Later, when Manjushri emerged as one of the main Tantrika deities, particularly in Tibetan Buddhism widely pursued in the northern regions of Himalayan hills, the anatomical and iconographic perception of the image underwent a radical change. Now the image was multi-armed, the number of arms varying from four to eighteen. 'Khadaga' and the book were still the essentials of Manjushri iconography, but now it also carried many other attributes 'Ratna-mani', 'abhaya', 'varada', 'vajra', 'danda', mace, battle-axe, pot, rosary, noose, flames of fire, and many others. They symbolised his multifarious role, which as the Tantrika deity Manjushri was invoked to accomplish.
This exquisitely executed and exceptionally bejewelled image has been rendered with a broad forehead, as broad face but narrowing down to chin with an angular thrust, and half-closed eyes, as in meditation. The iconography, adornment and costume are characteristically Tibetan. Normally, Boddhisattva images, including Manjushri, carry in their coiffeur effigies of Dhyani, or meditating, Buddha, but in this image the effigy has been substituted with a crest of diamonds rising flower-like from a three-leaf base. Three leaves of the base and five petals of the crest make eight; three symbolising, perhaps, three basic rules of Buddhism, and eight, the eight-fold path of the Dhamma.
The deity is seated on a high and beautifully designed lotus 'pitha'. He is in padmasana. The auspicious marks of lotus, carved on upward raised feet, as also on palms, further enhance the auspice that a lotus creates. The image is carrying in his right hand the 'khadaga'. Its handle consists of 'vajra', and the point of the blade, of the flames of fire, obviously because fire and 'vajra' are other usual elements of Manjushri iconography. In the other hand, he is carrying a small object, which may be 'Ratna-mani'. From under this arm there rises a lotus stalk with a lotus on its apex. The lotus carries on it the book. The large circular 'kundalas', ear-ornaments, correspond to 'Dharma-chakra', often comprising part of 'prabha', not included here. A lavish and richly bejewelled crown with seven leaves adorns the deity head, and an as rich 'khata', the sacred scarf, wraps his shoulders. A mild 'trivali', three-fold form, defines the neck. 'Dhoti', sash, girdle on the waist, necklaces and other ornaments are richly designed.
This description by Prof. P.C. Jain and Dr Daljeet. Prof. Jain specializes
on the aesthetics of ancient Indian literature. Dr Daljeet is the chief
curator of the Visual Arts Gallery at the National Museum of India, New
Delhi. They have both collaborated on numerous books on Indian art and
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