The philosophical foundations of Bhakti are laid down in the Narad Bhakti Sutras and Sandilya Bhakti Sutras. The nectar of bhakti hinted at by these texts finds it delightful blossoming in the Srimad Bhagavata Purana.
Among the prominent bhaktas who have inspired generations we may mention: Jnanesvara, The Alwars, Namadeva, Narsi Mehta, Guru Nanak, Mirabai, and Sankara Deva. Great stimulus was given by the bhakti movement to Brajabhasa, a Western Hindi dialect, and also to Awadhi or Kosali, an Eastern Hindi speech. The followers of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, through their writings, greatly influenced the development of Bengali.
Sacred cities like Varanasi, Ayodhya, Mathura, Vrndavana, Navadvipa, and Amritsar became centres of bhakti literature.
Tulasidasa’s Rama-carita-manasa, an early Awadhi (Eastern Hindi) version of the Ramayana, became a classic in its own right and, for the greater part of northern India, provided the gospel of righteous living in a language of perfect beauty. Suradasa and Mirabai wrote their lyrics on Krishna in Braja-bhasa and Rajasthani.
Here is a collection of bhakti books, suitable for all - whether just entering bhakti, or those who have already made it a way of life.
Q1. How many types of bhakti
As told by Bhakta Prahlkad to his father, demon
Hiranyakshypa; and Bhagwan Ram to Maa Sabri:
Shravana: listening to the divine name, sports of the
Kirtan: to glorify god by
chanting or singing holy verses.
Smarana: a remembrance of god by
repetition of a mantra or a sacred name.
Pada-seven: service at the feet of the lord, or guru.
Archana: worship to plead divine blessings.
Vandana: a devotional gesture of bowing before a deity
or guru expressing gratitude.
Dasya: an attitude of bondage towards god or guru.
Sakhya: cultivation of friend
sentiment with God.
Atma-nirvana: surrendering one’s body, mind, and soul to
Q2. What are the major
classifications of bhakti?
There are the following six classifications in
Apara (lower) and Para (higher) Bhakti. Bhakta
observes rituals and ceremonies in Apara. Para Bhakti is Nirguna Bhakti.
Ragad Mika and Vidhi Bhakti.
Sakamya Showing devotion to God for getting riches
or son or removal of sufferings from diseases is Sakamya Bhakti.
· (Nishkam Bhakti - without desires)
· Vyabhichari and Avyabhichari Bhakti.
· Mukhya (primary) and Gauna (secondary) Bhakti.
Sattvic, Rajasic and Tamasic
Ragatmika Bhakti is otherwise known as Mukhya or
primary Bhakti. Para Bhakti is also the primary devotion. Sakamya Bhakti is
Gauna or secondary devotion. Nishkam Bhakti, Avyabhichari Bhakti, or Para
Bhakti is otherwise known as Ananya Bhakti.
Q3. What is Bhakti in
in Hinduism, a movement emphasizing the mutual
intense emotional attachment, participation, fondness for, homage, faith, love,
devotion, worship, and purity of a devotee toward a personal god and of the god
for the devotee.
Bhakti-Vedanta means "one who has realized that
devotional service to the Supreme Lord is the end of all knowledge". With
the words Bhakti, indicating devotion, and Vedanta indicating conclusive
The main features of the Bhakti Movement are-
· That God is one single entity, with different names.
· Bhakti, intense love, and devotion, the sole thanks
· Repetition of the True Name.
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