Yogaratnakara: A Complete Treatise on Ayurveda in Two Volumes

Yogaratnakara: A Complete Treatise on Ayurveda in Two Volumes

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Item Code: IHL635
Author: Asha Kumari and P.V. Tewari
Publisher: Chaukhambha Bharati Academy, Varanasi
Language: (Sanskrit Text with English Translation)
Edition: 2010
ISBN: 9788190987172
Pages: 672
Cover: Hardcover
Other Details 10.0 inch X 7.5 inch
Weight 2.40 kg

From the Jacket

Yogaratnakara the book of mid seventeenth century, written by yet unknown author, but extremely well known in the Ayurvedic world, is like a sun, throwing light on all aspects of ayurveda not seen in any other available book on ayurveda, however, since the book is compiled in the period when surgery was almost not being done by ayurvedist thus the references of subject matter related to salyavijnana (surgery) are scanty; knowledge of sarira (anotomy) being more important to surgeons also finds itself concised in few verse only. It is probably single available book which describes in detail ?astavidha pariksa? i.e. examination of pulse, urine and stool. The book is boon for those who desire to know ayurveda in depth and practice medicine only, but not dare to fathom the sea of voluminous books; as it describes in detail basic concepts of ayurveda, herbal herbomineral and metallic preparations alongwith their identification and properties of individual plant and metals or sumetals and also method of purification and killing of metals etc.; then method of preparation of recipes as well-as the dosages and after medications. After elaborating aeteopathogenesis, prodromal and clinical features, prognosis, and complications, etc. detailed preventive, promotive, rehabilitative and curative methods and also cleansing therapy (sodhana cikatsa) is given.

Present English translation done is simple language makes it accessible to those who are not well verse in hindi or samskrta. Thus the book is very useful for students, teachers and research workers all alike.

About the Author

Prof. (Km.) P.V. Tewari A.M.B.S., PhD. Adl. Med. Suptd. Mata Anandamayi Hospital (a charitable institution), Ex. H.O.D. Dept. of Prasuti Tantra, Director WHO collaborative centre, Dean of Ayurveda and Ayurvedic Pharmaceuticals I.M.S., B.H.U. elder sister of Dr. (Mrs.) Asha Kumari, daughter of freedom fighter Late Pt. Rama Sankara Tewari a recipient of Tamrapatra and Mrs. Rama Devi Tewari has produced large number of D. Ay. M./M.D. Ay. and Ph. Ds., published more than 205 research papers, edited/edited and translated/authored fourteen books. She has been associated with academic/administrative bodies of all important research and academic organizations of ayurveda of the country. He book Ayurvediya Prasuti Tantra and Striroga has received good recognition and awards.

Dr. (Mrs.) Asha Kumari M. A., Ph.D. exponent in Samskrta has acquired special experience of working on manuscripts during her work tenure with NISTADS (project on History of Science and Technology during Medieval Period). Besides editing and translating two mss of ayurveda i.e. Yogacandrika (translated in hindi and English) and Vrndamadhavaparanama Siddhayogah (translated in english) and has translated in hindi English one Prakrta Mahakavya (Setubandham) also. She has been writing articles, poems and stories in different journals and magazines on literary, social and cultural subjects. Her source of inspiration has always been ancient Samskrta literature.


The creator of Loka i.e. the world created all the creatures and medicines medicinal plants) simultaneously, so that his best creation the human beings could have a healthy and long life with good creativity and procreativity. He also transferred the knowledge about these drugs to the coming generations through Asvini Kumaras. The first written record of this knowledge are the vedas specially me Atharvaveda. However during vedic period the medicine was magico religious. Available first literature written signally on Ayurveda are ?Caraka Samhita? and Susruta Samhita? which are well documented and systemetized. Progress of any system is always gradual, while the changes between Atharvaveda and Caraka and Susruta Samhitas appears to be drastic and the time gap between these two eras extends to thousands of years. The process and means of these changes are in oblivion.

Though ?Caraka Samhita? and ?Susruta Samhita? represent two different schools/systems of specialization i.e. the medical and surgical systems respectively yet those have dealt with all the eight specialized branches of Ayurveda. This very pattern of writing the books with minor modifications here and there persisted for centuries.

Madhavakara was the first author to deviate from this way of writing the Ayurvedic literature by bifurcating the existing system into two i.e. the diagnosis and treatment dealt in two separate treatises. Probably he might have done it to facilitate memorization and recapitulation by the learners of the subject, more so because the books is written totally in verses. ?Madavanidana? as the name itself insinuates deals with aetiopathogenesis and clinical features etc. aspects related to diagnosis of the diseases. Since the author has derived knowledge from the existing literature, it can also be considered as the first book mainly based on compilation with elaboration. Later he wrote a book on treatment. In the field of diagnosis his book stands supreme rather alone, however ?Vrnda Madhava? and ?Cakradatta? etc. later authors followed the pattern of second book and wrote treatises on only treatment.

Though for diagnosing the diseases and knowing the status of the patient trividha, pancavidha, sadvidha and dasavidha pariksas (ways of examination) were in practice yet the currently used method by the vaidyas i.e. nadipariksa (examination of pulse etc.) were absent. Later with the inclusion of nadipariksa during medieval period books were written on this subject also. The period when the astavidhapariksa came into practice is a bit confusing due to lack of available literature.

Later period of Ayurveda is mainly characterized with compilations that too on separate subjects like nighantus on drugs, books on rasa cikitsa, treatment, nadipariksa etc.

Among the available literature ?Yogaratnakara? is one treatise that deals with Ayurveda in its entirety but for sarira and salya that too in a very organized and different way. Probably owing to the fact that nobody who wants to learn Ayurveda, whether a student or a practitioner, has time enough to go through all the texts, moreover availability of all sorts of literature to any individual was then and is even now a problem. So the sagacious author of ?Yogaratnakara? compiled all the relevant aspects of the science necessary for a student or a practitioner of Ayurveda, in one book. Starting from the qualities and duties of a physician the book elaborates the four pillars necessary for the treatment i.e. the physician, the means of treatment, the attendant and the patient, indication of curability or otherwise according to the presentation of the messenger or other omens and then it comes to astavidha pariksa i.e. the eight measures of diagnosis as nadipariksa (pulse examination), mutra pariksa (urine examination), mala pariksa (stool test), sabda pariksa (diagnosis through voice of the patient), drk pariksa (diagnosis through touch), rupa pariksa (diagnosis through the look of the patient), drk pariksa (eye examination), asya pariksa (mouth examination) including jihva pariksa (tongue examination). After that the author describes the time periods i.e. the seasons, months and also parts of a day for respective aggravation of the dosas, signs of mature or immature stage of diseases; stages of development according to age; effect of dosas on the individual prakrti (nature on the whole); features of healthy body; weights and measures along with their synonyms according to magadha and kalinga schools; qualities of grains, vegetables, fruits and different types of meat, types and qualities of cooked cereal preparations; qualities of different types of drinks; qualities of some other edible preparations; features of life expectancy of the patients; regimen for day and night and also according to different seasons; qualities of different types of water (like cold, hot, boiled etc.); qualities of different types of milk, curd, butter, ghrta, oil, honey, sugar etc.; qualities of eight types of urine (procured from different sources); various groups of drugs; kasaya kalpana (methods of preparing paste, decoction, cold percolation etc.); qualities and methods of purification and killing of all the metals, substitute, gems and some drugs/herbs also; abhava varga i.e. substitute substances; the cleansing and theraputic methods; definition of some specific terms like drowsiness, yawning etc. and then enumeration of all the diseases is taken up in the treatise. Finally diagnosis and treatment of individual diseases is described in each of the seventy two chapters. The last four chapters classified as ?uttarakhanda deal with vajikarana (aphrodisiac recipes), rasayana (youth and longevity providing recipes), rasavaikrti (complications due to improper use of mercury) and roganusaranupana (appropriate after drinks).





1 Basic Concepts of Ayurveda 3-207
  Mangalacarana 3
  Physician and his duties 3
  Importance of Agni 4
  Limitation of treatment 4
  Karmaja vyadhi (disease due to deeds of previous life) and principles of treatment 4
  The four pillars of treatment and their qualities 6
  The messenger 6
  Auspicious omens 7
  Examination of eight points of the patients 7
  Determination of period for patient?s prognostication 20
  Determination of place 22
  Months when vata etc. dosas are aggravated 22
  Seasons when dosas are aggravated 23
  Functions of the three dosas 23
  Pacificative measures for the three dosas 24
  Stages of life 24
  Description of prakrti (i.e. constitution) 26
  Signs of healthy state 27
  Definitions of measures 27
  Magadha measures 27
  The definition of kalinga measures 29
  Properties of grains, fruits, bulbous roots, rhizomes and vegetables etc. 29
  Properties of tamakhu i.e. tobacco 29
  The properties of meat 42
  Features of anupa i.e. marshy and aquatic creatures 43
  Properties of jangala meat 43
  Properties of the meat of marshy and aquatic animals 45
  Qualities of cooked eatables and potables 48
  Qualities of drinks 56
  Qualities of Ragakhandava 58
  Qualities of Rasala-skharini 58
  Consideration about longevity 59
  Description of proper daily routine 63
  Dinacarya (daily routine of life) 63
  Natural desires (effect of their suppression) 74
  Importance of taking food 74
  Effect of wind 85
  Comfort providing routine 89
  Ratricarya (proper activities during night) 92
  Rtucarya (prescribed routine for different seasons) 100
  Accumulation, aggravation and pacification of dosas in different seasons and their effect 100
  Qualities of cold water 104
  Qualities of medicated/nonmedicated hot water 104
  Qualities of milk 106
  Qualities of curd 112
  Takra (buttermilk) and its qualities 114
  Qualities of navaneet (butter) 116
  Qualities of ghrta 117
  Qualities of taila (oils) 118
  Qualities of madhu (huney) 120
  Qualities of iksu (sugarcane) 122
  The eight types of urine 124
  Groups of drugs 125
  Kasayas 131
  Preparation of silajatu 140
  Common features, purification, killing and qualities of dhatus (metals), submetals and ohters 140
  The metals 140
  Upadhatus (submetals) 140
  Wholesome and unwholesomes being used with mercury preparations 176
  Tatna (gems) and others 178
  The silajatu (bitumen) 181
  Killing of visa 186
  Upavisas (sub-poisons) 187
  Satwapatana (metallic extraction) of abhraka (mica) 190
  Preparation of ksara 191
  The abavagarga (substitute drugs) 191
  Virya (potency of action) and vipaka (final metabolism) of drugs 196
  Cleansing therapies 196
  Definitions of words (names or features of some ailments) and list of described diseases 205
  The order of fever etc. diseases 206
2 Diagnosis and Treatment of Fever 208-289
  Origine of fever 208
  Pathogenesis 208
  Prodromal features 208
  General features of fever 209
  Clinical features of fevers 209
  Course of sandhika etc. all sannipataja fever 211
  The prognosis 212
  Specific features of these thirteen sannipatika fevers 212
  Prognosis of sannipata 215
  Features of malapaka or dhatupaka 216
  Exogenous fevers 216
  Visamajwara (intermittent fever) 217
  Pathogenesis of intermittent fevers 218
  Features of intermittent fever 218
  Types and their locations 218
  Status of dosas in these fevers 219
  Complications of fever 220
  Features of proper langhana in febrile case 221
  Features of afebrile stage 221
  Treatment 221
  Treatment of fever in a proper order (principles of treatment in sequential order) 221
  Importance of fasting 222
  Period of paka (maturing) of fever 222
  The period for starting decoctions etc. 223
  Time for giving diet 223
  Importance of pitta in fever 224
  Period of drug administration to febrile case 224
  Principles of treatment of recently inflicted fever 225
  Dosages of drugs 228
  Period of efficacy of various drugs 230
  Period for administering these drugs 231
  Remedy of fever with rigor 237
  Principles of treatment in sannipataja fever 238
  Treatment of fever situated in dhatus 238
  Other general treatment/principles 238
  Treatment of sannipataja fever 245
  Treatment of exogenous fever 255
  The intermittent fevers 256
  Treatment of intermittent fevers 257
  Other treatments of intermittent fevers 259
  Application in the eyes and fumigation 263
  The curnas for the treatment of fever 264
  The ghrtas 270
  The oils 271
  The rasas (metallic preparations) 274
  Features of fever lodged in the seven dhatus 283
  Treatment of the fevers lodged in seven dhatus 283
  Manthara (law grade) fever 284
  Treatment 284
  Treatment of the fever due to (use of) contaminated water 285
  General principles of salutary and non-salutary regimen for the patients of fever 285
  Pacana (factors) of recently inflicted fever 286
  Beneficial/effective therapies for sannipata 286
  Unwholesomes in case of recently inflicted fever 287
  Wholesomes 287
3. Diagnosis and Treatment of Diarrhoea 290-316
  Aetiopathogenesis of Atisara (diarrhoea) 290
  Prodromal features 291
  Clinical features 291
  Features of amatisara 292
  Features of ama 292
  Features of pakvatisara 292
  Bad prognostic features 292
  Complications of diarrhoea 293
  Pravahika (dysentery) 293
  Features indicative of cure of diarrhoea 293
  Aetiopathogenesis of fever with diarrhoea 294
  Features of incurable/fatal diarrhoea 294
  Treatment 294
  Treatment of diarrhoea at the stage of its prodromal features 294
  Treatment of amatisara 295
  Treatment of pakvatisara (diarrhoea with digested food) 298
  Treatment of blood mixed diarrhoea 301
  Piccha basti 303
  Treatment of anorectal prolapse 303
  Treatment of diarrhoea with oedema 307
  Treatment of dysentery 307
  Purisaksaya (deficiency of faeces) 307
  Treatment of fever with diarrhoea 308
  Treatment of all the types of diarrhoea 309
  Treatment of all the types of diarrhoea 311
  The rasa (metallic preparations) 314
  Wholesomes for diarrhoea patients 315
  Unwholesomes for the diarrhoea patients 316
4 Diagnosis and Treatment of Grahani (disorders) 317-332
  Aetiopathogenesis 317
  Location of grahani membrane 317
  Classification and general clinical features of grahani 317
  Prodromal features 318
  Ama grahani 319
  Features of incurable grahani 319
  Prognosis according to age 320
  Treatment 320
  General treatment of grahani diseases 322
  The wholesomes 332
  Unwholesomes 332
5 Diagnosis and Treatment of Piles 333-348
  Diagnosis of piles 333
  Etymology of arsa (piles) 333
  Classifications 333
  General features of piles 333
  Prodromal features of piles 334
  Clinical features 334
  Involvement of vata etc. dosas in raktaja piles 336
  Aggravation of all the three dosas (being the cause) 336
  Prognosis 337
  Piles (like lesion) on the other parts of the body 338
  Clinical features of carmakila 338
  Treatment 338
  Type of treatment 338
  The ghrtas 346
  The pastes for local application 347
  The rasas 348
  Wholesome and unwholesome regimen 348
6 Diagnosis and Treatment of Depleted Digestive Fire 349-352
  Types of digestive fire 349
  Features of sama and visama etc. digestive fire 349
  Treatment 349
  Aetiology and clinical features of bhasmaka 350
  Diagnosis aetiology 351
  Treatment 351
7 Diagnosis and the Treatment of Indigestion 353-373
  Definition of ama 353
  Classification 353
  Aetiology 353
  Clinical features 354
  Complications of indigestion 354
  The visuci 355
  Features of alasaka 355
  Features of vilambika 356
  Sequela of ama 356
  Prognosis 356
  Features of proper digestion of food 356
  Treatment 256
  Principles and general treatment 356
  The powders 356
  The pills 358
  Electuaries 360
  The decoctions 362
  The ghrtas 363
  The groups of substances to counter indigestion 364
  The rasas 365
  Treatment of visuci etc. 371
  Non salutary diet in ajirna etc. 373
  Salutary things 373
8 Diagnosis and Treatment of Parasites 374-379
  Kinds of parasites 374
  External parasites 374
  Aetiology of parasites 374
  Features of infestation of parasites 375
  Complications 376
  Treatment 376
  The dococtions 376
  The powders 377
  Recipies for getting rid of the lice 378
  Unwholesomes during the trouble of parasites 379
9 Diagnosis and Treatment of Anaemia 380-392
  Types and Aetiopathogenesis of anaemia 380
  The prodromal features of anaemia 380
  Clinical features 380
  Prognosis of anaemia 382
  Aetiology of kamala (jaundice) 382
  Clinical features of jaundice 382
  Kumbhakamala (? Jaundice with ascites) 383
  Incurable kamala 383
  Incurable kumbhakamala 383
  Halimaka (? chlorosis) 383
  Features of panaki 383
  Treatment 384
  Decoctions 384
  Iron preparations for anaemia 385
  Treatment of jaundice and halimaka 387
  Wholesomes and unwholesomes 392
10 Diagnosis and Treatment of Haemorrhagic Disorders (raktapitta) 393-408
  Aetiopathogenesis 393
  Prodromal features 393
  Clinical features of raktapitta 393
  Prognosis 394
  Complications of haemorrhagic disorders 395
  Character of blood and other features indicating incurability 395
  Treatment 395
  Decoctions, medicated milk etc. for treatment 397
  External use of drugs 401
  Ghrtas 402
  Awaleha/Khanda 404
  The rasas 407
11 Diagnosis and Treatment of Tuberculosis 409-450
  Diagnosis of tuberculosis 409
  Etymology of the names 409
  Aetiological factors 409
  Pathogenesis 409
  Prodromal features 410
  Clinical features 410
  Prognosis of tuberculosis 411
  Types of other sosas (consumption) 411
  Life expectancy of yaksma-patient 413
  Importance of sukra and mala of yaksma-patient 413
  Treatment 413
  Non-congenials 414
  Salutary articles 414
  Decoctions 415
  Churnas 415
  The ghrtas 416
  The oils 426
  Asava/Aristas 429
  The rasa (metallic) preparations 431
  Other treatment 445
  Diagnosis of urahksata 445
  Clinical features of urahksata 446
  Prodromal features 446
  Prognosis 446
  Treatment of urahksata 447
  Ghrtas 448
12 Diagnosis and Treatment of Cough 451-474
  Aetiology 451
  Pathogenesis 451
  Their number (types) 451
  The prodromal features 451
  Clinical features of cough 451
  Prognosis 452
  Treatment 453
  Specific treatment according to causative factors 454
  Treatment of cough with dyspnoea 459
  Recipes for all the types of cough 460
  The rasas (metallic preparations) 468
  Wholesomes and unwholesomes 473
13 Diagnosis and Treatment of Hiccough 475-481
  Aetiology 475
  Pathogenesis 475
  Prodromal features 475
  Its nomenclatures/types 475
  Clinical features 476
  Prognosis 476
  Treatment 477
  Wholesomes and unwholesomes 481
14. Diagnosis and Treatment of Dyspnoea 482-491
  Aetiology 482
  Pathogenesis 482
  Classification 482
  Prodromal features of dyspnoea 482
  Clinical features 483
  Bad prognosis of the chinnasvasa 484
  Prognosis of ksudra etc. 485
  Treatment 486
  The decoctions 486
  The electuaries 488
  The wholesomes and unwholesomes 490
15. Diagnosis and Treatment of Svarabheda (hoarseness of voice) 492-496
  Aetiopathogenesis 492
  Clinical features 492
  Prognosis 493
  Treatment 493
16. Diagnosis and Treatment of Anorexia 497-505
  Classification 497
  Aetiology in general and clinical features of vataja anorexia 497
  Clinical features 497
  Treatment 498
  The recipes for mouth wash 499
  The pills 500



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