a). Bhava (The Originator of Things) - As Bhava, Shiva rules over the east, the direction of beauty and of the sun. In this form he protects the humble, wanderers (mendicants or nomads), the excommunicated, and the excluded etc.
b). Sharva (The Archer) - Ruler of the south, the direction of death and of the ancestors.
c). Pashupati (Lord of the Animals) - Rules over the west, the direction of night and of magic.
d). Ugra (The Terrible) - Rules over north, the direction of the moon.
e). Rudra (Lord of Tears) - Rules over the nether regions.
f). Ishana (The Supreme Sovereign) - Rules over the vault of heaven and the gods.
Rudra, Sharva and Ugra are the destructive aspects of Shiva, whilst Bhava, Pashupati, and Ishana are his benevolent aspects.
Here the sculptor has sought to delineate Shiva in his benevolent aspect of 'Bhava,' or the 'Source of all things.
Shiva is seated on a tiger skin, and the head of the dead animal can be seen hanging over the symbolic mound which signifies the Mount Kailash, whose summit serves as his abode. Kamandalu is depicted on his pedestal. The ornaments adorning him (armlets, bracelets and necklaces) are made up of the sacred rudraksh beads. In addition, he wearsa serpent coils himself around his neck, rasing its venomous hood at Shiva's right shoulder.His hair tied in Knot with serpent and out of which flows a steady stream of Ganga.
Shiva's attire is composed solely of an animal-skin loin cloth, worn typically by sadhus and mendicants. The sacred thread crosses his body diagonally. His right hand is raised in the mudra of blessing.
For practising Yoga and for performing beneficent rites, one must always face east. Indeed, temples dedicated to the beneficent aspects of a god, always open to the east.
This is what the Linga Purana say about Shiva as Bhava:
"Bhava, the knower of the Veda say, is the all-powerful god. He is the nature of the life of the worlds. His consort is called Peace-of-the-Night (Uma) by the sages, his son is the planet Venus. He is the reservoir of the seed of the seven worlds; he is the protector of the seven worlds." (Linga Purana 2.13.5-6.).
Banerjee, P. Early Indian Religions: Delhi, 1973.
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