Q1. What are the 3 elements of Buddhist architecture?
Buddhism inspired three types of architecture: the
stupa, the Buddhist monastery (vihara), and a sepulchral monument (the caitya),
a stupa that holds no relics. Buddhist temples are often the center of cultural
activities. From a modern viewpoint, temples can be compared to museums, for
they contain precious and spectacular art forms, and in fact, are beautiful art
forms themselves. Like art museums, they are a combination of architecture,
sculpture, painting, and calligraphy.
Q2. What are the 3 major structures of Buddhist architecture?
Three types of structures are associated with the
religious architecture of early Buddhism: monasteries (viharas), places to
venerate relics (stupas), and shrines or prayer halls (chaityas, also called
chaitya grihas), which later came to be called temples in some places.
Q3. What is Buddhist art and architecture?
The Buddhist architecture of every region has its
own unique character due to differing cultural and environmental factors. Close
in proximity, Ceylon's architecture is similar to India's architecture. Burma,
Thailand, and Cambodia also share a similar style, with structures that
incorporate the use of wood into their design. Java's stupas resemble those of
Tibet, which are made of stone and represent the nine-layered Mandala (symbolic
circular figure that represents the universe and the divine cosmology of
various religions: used in meditation and rituals). Tibet's large monasteries
are typically constructed on hillsides and are similar in style to European
architecture in which the buildings are connected to each other, forming a type
of street-style arrangement.
Q4. What are the major architectural forms of Buddhist art?
The three key elements of Buddhist architecture are
Stupas, Viharas and Chaityas. A stupa refers to a mound-like structure that
contains some relic of Buddha or Buddhist monks. Both early Chaityas and
Viharas were made by woods and later stone cut Chaityas and Viharas were made.
A Chaitya was a rectangular prayer hall with a stupa placed in the centre, the
purpose was prayer. The Chaitya was divided into three parts, and had an
apsidal ending i.e., a semicircular rear end, the central part of the hall
(also called the nave) was separated from the two aisles by two rows of
pillars, Chaityas also had polished interior walls, semi-circular roofs and
horse-shoe shaped windows called the Chaitya windows. Viharas were the
residences of the monks.
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