universal.

About the Author

Alain Danielou currently resides in Italy and is the author of more than thirty books about the philosophy, religion, history, and arts of India. Following a series of successful careers as a dancer, musician, and composer (Cocteau, diaghilev, and Stravinsky were among his friends), he eventually settled in India where he spent fifteen years in the study of Sanskrit, philosophy, and music. Danielou speaks and writes Hindi fluently and is an accomplished player of the vina. After numerous university appointments in India, he returned in 1963 to Europe, where he established an international institute for the reevaluation of the religious music of the Orient. Danielou’s other Inner Traditions titles include The Complete Kama Sutra, Gods of Love and Ecstasy, The Myths and Gods of India, While the Gods Play, and Yoga: Mastering the Secrets of Matter And the Universe.

Introduction

Virtue, Success, Pleasure, and Liberation is an unusual work: it is an intricately conceived, extended metaphor. It might be called a "metaphoric gestalt" that expands into an innovative and revela¬tory conceptual system in which human social order, spiritual unfoldment, and biological development are all set in a cohesive integrated vision, drawn from Alain Danielou's reflections on the an¬cient texts and Sutras describing traditional Hindu society. The development of this metaphoric gestalt is based on the correspondences and relationships that spring from a natural fourfold divi¬sion in seemingly unrelated areas of human experience:

The four stages of biological development: childhood, youth, maturity, old age

The four seasons of the year: spring, summer, autumn, winter

The four areas of human accomplishment: virtue/devout¬ness, success/material acquisition, nobility/aesthetic and sensual refinement, knowledge and detachment/spiritual liberation

The four racial colors of humanity related to the four earth pigments: black, yellow, red, white

The four castes of traditional society: the worker/artisan, the producer/merchant, the warrior/aristocrat, the scholar/priest/mystic

The four elements of traditional philosophy: earth, air, fire, water

The four spatial directions: south, east, west, north

In all traditional societies throughout the world, though the details may vary, this fourfold division can be found. Without exception it symbolically represents the foundational order required for the creative consciousness to structure itself into a physical reality. The traditions that maintain the philosophy of fourfold order of physical manifestation are diverse in time and location. They range from Australian aborigines to Native Americans to tribal Africans to Chinese and Japanese Taoists to the peoples of ancient India and Egypt to Sufi mystics to medieval alchemists and to European Renaissance humanists and architects. The same four-fold pattern reappears in the content of contemporary science: the four major fields of force, the four elements basic to organic sub-stance, the four geological types of rock, the four major tissue types of the body.

The method of developing an analogic or metaphoric structure based on a numerical form pattern such as duality, trinity, or quaternion is a fundamental procedure in all esoteric philosophy. In fact, the further back one reaches in history and prehistoric cultures the more one finds that language and symbolism rely upon number/form analogy and are increasingly metaphoric in ex-position. Historically, we can view a gradual decline in the metaphoric nature of language. Shakespeare, standing at the threshold of the major conceptual shifts that occurred in the seventeenth century, foresaw the tragic fall of language into the rigid mold of objectivism and logical positivism. To Shakespeare this marked a foreboding and ominous destiny for mankind, particularly European culture.

The Sanskrit text from which Alain Danielou draws his research are of this pure analogous' dynamic. Metaphor and analogy function on one and the same principle: the understanding or experiencing of one kind of thing in terms of another. Very often, in modern language, this entails a process of thought in which a non-material experience or process is understood in terms of a physical one that bears some similarity to the former. For example, the statement "He attacked every weak point in my argument" is based on the metaphoric analogy of an immaterial process (argument) understood in terms of physical combat (war). This linguistic habituation, of understanding and depicting immaterial experience from objects and examples in the physical world, we have retained, as a vestige, from the view of reality that prevailed before the Age of Reason and the scientific revolution. Before this profound shift, which definitively separated the inner and subjective from the external and objective, the world was imaged as manifestations of one indivisible reality appearing in its visible and invisible forms. The condition of the human body, likewise, was considered the visible appearance of one's mind and spirit, just as mental activity was an expression of the individual's way of sensing his physical embodiment.' Language, in this world view, was the field in which these inner and outer processes and images were brought into confrontation and relationship and where one could track the unlimited potential of metamorphosis, back and forth, between visible and invisible experience.

Since the reign of science and logical positivism, language has been considered to have a completely different function. The process of language is to achieve, in words, a precise descriptive "fit" with what is considered a separate, objective, external reality. With this focus we forget the hidden metaphoric origin of language. For example, we can make what we consider a purely factual statement: "She fell asleep but fortunately woke up in time to avoid an accident." This simple statement contains several unacknowledged metaphors of spatial orientation: "conscious is up" (woke up) and "unconscious is down" (fell asleep)? These and innumerable other hidden metaphoric processes become unacknowledged beliefs and biases within our culture. Of course, the "conscious is up" and "unconscious is down" metaphors are based on bodily experiences: we normally tend to lie down or fall over in an unconscious state, and we do spend much of our conscious time in an upright pos-ture.3 However, this is only an external and singular perspective. From another point of view, an internal one, unconscious states such as sleep, dreams, reverie, meditation, and trance can be our most expanded and elevated moments, whereas active awake consciousness is very often our most grounded, confined, and mechanical mode.

Modern language and modern conceptualization are dependent upon unacknowledged metaphoric gestalts in which an invisible world of experience is reduced to, and understood in terms of, physical objects. We routinely convert intangible time, duration, and events into objects; thoughts and ideas become substance; states of being and emotion are transformed into material containers.

**Contents and Sample Pages**










Virtue, Success, Pleasure, Liberation - The Four Aims of Life in The Tradition of Ancient India

Item Code:
NAR051
Cover:
PAPERBACK
Edition:
1993
ISBN:
9780892812189
Language:
English
Size:
9.00 X 6.00 inch
Pages:
192
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 0.3 Kg
Price:
$23.00
Discounted:
$17.25   Shipping Free
You Save:
$5.75 (25%)
Look Inside the Book
Be the first to rate this product
Add to Wishlist
Send as e-card
Send as free online greeting card
Virtue, Success, Pleasure, Liberation - The Four Aims of Life in The Tradition of Ancient India
From:
Edit     
You will be informed as and when your card is viewed. Please note that your card will be active in the system for 30 days.

Viewed 855 times since 12th Jun, 2019
About the Book

What is the nature of the social order that unquestionably produced one of the greatest and longest lasting civilizations known to humankind? Alain Danielou, distinguished Orientalist, musicologist, and linguist, reveals the foundations of India’s culture and the four aims of human life as they are viewed in traditional Hindu society: virtue on a moral plane; success on the material and social planes; pleasure on a sensual plane; an liberation on a spiritual plane, Coexistent with these aims are the four stages of life: quest for knowledge, family life, retreat into the forest, and renunciation.

A four fold division can be found in all traditional societies throughout the world, symbolically representing the progression of creative consciousness into order that differs profoundly from those accepted in the contemporary Western addresses issues of race, individual rights, sexual mores, marital practices, and spiritual attainments. In this light, he exposes the inherent flaws and hypocrisies or our modern egalitarian governments and shows how the shadow side of the ancient caste system persists, disguised and unacknowledged, beneath contemporary economic regimes. Danielou explains how Hindu society has served as a model for the realization of human potential on many levels, addressing sociological and human problems that are both timeless and universal.

About the Author

Alain Danielou currently resides in Italy and is the author of more than thirty books about the philosophy, religion, history, and arts of India. Following a series of successful careers as a dancer, musician, and composer (Cocteau, diaghilev, and Stravinsky were among his friends), he eventually settled in India where he spent fifteen years in the study of Sanskrit, philosophy, and music. Danielou speaks and writes Hindi fluently and is an accomplished player of the vina. After numerous university appointments in India, he returned in 1963 to Europe, where he established an international institute for the reevaluation of the religious music of the Orient. Danielou’s other Inner Traditions titles include The Complete Kama Sutra, Gods of Love and Ecstasy, The Myths and Gods of India, While the Gods Play, and Yoga: Mastering the Secrets of Matter And the Universe.

Introduction

Virtue, Success, Pleasure, and Liberation is an unusual work: it is an intricately conceived, extended metaphor. It might be called a "metaphoric gestalt" that expands into an innovative and revela¬tory conceptual system in which human social order, spiritual unfoldment, and biological development are all set in a cohesive integrated vision, drawn from Alain Danielou's reflections on the an¬cient texts and Sutras describing traditional Hindu society. The development of this metaphoric gestalt is based on the correspondences and relationships that spring from a natural fourfold divi¬sion in seemingly unrelated areas of human experience:

The four stages of biological development: childhood, youth, maturity, old age

The four seasons of the year: spring, summer, autumn, winter

The four areas of human accomplishment: virtue/devout¬ness, success/material acquisition, nobility/aesthetic and sensual refinement, knowledge and detachment/spiritual liberation

The four racial colors of humanity related to the four earth pigments: black, yellow, red, white

The four castes of traditional society: the worker/artisan, the producer/merchant, the warrior/aristocrat, the scholar/priest/mystic

The four elements of traditional philosophy: earth, air, fire, water

The four spatial directions: south, east, west, north

In all traditional societies throughout the world, though the details may vary, this fourfold division can be found. Without exception it symbolically represents the foundational order required for the creative consciousness to structure itself into a physical reality. The traditions that maintain the philosophy of fourfold order of physical manifestation are diverse in time and location. They range from Australian aborigines to Native Americans to tribal Africans to Chinese and Japanese Taoists to the peoples of ancient India and Egypt to Sufi mystics to medieval alchemists and to European Renaissance humanists and architects. The same four-fold pattern reappears in the content of contemporary science: the four major fields of force, the four elements basic to organic sub-stance, the four geological types of rock, the four major tissue types of the body.

The method of developing an analogic or metaphoric structure based on a numerical form pattern such as duality, trinity, or quaternion is a fundamental procedure in all esoteric philosophy. In fact, the further back one reaches in history and prehistoric cultures the more one finds that language and symbolism rely upon number/form analogy and are increasingly metaphoric in ex-position. Historically, we can view a gradual decline in the metaphoric nature of language. Shakespeare, standing at the threshold of the major conceptual shifts that occurred in the seventeenth century, foresaw the tragic fall of language into the rigid mold of objectivism and logical positivism. To Shakespeare this marked a foreboding and ominous destiny for mankind, particularly European culture.

The Sanskrit text from which Alain Danielou draws his research are of this pure analogous' dynamic. Metaphor and analogy function on one and the same principle: the understanding or experiencing of one kind of thing in terms of another. Very often, in modern language, this entails a process of thought in which a non-material experience or process is understood in terms of a physical one that bears some similarity to the former. For example, the statement "He attacked every weak point in my argument" is based on the metaphoric analogy of an immaterial process (argument) understood in terms of physical combat (war). This linguistic habituation, of understanding and depicting immaterial experience from objects and examples in the physical world, we have retained, as a vestige, from the view of reality that prevailed before the Age of Reason and the scientific revolution. Before this profound shift, which definitively separated the inner and subjective from the external and objective, the world was imaged as manifestations of one indivisible reality appearing in its visible and invisible forms. The condition of the human body, likewise, was considered the visible appearance of one's mind and spirit, just as mental activity was an expression of the individual's way of sensing his physical embodiment.' Language, in this world view, was the field in which these inner and outer processes and images were brought into confrontation and relationship and where one could track the unlimited potential of metamorphosis, back and forth, between visible and invisible experience.

Since the reign of science and logical positivism, language has been considered to have a completely different function. The process of language is to achieve, in words, a precise descriptive "fit" with what is considered a separate, objective, external reality. With this focus we forget the hidden metaphoric origin of language. For example, we can make what we consider a purely factual statement: "She fell asleep but fortunately woke up in time to avoid an accident." This simple statement contains several unacknowledged metaphors of spatial orientation: "conscious is up" (woke up) and "unconscious is down" (fell asleep)? These and innumerable other hidden metaphoric processes become unacknowledged beliefs and biases within our culture. Of course, the "conscious is up" and "unconscious is down" metaphors are based on bodily experiences: we normally tend to lie down or fall over in an unconscious state, and we do spend much of our conscious time in an upright pos-ture.3 However, this is only an external and singular perspective. From another point of view, an internal one, unconscious states such as sleep, dreams, reverie, meditation, and trance can be our most expanded and elevated moments, whereas active awake consciousness is very often our most grounded, confined, and mechanical mode.

Modern language and modern conceptualization are dependent upon unacknowledged metaphoric gestalts in which an invisible world of experience is reduced to, and understood in terms of, physical objects. We routinely convert intangible time, duration, and events into objects; thoughts and ideas become substance; states of being and emotion are transformed into material containers.

**Contents and Sample Pages**










Post a Comment
 
Post a Query
For privacy concerns, please view our Privacy Policy
Based on your browsing history
Loading... Please wait

Items Related to Virtue, Success, Pleasure, Liberation - The Four Aims of Life in The... (Philosophy | Books)

पुरुषार्थ: Purusartha The Aim of Human Life
Item Code: NZA787
$31.00$23.25
You save: $7.75 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
The Concept of Purusarthas (The Value system as Reflected in the Vedas)
Item Code: IDE018
$17.50$13.12
You save: $4.38 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
The Conception of Bhakti in the Gaudiya Vaisnva Philosophy
Item Code: IHD015
$29.00$21.75
You save: $7.25 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Bhagavad Gita: Home Study Course (Set of Nine Volumes)
Item Code: NAJ984
$475.00$356.25
You save: $118.75 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
House Holder's Discipline in Jainism (An Old and Rare Book)
by Dr. Madhusudan Mishra
Hardcover (Edition: 1996)
Eastern Book Linkers
Item Code: NAP567
$21.00$15.75
You save: $5.25 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
The Mystery of Karma (An Exposition of the Law of Karma)
by V.K. SARAF
Paperback (Edition: 2007)
Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan
Item Code: IDK792
$35.00$26.25
You save: $8.75 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Through The Lens of Dharma-Ethics
Deal 20% Off
by Indrani Sanyal
Hardcover (Edition: 2016)
D. K. Printworld Pvt. Ltd.
Item Code: NAN423
$36.00$21.60
You save: $14.40 (20 + 25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Manu-Smrti (A Critical Study and Its Relevance in the Modern Times)
Deal 20% Off
by Asha Rani Tripathi
Hardcover (Edition: 2015)
D. K. Printworld Pvt. Ltd.
Item Code: NAL853
$43.00$25.80
You save: $17.20 (20 + 25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Sanatan Dharm and the Way to God
by Swami Rajarshi Muni
Paperback (Edition: 2014)
Life Mission Publications
Item Code: NAH864
$31.00$23.25
You save: $7.75 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Aatma Sutra (Unveiling The Soul)
by Hingori
Paperback (Edition: 2017)
Bennett, Coleman and Co. Ltd.
Item Code: NAO258
$23.00$17.25
You save: $5.75 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Teaching Tradition of Advaita Vedanta
Item Code: IHL688
$9.50$7.12
You save: $2.38 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
The Substance of Ramanuja's Sri Bhasya
by K. Seshadri
Paperback (Edition: 2012)
Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan
Item Code: NAF256
$18.00$13.50
You save: $4.50 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
The Philosophy of the Puranas (With Special Reference to the Siva Purana)
Item Code: NAP924
$36.00$27.00
You save: $9.00 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Testimonials
I very much appreciate your web site and the products you have available. I especially like the ancient cookbooks you have and am always looking for others here to share with my friends.
Sam, USA
Very good service thank you. Keep up the good work !
Charles, Switzerland
Namaste! Thank you for your kind assistance! I would like to inform that your package arrived today and all is very well. I appreciate all your support and definitively will continue ordering form your company again in the near future!
Lizette, Puerto Rico
I just wanted to thank you again, mere dost, for shipping the Nataraj. We now have it in our home, thanks to you and Exotic India. We are most grateful. Bahut dhanyavad!
Drea and Kalinidi, Ireland
I am extremely very happy to see an Indian website providing arts, crafts and books from all over India and dispatching to all over the world ! Great work, keep it going. Looking forward to more and more purchase from you. Thank you for your service.
Vrunda
We have always enjoyed your products.
Elizabeth, USA
Thank you for the prompt delivery of the bowl, which I am very satisfied with.
Frans, the Netherlands
I have received my books and they are in perfect condition. You provide excellent service to your customers, DHL too, and I thank you for that. I recommended you to my friend who is the director of the Aurobindo bookstore.
Mr. Forget from Montreal
Thank you so much. Your service is amazing. 
Kiran, USA
I received the two books today from my order. The package was intact, and the books arrived in excellent condition. Thank you very much and hope you have a great day. Stay safe, stay healthy,
Smitha, USA
Language:
Currency:
All rights reserved. Copyright 2020 © Exotic India