Although a voluminous literature has evolved around the legendary life of Padmasambava, as a historical personage he remains a shadowy figure. All that can be said with certainty is that he was an inhabitant of Uddiyana (identified with the present day Swat valley in Pakistan) and was invited to Tibet by King Thisong Detsen (756-97?).
Apparently Padmasambhava was renowned as a Tantric exorcist and was invited specifically to tame the demons., presumably of pre-Buddhist religions, who were obstructing the path of Buddhism. Evidently, he accomplished the task and returned to India, but there is no agreement either about the duration of his sojourn in Tibet or about his other accomplishments.
In Tibet Padmasambhava is believed to have had twenty-five disciples. He had two wives who were also disciples, an Indian woman named Mandarawa, and an Tibetan woman named Yeshe Tshogyal, who had been a favorite queen of Thisong Detsen and was given to him by the king.
His two wives can be seen at the bottom layer of the painting, seated on lotus pedestals, paying obeisance to him. To his right is his Indian wife, holding a pitcher from which protrudes the feather of a peacock, and to his left is his Tibetan wife, bearing a skull cup.
This description by Nitin Kumar, Executive Editor, Exotic India.
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