Abhinavagupta: An Historical and Philosophical Study (The Most Comprehensive Book Ever Published on Abhinavagupta)

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Item Code: IDE579
Author: Prof. Dr. Kanti Chandra Pandey
Publisher: Chaukhamba Amarabharati Prakashan
Language: English
Edition: 2018
ISBN: 9788192425238
Pages: 1066 (Color Illus: 1)
Cover: Hardcover
Other Details 9.0 inch X 6.0 inch
Weight 1.17 kg
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Book Description

Introduction To The Second Edition

The opportunity to bring out the Second Edition has been utilized for adding an offset picture of Abhinavagupta and four new Chapters, besides giving a more complete account of his life, works and historical background of his thought.

The authenticity of the picture in paint lies in its being a faithful representation of the pen-picture, drawn by his pupil, Madhuraja Yogin, who was present at the celebration of the 'recognition of Abhinavagupta as the spiritual head of all the Saiva sects by the contemporary great spiritualists, both male and female.

The picture has a religio-philosophical significance; because it presents him as a typical follower of the Kula system. Two 'Dutis', each with a jar of Siva-Rasa, a kind of intoxicant, in the right hand and a lotus-flower and a citron-fruit in the left, are waiting upon him and dance, song and music are going on in front of him; but his mind, being in touch with the Reality, is experiencing the spiritual bliss, and the expression of his eyes stands as a witness to it. For, the characteristic feature of the Kaulism is that it denies antagonism between sensuous joy and spiritual bliss (Ananda); recognises the former to be a means to the latter; and emphatically asserts that it is meant for the few, who are highly proficient in the Raja-Yoga as distinct from the heath-Yoga, who have such a control over the mind that they can withdraw it from the stimulating object even at a time when it is being enjoyed most and concentrate it on the tip of Susumna.

It has an aesthetic significance. Abhinavagupta is a well recognised authority on Saivaism in general and on poetics, dramaturgy, music, aesthetics and the three monistic systems of the Saiva philosophy, dealt with in the present edition, in particular, on account of the 48 works which his powerful pen produced. The picture presents his as a practical musician, playing upon Nada-Vina, a stringed instrument, capable of producing the original musical sound, called Nada, and experiencing the transcendental bliss (Ananda). It shows that his assertion that the sensuous aspect of a work of fine art leads an aesthete, who possesses the necessary subjective conditions, to the highest level of perfects bliss through the imaginative, emotive and Kathartic levels, is based upon his personal experience.

It has an historical importance; because it presents an important event in the history of Sanskrit Literature in so far as it presents Abhinavagupta explaining the sections on music in the Natya Sastra of Bharata to his pupils, Ksemaraja etc., who are attentively listening to him and are taking down the words of the master: and also because it reflects a very important religio-philosophical movement in the 10th century A. D.

The pictorial art can present just one moment of life of its object of presentation which the pictorial genius conceives to be the most important visual aspect, inasmuch s it reflects the inner being in a way that suggests the state of consciousness, self or Atman. Accordingly the central fact, presented in the picture, is the expression of the eyes, which suggests the rest of the self in itself, the experience of the Self of Itself. (Svatma-paramarsa).

Two of the smaller works of Abhinavagupta (i) the Paryanta Pancasika and (ii) the Ghatakarpara Kulaka Vivrti have been given a small Chapter each, because there is a misunderstanding about them in the minds of some scholars.

The two monistic systems, the Krama and the Kula, which developed side by side with the Pratyabhijna, are known to few. The Kashmir Saiva thought, therefore, has been identified with the Pratybhijna only. Accordingly the philosophical works of Abhinavagupta are attempted to be interpreted in the light of this known system. Hence arose the misunderstanding about the system of philosophy, presented in the Paryanta Pancasika. The third Chapter in the historical part of this work attempts to remove it.

There are very few poetic production in the vast Sanskrit Literature, which present so many problems as does the Ghatakarpara Kulaka. A separate small chapter, therefore, has been devoted to it to solve them in the light, thrown on them by Abhinavagupta's commentary, the Vivrti, on it. It shows that the poem "Ghatakarpara" does not simply reverse the "motif of the Meghaduta by making a love-lorn lady, in the rainy season, send a message to her lover" : that the word "Kulaka", which is an essential part of the title of the poem, according to Abhinavagupta, does not mean a set of five or more verses with only one finite verb, as it is ordinarily understood to mean : on the contrary, it means a type of musical poetic composition (Gita-Kavya) - consisting of a group of songs, which presents one theme and, therefore, the members of which are well connected with one another,-meant for presentation on the stage in a manner different from that of a drama inasmuch as in it singing, acting and dance follow one another: that such poems were not only being staged at the time of Abhinavagupta : that it belongs to the highest type of poetry inasmuch as it is highly suggestive, as has been pointed out by Abhinavagupta in his commentary: that the repetition of different groups of letters (Yamaka) in it is not a sign of laboured composition, nor is its condemnation by our contemporaries as a low type of poetry justifiable, in the light of Abhinavagupta's critical estimate of it, which seems to have anticipated such an adverse criticism : that, according to Abhinavagupta, who follows the Kashmirian tradition about it, it is from the pen of Kalidasa and that the status of Kalidasa as the topmost poet is not adversely affected by this poem; for, the use of Yamakas in it gives such a musical value to it as enhances its emotional and aesthetic value. The Kashmirian tradition about Kalidasa's authorship of the Ghatakarpara Kulaka seems to be supported by the fact that in the Malavikagnimitra, the musical poetic composition of Sarmistha is a poem of this type.

The sixth Chapter in the philosophical part presents the Krama system in a proper historical perspective and gives an account of the literature on and of the exponents of it. It is a monistic system. Like the dualistic-cum-monistic Saiva system, propounded by Lakulisa and known as Lakulisa Pasupata, it has a pentadic tendency: it thinks in terms of groups of five concepts or postulates. Accordingly the basic pentad, which represents the five forms in which the Absolute manifests itself, consists of the five, Vyomavamesvari etc., and the aspects of speech, which are recognised to he three by Bhartrhari in his Vakyapadiyam, four by Somananda in his Siva Drsti, are admitted to be five, adding Suksma to the generally recognised four, Para, Pasyanti, Madhyama and vaikhari. It is a Sakta system, not only in its ritualistic aspect, in which it enjoins the use of wine, woman and meat, but also in its philosophical aspect inasmuch as it recognises the Ultimate Metaphysical Principle to be Kali and advocates the following of the Saktopaya for the realisation o the Reality. It asserts that the ethical value of an action is entirely determined by the motive. Hence the use of the prohibited, such as wine etc., in the ritual does not mean moral turpitude, because the motive in it is not the satisfaction of the senses, but the realisation of the Real.

The last Chapter deals with the Kula system. It traces the history of the system from the 5th century A. D., when it was propagated by Macchanda alias Mina, to the 18th century A. D. when Bhaskara Raya wrote his commentary on the Nityasodasikarnava in Kasi (Varanasi). It gives an account of the vast literature on it in an historical order, though most of it is known from Abhinava's references only.

The Kaulism is a difficult system of philosophy. It has been recognised as such by Abhinavagupta himself. Its chief contribution is the conception of "Anuttara", a word, which has been interpreted in twenty-two different ways to bring out the full philosophical significance of it. It synthesizes the Saivaism and the Saktism and holds the Ultimate Reality to be the unity of Anuttara and Anuttara, in which the plurality is as absent s in the first letter of the Devanagari alphabetical system "a" in such instances as "Simanta" in which the following "a" at the beginning of "Anta" becomes one with the preceding, at the end of the word "Sima", according to Panini's aphorism "Atogune".

It is, therefore, a monistic system. It was very much influenced in its development by the philosophy of language, propounded by the philosophers of language like Nandikesvara, Panini, Patanjali, Bhartrihari, Vrsabha, Punyaraja, Helaraja etc. it gives the philosophy of the letters of the Devanagari alphabetical system, in a way which has close similarity with that of the letters of the fourteen aphorisms in the beginning of Panini's system, given earlier by Nandikesvara. It spread, not only all over India, including the South, but over China also and influenced the Buddhism. Its Tantric aspect got so firmly rooted in China that sages from India went there to learn the Kaulika practices.

In conclusion I very sincerely thank the University Grants Commission for the timely help to enable me to complete this work and to "prepare and publish" others according to the plan; the authorities of the Lucknow University for giving me the necessary facilities for continuing teaching and research; learned scholars in many Universities such as Dr. N. N. Choudhury, Delhi Professor P. Pradhan, Cuttack, Dr. Ashutosh Bhattacharya, Calcutta, Professor C. K. Pandey, Patna, Dr. R. S. Tripathi, Aligarh, Professor Viramani Prasad Upadhyaya, Gorakhpur, for enlightening me on some points referred to them; te Management and the workers of the Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series, Varanasi, for their enthusiasm in bringing out this work; scholars in general for their deep interest, which has been responsible for the demand for the second edition; and Mr. Aditya Prakash Misra M. A. and Mrs. Lila Pandey B. A. for their devoted and selfless assistance.


The work now being placed before the public-Abhinavagupta: An Historical and Philosophical Study by Dr. Kanti Chandra Pandey –is an important contribution to scholarship. It provides an account of well-known, but little-studied, philosophical system, known under the several names of 'Siva' 'Trika' 'Pratyabhijna' and others. The basic Sutras expounding the system are by Siva himself, followed by Parasurama Gaudapada and others: but like Sankaracarya in the realm of Vedanta whose basis lay in the Upanisads, the person who made the system intelligible was the great Abhinava Gupta who hails, like so many writers of the period, from Kashmir. He is a voluminous writer on several subjects-on Dramaturgy, on Rhetoric, on the Philosophy of Poetry and on Philosophy. But whatever he wrote, not only on Philosophy but also on poetry and Poetics-in all there runs the under-current of spirituality culminating in that 'Brahmasvada' the idea of which he has made so popular.

I have only to add, in the words of my esteemed friend, Mahamahopadhyaya Pandit Gopinath Kaviraj that in the succeeding volumes the author will "concentrate" his energy on the constructive side of his work-viz. its exposition and interpretation, more than on the refutation of doctrines". It is not that there is no constructive aspect in the present volume: there is plenty of it : but is so embeded in the mass of polemics in which our writers always revel, that an ordinary student will find it difficult to utilize it for his purpose.

It is encouraging to find a young scholar appearing on the horizon of Sanskrit philosophical Scholarship with such innate and acquired aptitude as one finds evinced in the following pages; especially the "historical sense" of which there is ample evidence in the first part of the work.

I hope the volume will find readers. I assure them they will be more than repaid.

Introduction to the second edition VII
Introduction to the first edition. XIII
List of Abbreviations XLVI
Preliminary. 3
Two Abhinavaguptas. 4
His ancestry 5
His parents. 6
Abhinava as a Yoginibhu. 7
Probable time of his birth. 8
His childhood and education. 10
Abhinavagupta, an incarnation of Sesa. 10
His teachers. 11
His family and its atmosphere. 13
Some Event in the family and their effect on his young mind. 13
His ascetic period. 14
His miraculous powers. 17
Centres of his activity. 18
His recognition as the spiritual head of all the Saiva sects. 20
Pen-picture of Abhinavagupta. 20
His age reflected in the pen-picture. 22
Abhinavagupta as a Jivanmukta. 23
The last scene of his earthly existence. 23
A bird's-eye view of his life. 25
List of his known works. 27
Explanation of the arrangement 30
Chronological Order. 30
The textual authority. 32
M. M. Mukundarama Sastri on the chronology of Abhinava's works 34
Works known from references. 35
Division of his works into three periods. 41
I. Tantrika period 41
II. Alankarika Period. 42
III. Philosophical Period. 42
A general idea of his available works 43
1. Bodha Pancadasika. 43
2. Malini Vijaya Vartika. 44
3. Paratrimsika Vivarana. 44
The text. 44
Other commentators. 45
The title. 46
Saiva conception of Para, Pasyanti, Madhyama and Vaikhari. 47
I. Para. 49
II. Pasyanti. 49
III. Madhyama. 50
IV. Vaikhari. 51
The substance. 52
Biographical importance. 52
4. Tantraloka. 52
The most important points discussed in the Tantraloka. 53
The title. 54
The place of and the occasion for its composition 54
Its authority. 54
5. Tantrasara. 55
6. Tantra Vata Dhanika 55
Authorship of the Tantra Vata Dhanika. 55
7. Dhvanyalokalocana. 55
8. Abhinava Bharati. 56
The plan. 56
The question of the joint authorship of the text. 57
The interpretation of Bharata's myth about the origin of the stage. 57
Two recensions of the Natya Sastra. 59
9. Bhagavadgitartha Sangraha. 60
Importance of the Bhagavadgita in the eyes of the Saivas. 62
10. Paramartha Sara. 63
The title. 63
The source. 63
Comparative study of the source and the adaptation. 64
11. Isvara Pratybhijna Vivrti Vimarsini 69
12. Isvara Pratyabhijna Vimarsini. 70
Rahasya Panca Dasika. 74
22. Tantroccaya, 75
23. Bimba Pratibimba Vada. 75
24. Anuttara Tattva Vimarsini Vrtti. 76
The authorship of the work 78
Idea of each verse of the Paryanta Pancasika with necessary elaboration 79
Bhairava. 79
Creation. 80
Experience. 80
Creation. 81
Individual subject. 81
The means to the realisation. 83
The Bhairava. 84
The system propounded in the Paryanta Pancasika. 88
The means presented in the Paryanta Pancasika. 91
Thirty seventh category in the Pratyabhijna system. 92
The titles of the poem. 95
Evidence on the existence of poet Ghatakarpara. 98
Inconclusive evidence on the existence of poet Ghata-karpara. 100
The Meghaduta and the Ghatakarpara Kulaka. 102
Explanation of "Kulaka". 106
I. Kulaka as a poetic vision of a house. 106
II. Kulaka as a poem for presentation on stage. 107
Types of Kavya, meant for presentation in dance on the stage 109
Distinction of "Gita-Kavya" from drama and its classification. 110
Nrtta (Dance) and Natya (Drama) distinguished. 111
Stage-presentation of Gita-Kavya at the time of Abhinavagupta. 115
The classification of the Gita-Kavyas and place of Kulaka among them. 116
What is Vastu ? 117
What is Anga ? 119
Kulaka defined. 119
The context of Upohana. 120
Sakha and Pratisakha. 121
The method of presentation of Gita-Kavya. 121
The occasions for dance in the stage-presentation of Gita-Kavya. 123
Literary criticism of the poem. 125
I. Historical background o his Tantric ideas. 132
Dvaita Tantras. 139
Dvaitadvaita Tantras. 140
Advaita Tantras. 140
The fourth Saiva Tantric school. 143
The traceable history of the fourth school. 145
II. Historical background of his philosophical ideas. 145
The rise of the monistic Saiva philosophy in Kashmir. 145
The causes of its rise. 146
Ancient faith of Kashmir. 148
Soil for the growth of Tantric Saivaism. 149
Influence of Sankaracarya. 151
The rise of Kashmir Saivaism. 153
The spanda branch. 154
(I) Vasugupta and his Siva Sutra. 154
Other works of Vasugupta. 154
2. Spanda Karika. 154
3. Spandamrta. 156
4. Vasavi Tika on the Bhagavadgita. 157
5. Siddhanta Candrika. 157
(II) Kallata (855 A. D.). 157
1. Spanda Sarvasva. 157
2. Tattvartha Cintamani. 157
3. Spanda Sutra. 157
4. Madhuvahini. 157
(III) Rama Kantha. 158
His works 158
1. Spanda Vivarana Sarmatra. 158
2. Commentary on the Matanga Tantra? 158
3. Commentary on the Bhagavadgita from the Saiva point of view ? 158
(IV) Bhaskaracarya. 158
1. Pradyumna Bhatta. 159
2. Prajnarjuna. 159
3. Mahadeva Bhatta. 159
4. Srikantha Bhatta. 159
His works. 159
1. Siva Sutra Vartika. (Published) 159
2. Vivekanjana. (known from reference) 159
3. Kaksya stotra. 159
The Pratyabhijna branch. 160
(I) Somananda. 160
His works. 161
1. Sivadrsti 161
2. Vivrti. 162
3. Paratrimsika Vivrti. 162
(II) Utpaladeva. 162
His works. 162
1. Isvara Pratyabhijna Karika. 162
2. Isvara Pratyabhijna Vrtti 163
3. Isvara Pratyabhijna Tika. 163
4. Stotravali. 163
5. Ajada Pramatr Siddhi. 163
6. Isvara Siddhi. 163
7. Isvara Siddhi Vrtti. 163
8. Sambandha Siddhi. 164
9. Sambandha Siddhi Vrtti. 164
10. Vrtti on Somananda's Sivadrsti. 164
11. Paramesa stotravali. 164
(III) Laksmanagupta 164
The Karma system 165
(I) Bhutiraja. 165
(II) Bhutirajatanaya. 166
Dualist Saiva school. 167
Amalgamation of the Dvaita and the Daitadvaita schools, 167
The position of this school in Abhinava's time. 168
Lakulisa Pasupati. 169
Dualist writers and their works. 170
(I) Sadyojyoti Siva. 170
His works. 170
1. Bhoga Karika. 170
2. Moksa Karika. 170
3. Paramoksa Nirasa Karika. 170
4. Tattva Traya Nirnaya. 170
5. Raurava Tantra Vrtti. 170
6. Tattva Sangraha. 170
(II) Brhaspati. 170
1. Siva Tanu Sastra. 171
(III) Sankaranandana. 171
1. Prajnalankara. 171
(IV) Vidyapati 171
Two works of his 171
1. Anubhava stotra. 171
2. Mana stotra. 171
(V) Devabala. 172
Saiva dualists of the post-Abhinava period 172
(I) King Bhojadeva. 172
1. Tattva Prakasika. 172
(II) Rama Kantha. 173
His identity. 173
1. Rama Kantha. 173
2. Vidya Kantha. 173
3. Narayana Kantha. 173
His date. 173
His work. 174
1. Sadvrtti. 174
(III) Srikantha. 174
1. Ratna Traya. 174
(IV) Narayana Kantha. 174
His identity. 174
His works. 175
1. Mrgendra Vrtti 175
2. Sarannisa or Brhattika. 175
(V) Rama Kantha (II) 175
His works. 175
1. Nada Karika. 175
2. Vrtti on Paramoksa Nirasa Karika. 75
3. Vrtti on Moksa Karika. 175
Works known from references only. 175
4. Mantra Vartika Tika. 175
5. Agama Viveka. 175
(VI) Aghora Siva (1130-58 A. D.) 176
His works. 176
Identity of the Siddhanta school with the Saiva Darsana of Madhava. 177
III. Historical background of his dramaturgic ideas. 178
The writers on Dramaturgy known to Abhinava and their historical position. 178
Interpolation in Bharata's Natya Sastra. 178
Kohala. 180
Bharata's Date. 184
Bharata's commentators and writers on subjects allied to dramaturgy referred to by Abhinava. 185
(I) Tumburu. 185
(II) Dattilacarya. 185
(III) Rahula. 186
(IV) Raghunatha. 186
(V) Adhvahara. 186
(VI) Jayadeva (Pre-Abhinava). 187
(VII) Bhatta Sankara (Pre-Abhinava). 187
(VIII) Bhatta Yantra. 188
(IX) Kirtidharacarya. 188
(X) Nanyadeva 189
His time. 189
The commentators whose date can be fixed. 192
(XI) Bhatta Matrgupta (5th century A. D.). 192
(XII) Sri Harsa, the author of the Harsa Vartika. 193
(XIII) Udbhata. 195
His date. 195
(XIV) Bhatta Lollata. 195
His date. 196
(XV) Srisankuka. 197
(XVI) Bhatta Gopala (9th century A. D.). 197
(XVII) Bhatta Nayaka. 199
Explanation of the remark of Mahima Bhatta's commentator. 200
His date. 200
Exponents and opponents of the theory of Dhvani. 201
Who was the author of the Dhvani Karika ? 202
Precursors of Dhvani. 208
(I) Udbhata. 208
(II) Vamana. 209
Other Vamanas. 209
The founder of the theory of Dhvani. 210
Ananda Vardhana. 210
His other works. 210
1. Tattvaloka. 211
2. Vivrti on the Vaniscaya Tika Dharmottama. 211
3. Devi Sataka. 211
4. Visamavana Lila. 211
5. Arjuna Carita. 212
Commentators on the Dhvanyaloka before Abhinava 212
Opponent of Dhvani. 212
Bhatta Nayaka. 212
1. Hrdaya Darpana. 212
Abhinava's teacher in Dhvani. 213
Bhatta Induraja. 213
The background of his poetic thought. 214
Panini (4th century B. C. ). 216
Katyayana (3rd century B. C. ). 217
Bhasa. 219
Sudraka. 222
Gunadhya. 225
Candraka (2nd century A. D.). 228
Pravarasena (5th century A. D. ). 228
Amaru or Amaruka. 229
Subandhu (6th century A. D. ). 231
Matanga Divakara (620 A. D.). 232
Mayura (7th century A. D.). 233
Mahendra Vikrama Varman (620 A. D. ). 235
Yasovarman (731 A. D.). 236
Bhavabhuti. 237
Mayuraraja (8th century A. D. ). 238
Anangaharsa Matrraja (8th century A. D. ). 238
Bhejjala (9th century A. D. ). 240
Bhima (9th century A. D. ). 241
Vasunaga 241
Brahmayasahsvamin (9th century A. D.). 242
Rajasekhara. 242
Tota or Bhatta Tauta (10th century A. D. ), Abhinava's teacher in dramaturgy. 244
Was Vikata Nitamba an authoress ? 249
Isvara Datta. 249
Sarvasena. 250
Abhinanda (10th century A. D. ), a teacher of Abhinava. 250
Syamalaka (10th century A. D. ). 251
(I) Ksemaraja. 253
His works. 254
(II) Madhuraja Yogin and his works. 257
His autobiographical sketch and date. 259
(III) Yogaraja. 261
(IV) Subhata Datta. 251
(V) Jayaratha. 262
His date. 262
(VI) Sobhakaragupta. 263
(VII) Bhaskara Kantha. 264
His date. 264
His works. 265
(VIII) A commentator, whose name is not traceable. 266
The writers directly influenced by Abhinava. 266
(I) Ksemendra. 266
His date. 269
His works. 270
Abhinava's influence in poetics. 270
His influence in Pratyabhijna Philosophy and Tantric ritualism. 271
(I) Goraksa alias Mahesvarananda. 272
List of his known works. 273
His date. 274
Origin and history of his thought. 274
The occasion for writing the Mahartha Manjari. 275
The aim o the book. 276
Pratyabhijna doctrines accepted by Mahesvarananda. 277
Does Mahesvarananda deal with the Krama system ? 278
His approach to Kaulism. 281
The relation between the Krama and the Kula systems. 283
Synthetical approach of Mahesvarananda. 284
(II) Varada Raja Alias Krsnadasa. 284
Siva Sutra Vartika 285
Abhinava's contribution. 290
The Pratyabhijna system. 293
Explanations of the names of the system. 294
For whom is the system meant ? 297
The aim. 298
What is recognition ? 299
What is Diksa ? 304
Saktipata. 305
The cause and the nature of bondage. 305
Malas or impurities defined. 307
1. Anavamala or innate ignorance. 307
Its distinction from intellectual ignorance. 307
2. Karma Mala. 310
3. Mayiya Mala. 311
The means of liberation from bondage. 311
The intellectual and the spiritual knowledge 311
Kriyopaya or Anavopaya. 314
Jnanopaya or Saktopaya. 314
Sambhava Marga or Anandopaya 314
Anupaya-Marga or Anandopaya 315
Conception of Moksa, according to the Pratyabhijna. 315
Other conceptions of Moksa from the point of view of Pratyabhijna system. 316
Vijnanavadin's conception of Moksa. 316
Its refutation. 317
Nihilist's theory of Moksa and its rufutation. 317
Sankhya conception of Moksa and its criticism. 317
Abhasa defined. 320
The common basis of Abhasas. 320
Anuttara. 321
The Ultimate as Prakasa-Vimarsamaya 323
Svatantrya Sakti. 327
Other names of Svatantrya Sakti. 329
Prakasa and Vimarsa explained. 329
The essential nature of the manifested and the manifes-table 330
The implication of "Prakasa-Vimarsamaya" summarized. 330
The names of the Ultimate and their distinctive implications. 331
How are the Abhasas related to the universal consciousness ? 333
The 'Why' of the manifestation explained. 335
Does the Ultimate reality change ? 336
Monism explained. 338
Are Abhasas real ? 339
Mahesvara. 341
Knowability of the universal consciousness. 342
The powers of the universal consciousness. 343
The Kartrtva and the Jnatrtva saktis and their functions. 344
The aspects of the Jnatrtva Sakti. 345
The power of knowledge. 345
The power of remembrance. 346
Apohana Sakti or the power of differentiation. 347
Kartrtva Sakti. 348
Kala Sakti. 351
Pralaya and Mahapralaya. 353
Tattva defined. 357
The order of manifestation of the pure creation. 358
Siva Tattva. 362
Sakti. 364
Sadasiva. 364
Isvara Tattva. 365
Sadvidya. 366
Analogy explained. 367
Sadvidya and Vidya distinguished. 368
The two orders 369
Difference of views about the first five categories. 370
Maya. 370
Kala. 372
Vidya. 374
Raga. 374
Kala. 375
Niyati. 375
Purusa. 375
The Sankhya and the Pratyabhijna concepts of Purusa compared. 377
Prakrti or Pradhana. 377
Comparison of the Sankhya and the Pratybhijna concepts of the Pradhana. 378
Buddhi. 378
The Sankhya and the Pratyabhijna concepts of Buddhi compared. 379
Ahankara. 379
Manas. 380
The remaining twenty Tattvas. 380
Abhasavada and practical life. 382
The limited sentient Abhasa. 384
The limited insentient manifestation or Jadabhasa. 387
The constituent Abhasas. 390
Refutation of the rival theories of perception. 392
Sankhya theory of perception. 393
The necessity for such an assumption. 393
Refutation of the Sankhya theory. 394
Bauddha theories of perception and their refutations. 395
Sautrantika theory. 395
The necessity for such a supposition. 396
Its refutation. 398
Vijnanavadin's theory. 398
Its refutation. 398
Pratybhijna's theory of perception. 400
Indeterminate and determinate knowledge. 404
The process. 404
The distinctive process of the determinate knowledge. 407
Determinate knowledge and external object. 409
Supersensuous experience or Anubhava. 410
Criticism of the rival theories. 412
Prakatatavada. 413
Its refutation. 413
The Naiyayika theory of knowledge. 415
Its refutation. 415
The point of difference. 416
Theory of remembrance. 417
Buddhist theory of remembrance. 41
Bauddha criticism of the Naiyayika theory. 419
Refutation of the Bauddha theory. 420
Remembrance and error. 421
The Pratyabhijna theory of remembrance. 423
The remembering subject. 423
The remembered object. 424
The objectivity of the remembered explained. 424
The Abhasavada and the physical phenomena. 428
Theory of effectability. 429
The physical universe and the Ultimate Reality. 431
Theory of causality. 431
Necessity for such a supposition. 435
Criticism of the Buddhistic conception. 436
Criticism of the Sankhya. 437
Criticism of the Vedantin's theory. 438
The Pratyabhijni theory of causality. 439
The Pratyabhijna theory of Karma. 440
Karma and creation. 442
Karma defined. 447
Conditions necessary for fruition of Karma. 448
The associated idea and fruition. 448
Different states of Karma. 449
Karma and liberation. 450
How is the destruction of Karma effected ? 451
Criticism of the rival theory of the Sankhya. 452
Sankhya conception of ignorance. 454
Refutation of the Sankhya theory. 455
Dualistic Saiva theory of ignorance. 456
Refutation of the dualist theory. 456
Dualist theory of Karmasamya 458
Refutation of Karmasamya. 459
The Krama as a distinct system. 461
The names of the system. 463
Origin and history of the system. 463
Literature on the Krama. 466
(1) The original Agamas. 467
(i) Kramasadbhava. 467
(ii) Krama Siddhi. 469
(iii) Brahma Yamala. 470
(iv) Tantraraja Bhattaraka. 471
(2) The works of the early teachers. 471
(i) Sivanandanatha. 471
(ii) Eraka. 472
(iii) Hrasvanatha. 472
(iv) Somaraja. 473
(3) Works of unknown authors. 473
(i) Krama Sutra. 473
(ii) Kramodaya. 474
(iii) Pancasatika. 474
(iv) Sardhasatika. 476
(v) Krama Stotra. 476
(vi) Mahanaya Prakasa. 477
The author. 477
Another Mahanaya Prakasa. 479
Its author and his time. 480
(vii) Mahanaya Paddhati. 481
(4) Works of Abhinavagupta and his successors in Kashmir and Cola. 482
(i) Kramakeli. 482
(ii) Krama Stotra. 484
(iii) Dehastha devatacakra Stotra. 485
(iv) Commentary on Krama Sutra. 485
(v) Krama Vasana. 486
(vi) Mahartha Manjari and  
(vii) Maharthodaya. 487
(ix) Tantraloka Viveka. 487
Krama system as one of the earliest system of Kashmir 488
The two traditions of the Krama system. 489
The Sakta tendency in the Krama system. 491
The problem of moral turpitude in the Krama ritual. 491
The use of prohibited as a test of self-realisation. 493
The Krama as a pentadic system. 493
The cause of the pentadic tendency. 495
The essential identity of the pentads. 496
Difference of views on the aspects of speech explained. 498
Suksma as identical with Nada. 502
Difference between the Krama and dualist Saivaism on the conception of the aspects of speech. 504
Kali as the Ultimate Metaphysical Principle. 504
Kalasankarsini as identical with Bhasa. 509
Twelve Kalis. 512
1. Srstikali. 513
2. Raktakali. 514
3. Sthitinasakali. 514
4. Yamakali. 515
5. Samharakali. 515
6. Mrtyukali. 516
7. Rudrakali or Bhadrakali. 516
8. Martandakali. 518
9. Paramarkakali. 518
10. Kalanalarudrakali. 519
11. Mahakalakali. 520
12. Mahabhairavacandograghorakali. 521
Divergent texts on the number of Kalis. 521
Difference in the order of Kalis. 522
The controversy about the number of the Kalis in the Krama system. 522
The conception of Cakras as the distinctive feature of the Krama system. 525
Seventy categories of the Krama system. 526
The universe as manifestation of the Universal Energy. 530
Common mystic tendencies of the Krama system and the Upanisads 532
The Krama system and the Saktopaya. 534
True logic (Sattarka) and Saktopaya. 534
True logic (Sattarka) as the best part of Yoga. 535
Two types of Tarka (Logic). 535
The Krama an the Rajayoga. 536
Utility of other parts of Yoga. 538
The means to liberation. 538
(i) Realisation of the true nature of Indriyas. 539
(ii) Empirical knowledge as a means to self-realisation. 539
(iii) Realisation of the imperceptible succession of circles of powers. 540
(iv) Mystic methods of worship, bath etc. 540
Name of the system. 542
Traceable history of the Kula system. 543
Rise of the Kula system in the 5th century A. D. 546
Literature on Kaulism. 548
Literature on Kaulism referred to by Abhinavagupta. 549
(i) the original Agamas. 550
1. The Siddhayogisvari Tantra 550
Synthetic view. 550
Two traditions about the Agama. 551
Theories of evolution and devolution. 551
2. Rudrayamala Tantra. 552
3. Kularnava Tantra 556
Kaulism as Urdhvamnaya. 557
No bifurcation of religion and philosophy in the Kularnava. 558
Birth in higher caste of no importance. 559
Degeneration among the followers of the Kaulism. 559
Emphasis on motive. 560
Why do the Yogins use 'wine' ? 561
Kaulism as synthesis of Bhoga and Moksa. 562
Later interpolations. 562
Differences in the manuscript and printed edited of the Kularnava. 563
The characteristics of a man in Samadhi (Samadhistha) according to the Kularnava. 564
Influence of the Bhagavadgita. 564
Some features which are common to other systems. 564
4. Jnanarnava.. 565
5. Nityasodasikarnava, a part of the Vamakesvara Tantra. 567
Commentaries and commentators on the Nityasodasikarnava. 570
6. Svacchanda Tantra. 571
Its historical position. 572
Its subject-matter. 572
7. Netra Tantra. 573
8. Tantraraja. 574
(ii) Semi-agamic literature. 576
1. The Kalikula. 576
(iii) Kashmirian contribution to the literature on Kaulism from the 9th century A. D. 577
Propagation of the Vamakesvari Mata in Kashmir in the 9th century A. D. by Isvarasivacarya. 578
Was Isvarasiva author of the Rasamahodadhi ? 579
Sankararasi. 580
Visvavarta. 581
Dipikanatha. 581
Kalyana Varman. 582
Allata. 582
Kallata as an author of a work on Kula system. 582
Sambhunatha (10th century A. D.). 583
Tradition of Kaulism in Kasi in the 18th century A. D. 583
Gambhiraraya, the father of Bhaskararaya. 584
Bhaskararaya's birth and life. 585
His successors. 589
Philosophical approach to the Kula system.  
Preliminary. 590
Limitation of the presentation. 593
Confusing technical terms in the system. 593
Different meanings of the word "Kula". 594
Different meanings of "Trika". 597
Trika as an object o worship. 597
Trika as the ultimate objective. 598
Trika for the Pratybhijna Philosophy. 599
Trika used for the highest mystic syllable. 600
The word "Trika" used for the Kula system. 601
Trika used for the lowest triad. 602
Trika and Kula systems distinguished. 603
Kula and Tantra distinguished. 604
The distinction of the Tantra, the Kula and the Trika systems, according to Ksemaraja. 604
Kaulism as a religion. 605
Two types of rituals in Kaulism. 607
The place of Bhavana in the Kula system in this context. 608
The point of view for the proper appreciation of the secret Kaula ritual. 609
Kaulism as a synthesis of the two paths, Vama and Daksina. 610
Necessity for the synthesis of the two paths. 611
The qualifications, necessary for the performance of the secret Kaula ritual. 612
The aim. 613
The Kaula conception of Brahmacari. 613
Yogic movement of vital air and secret ritual of Kaulism. 614
The three Ms (Makaratraya) of the Kaulism. 614
Wine. 614
Meat. 615
Duti. 616
The method of the performance of the Kula-Yaga. 618
The arrival of Duti. 619
The mutual worship. 622
The mutual worship. 622
The contribution of the Kula system. 623
Evolution of Kaulism as a system of philosophy. 624
Bhartrhari's view of the Sound-Absolute (Sabda-Brahma). 626
The difference of the monistic Saivas from the philosophers of grammar. 629
Two conceptions of Para. 630
The context of the problem of Para in the Isvara Pratyabhijna. 630
The identity o Utpala's conception of Para, made in the Para Trimsika. 634
The relation of Para to the ultimate Reality. 634
The problems relating to Anuttara. 635
Sixteen meanings of Anuttara. 636
Other meanings of Anuttara. 641
The psychological necessity of admission of Anuttara as pure consciousness. 644
The realisation of the Anuttara through the activity of vital air 645
The say to rise to the transcendental level of the supreme bliss from the sensuous. 648
Anuttara as the third Brahman. 650
Anuttara as Vijnatamatra 651
The philosophical interpretation of alphabetical system and the place of Anuttara in it. 652
'A' as Anuttara. 653
'A' as Ananda Sakti. 654
'I' as Iccha Sakti. 654
'I' as Isana. 655
'U' s Unmesa. 655
'U' as Unata. 655
The influence of six-life on the Kula system. 659
The rise of the semi-vowels (Antastha). 660
Philosophical interpretations of religious symbols. 662
The rise of the sibilants. 662
Psychological significance of dipthongs. 663
Monism explained. 664
The meaning of Aham. 667
Influence of the Upanisadic thought. 668
Kauliki Sakti. 669
Kauliki Sakti as a motive force. 669
Five meanings of Mahabhaga, as definitions of the Kauliki Sakti. 670
The Kaula theory of pleasure, based on the conception of Kauliki Sakti. 671
The fourth meaning of Mahabhaga. 674
Kauliki Sakti as a factor in sense-experience. 676
Kauliki Sakti as the power of manifestation. 677
Kauliki Sakti as Para-Pratibha. 678
Kauliki Sakti, the Para-Pratibha, as universal indeterminacy. 679
Conception of Moksa in the Kula system. 682
(i) Moksa as Khecarisamya. 682
Jivanmukti as Khecarisamya. 682
Conceptions of Khecari etc. in the Kula system compared with those in the Krama. 684
Khecarisamya as final emancipation. 685
(ii) Moksa as Bhairavaikatmya. 686
Jivanmukti as Bhairavaikatmya. 686
The objectivity from the point of view of the liberated in life, according to the Tantraloka. 687
(iii) Moksa as Kauliki Siddhi. 688
Sambhavopaya, the means to the liberation, as conceived by the Kula system. 689
Sambhavopaya and Pratibha. 692
Mystic conceptions of Pratibha and Pratibhajnana in Patanjali. 693
Similar conceptions of Pratibha and Pratibhajnana in "Abhinavagupta. 695
Points of agreement with difference. 696
Difference between Patanjali and Abhinava on the essential nature of Pratibha. 698
Another point of agreement with difference. 700
Abhinava's conception of Pratibha. 701
Religious conception of Pratibha. 702
Metaphysical conception of Pratibha. 703
The conception of Pratibha in the Pratyabhijna system, 704
Pratibha. 706
Bhartrhari's conception of Pratibha. 710
Bhartrhari's conception of Pratibha as the meaning of a sentence. 712
Pratibha in ethica context. 714
Pratibha and instinctive behaviour. 714
Metaphysical view of Pratibha. 715
Pratibha in the context of Esthetics. 717
The problem of Pratibha in the Natya Sastra of Bharata, according to Abhinavagupta. 717
Pratibha in the connoisseur. 719
Pratibha in the actor. 719
Influence of Bharata on the writers on Sanskrit poetics in the conceptions of Pratibha and Vyutpatti. 720
Vamana's approach. 721
Dandin's approach. 722
Pratibha, according to Ananda Vardhana as interpreted by Abhinavagupta. 723
Pratibha, according to Rajasekhara. 725
Bhatta Tauta's conception of Pratibha. 727
A view of Pratibha, known from Abhinava's reference. 728
Difference between Rajasekhara and Abhinavagupta on Sakti, Pratibha and Vyutpatti. 728
Mahima Bhatta on Pratibha. 729
Pratibha as an evidence of the identity of the individual and Mahesvara. 730

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