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Comparative Aesthetics Volume I: Indian Aesthetics

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Item Code: IDE448
Publisher: Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office
Author: Prof. Dr. Kanti Chandra Pandey
Language: English
Edition: 2008
ISBN: 9788170802776
Pages: 796
Cover: Hardcover
Other Details 8.8" X 5.8"
Weight 940 gm
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Book Description


I had the pleasure of examining Dr. K. C. Pandey's Thesis on Comparative Aesthetics for the D. Litt. degree of the' Lucknow University and I recommended the award of the degree. His work deals with a ralatively unexplored section of lndian thought and his handling of the original sources and sympathetic interpretation of Aesthetic doctrines are remarkable. No student of Indian Aesthetics can afford to neglect this important work. When the projected second and third volumes appear, Dr. Pandey would have done work of an enduring character.


Introduction to The First Edition

The following pages fulfil the promise, made to the reader in the Introduction to my Abhinavagupta: An Historical and Philosophical Study. Here the word 'Aesthe- tics' stands for 'Science and Philosophy of Fine Art', - \ For, the texts, on the basis of which 'Indian Aesthetics' is presented in the following pages, have approached the problem from both, the technical and the philosophical points of view. Here the problem of aesthetics is studied from the points of view of the dramaturgists and the poeticians. Although the School of Aesthetics, represented by Bharata and Abhinavagupta, regards all other arts, whether fine or mechanical, as auxiliaries to the dramatic art, yet the authorities on two arts, (i) Music and (ii) Architecture, assert the independence of these two fine arts in - giving rise to aesthetic experience. Thus, in India, there are three schools of the Philosophy of Fine Art: (i) Rasa-Brahma-Vada, (ii) Nada-Brahma-Vada and (iii) Vastu-Brahma- Vada. The latter two will be dealt with in a subsequent volume on the subject.

In this volume also, as in the case of the previous, Sanskrit texts have been studied from the historical and the philosophical points of view. It is primarily concerned with the presentation of Abhinavagupta's Theory of Aesthetics against the background of the History of Aesthetic Thought in India and in proper setting of the system of the monistic Saiva Philosophy of Kashmir, as propounded by him in his two famous and voluminous works, (i) Isvara Pratyabhijna VimarsinI and (ii) Isvara Pratyabhijna Vivrti Vimarsini

The latter' work is a commentary by Abhinavagupta on Utpalacarya's own commentary on his own Isvara Pratyabhijna Karika. It was available only in MSS. at the time when the present work was undertaken, though its publication has recently been completed by the Research .Department of Kashmir. But the original commentary of Utpalacarya seems to be irrecoverably lost. For, not only my search for this valuable work in private and •public collections of M SS. all over India has failed to trace it out but also that of the Research Department of Kashmir, with all the resources of Kashmir State at its disposal.The published text tallies with MS. No. 464 of 1875-76 in the' Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona, so much so that the same portions are missing in both.

In the absence of the original, it iS exceptionally difficult to follow the commentary closely. But Abhinava- gupta's method of commenting is such as gives to his work some sort of independent value. At the beginning of his commentary on each Karika he gives his own interpre- tation so as to bring out clearly its full meaning. On many . important philosophical points, referred to by Utpalacarya in the course of his lost commentary, he enters into fairly lengthy discussions. Some of these are very important for a proper understanding of his theory of aesthetics. In the present work they have been utilised for the first time.

The Abhinava Bharati has not yet been fully published. Only the first two volumes, which cover first 18 Chapters, have been •'brought out by our learned friend, Rama Krishna Kavi. It is the most important and the biggest work on Indian Aesthetics. And without a careful study and thorough understanding of its contents, it is not possible to write on Indian AEsthetics so as to show the jmportance of Abhinavagupta's Theory of Aethetics.in a comparative light. In this work the whole of the Abhinava Bharati has been used for the first time to solve different problems connected with AEsthetics, such as those of the unities of time, place and action in Sanskrit Drama: and why is there no tragedy in Sanskrit in the strict Shakespearian sense of it.

The scholars, who have so far written on Abhinava- gupta's Theory of AEsthetics, have either completely ignored the philosophical aspect of the problem, as Dr. Sankaran has done in his Some Aspects of Literary Criticism, or have attempted to present it in terms of the Vedanta Philosophy, as has been done by P. Panchapagesa Shastri in his Philosophy of AEsthetic Plasure. Such an attempt is as good as interpreting the AEsthetic Theory of Hegel in terms of the philosophy of Kant, He has, however, followed the tradition, which developed, in ignorance of the philosopby of Abhinavagupta, of interpreting his AEsthetic Theory in terms of the Vedanta,


Introduction to The Second Edition

I feel greatly encouraged by the demand for the Second Edition of this Volume on Comparative AEsthetics, long before the Second Volume on the subject could appear. I am, therefore, extremely grateful to the readers in general, who took such a keen interest in it; to the professors, who made use of it in teaching the post-graduate courses; to the reviewers, whose valuable appreciations and helpful suggestions drew the attention of scholars to it and to the Universities, which recommended it for Post-graduate study not only in Sanskrit but also in Philosophy.

I have utilised the opportunity, offered by the Second Edition, in giving a more complete picture of Indian AEsthe- tics than the one presented in the First Edition by adding Chapters on the history and philosophy of music and architecture, the two arts, which alone, besides poetry, are recognised to be independent or fine in Indian tradition, and, therefore, fall within the purview of a work On Indian aestbetlcs. I have also attempted to tackle some important problems such as the following:-

(i) Poetry is the highest form of art: drama is the highest form of poetry: tragedy is the highest form of drama. Why did not the tragic form of drama develop in Sanskrit?

(ii) Why is there more dialogue than action in Sanskrit drama?

(iii) Did the ancient stage employ curtains; presenting scenes of action such as mountains, palaces and temples, and artistic imitations of inanimate and animate objects such as chariots and horses?

(iv)What is the difference between the two experiences, Karune and tragic?

The primary aim of the two Volumes, which are before the readers, is a faithful presentation of Indian and Western theories of aesthetics in their proper philosophical setting. 'Sensitive discussion of Western thought from Indian point of view'; 'critical interpretation and appre- ciation of the aesthetic thought of the two cultures'; 'explanation of the points of agreement and difference between them' and similar other approaches, suggested by learned critics such as Prof. Alexander Sesonske, Prof. G. E. Myers and Prof. Herald Mc Arthy, will engage my attention in the Third Volume.

I am extremely grateful to Shri jaykrishna Das Gupta, Secretary, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series, for his keen personal interest, to Shri Anand Shankar, director, Tara Printing Works, for his careful guidance of the pressmen, to Mr. Aditya Prakash Mishra and to Mrs. Lila Pandey for the valuable assistance in research to complete this work.




Introduction to the Second Edition vii
Introduction to the First Edition ix
List of abbreviations xxxvii
Preliminary. I
The scope 2
Religious origin of drama 3
History and evolution of the dramatic art. 4
Natya Sastra 5
Meaning of Natya Sastra 7
Manu's attitude towards Natya 10
The aim of the Natya Sastra 12
Moral improvement of the aesthete as an end of dramatic presentation 12
The questions attempted by Bharata in his Natya Sastra 13
Problems of Esthetics solved in the above answers 16
Bird's-eye view of the Natya Sastra 18
Limitations of the work 19
Rasa as Aesthetic object 20
Importance of Rasa in the eyes of Bharata 20
Constituents of Rasa, the Aesthetic object 21
Explanation of the Technical Terms 22
Vibhava. 24
Two aspects of Vibhava 25
Anubhava 25
Bhava 27
Vyabhicaribhava. 28
Sthayibhava. 29
Importance of Rasa from different points of view 30
Bharata's conception of Rasa 31
The relation of the constituents of Rasa 31
Omission of the word "Sthayin" in Bharata's definition of Rasa 32
Aesthetic object not an imitation 33
Distinction of Rasa from Sthayibhava etc. 34
Importance of Rasa in the eyes of Bharata. Another point of view 35
The nature of the Aesthetic object 35
The seat of Rasa 36
From the spectator's point of view 36
Commentators on the Natya Sastra 38
Bhatta Lollata's practical point of view 38
Bhatta Lollata's Theory 40
Its criticism 42
The causes of the misunderstanding 44
Another objection to Bhatta Lollata's theory 46
Sri Sankuka's contribution 47
Sri Sankuka's Psycho-Epistemic approach to the problem of aesthetics 49
Conditions of knowledge 50
Individual soul or subject 51
Manas and senses 52
The object to knowledge (Prameya) 52
Means of knowledge (Pramana) 53
Error or illusion (Vyabhicari Jnana) 54
Doubt (Samsaya) 56
Recognition (Pratyabhijna) 58
Srisankuka's explanation of the omission of "Sthayin" in Bharata's definition of Rasa 59
Nature of the inferential judgement 60
Unclassifiability of the recognition in art 60
Recognition in art is not erroneous 61
Aesthetic Judgement not dubious 62
It is not a cognition of similarity 62
Influence of painting on his aesthetic theory 62
Contributions of this theory 63
Its criticism 63
Criticism of the aesthetic judgement 67
Arguments against imitation of Sthayin summarised 68
Criticism of analogy of painted horse 68
Sankhya theory of aesthetics 68
Criticism of the earlier theories 70
Sankhya theory of aesthetics in the Sankhya Karika and the Tattva Kaumudi 70
Intellectual background of Bhatta Nayaka 72
Vedantic tendencies of Bhatta Nayaka 72
Bhatta Nayaka's criticism of other theories 73
His new technique 74
His basic assumptions 75
Its contribution 76
Vedanta-metaphysics and Ananda 77
Sankhya conception of Bhoga. 78
The process 79
The conception of Bhoga, according to Yoga System 80
Vaisesika conception of Bhoga 80
The criticism of the new technique 80
Bhatta Nayaka's position explained 81
The New fectors, which influenced Abhinavagupta's Aesthetics 84
Importance of Abhinavagupta 86
Rational mysticism of Abhinavagupta 87
His idealism 87
Place of other schools of thought in Abhinava's system 88
Mystic conception of the Absolute (Anuttara) 88
The impurities of the soul 89
Spiritual discipline for freedom from impurities 90
Background of his metaphysics 91
Rationalistic conception of the Absolute 93
Concrete monism of the Saiva 97
Voluntarism of the Saiva 97
Abhasavada 101
The category of Sakti (consciousness) as Camatkara 103
The context of the problems of Camatkara 104
Saiva conception of Bhoga 110
The Absolute in the context of "Bhoga" 110
The individual subjects 111
The qualities of individual subjects 112
Power and quality distinguished 112
Sattva, Rajas and Tamas and pleasure, pain and senselessness 114
Qualities of individual subject and Bhoga 116
The conclusions 116
Limitations of individual subject 117
Kala (Limited power of action) 117
Vidya (Limited power of knowledge) 118
Raga (General objective desire) 120
Niyati (Subjection to causal law) 121
Kala (Time) 122
Time as a standard of measure 122
Levels of experience 124
Subject in deep sleep (Sunya Pramata) 125
Inconsistency of Hegel 129
Sunya Pramata of Abhinava 130
Apavedya Susupta and Turiya differentiated 133
Distinction between Turiya and Turiyatita 134
Savedya Susupta and Prana Pramata 134
Aesthetic experience from sense level to objectless level 136
Meaning of Rasa 142
Epistemic technique of Abhasavada 144
Unchanging nature of the Abhasa 148
Time and space as the basis of particularity 148
The implication of universalisation (Sadharanikarana) according to Abhasavada 149
Katharic level in the light of epistemic theory of Abhasavada. 150
Kathartic level 151
Triadic relation 151
Constituents of the aesthetic object as a configuration 154
The essential nature of the aesthetic object as revealed by psychological analysis 156
Dramatic presentation is not an illusory object 158
Is aesthetic object a "reflection" (Pratibimba) ? 159
It is not a partial representation 159
Aesthetic object from spectator's point of view 160
Unworldly nature of the aesthetic object 161
The constituents of aesthetic personality 162
(I) Taste or Rasikatva 162
(II) Sahrdayatva or Aesthetic Susceptibility 162
(III) Power of Visualisation 163
(IV) Intellectual background 164
(V) Contemplative habit (Bhavana or Carvana) 164
(VI) Psycho-physical condition 165
(VII) Capacity to identify 165
Aestheti attitude 166
From sense-level to self-forgetfulness 167
From self-forgetfulness to identification 168
Process of identification 168
Philosophical explanation of elimination of time etc. 171
From identification to imagination 173
The development of aesthetic image 174
From imagination to emotion 174
From emotion to complete Katharsis 175
The source of terror 177
Impediments to aesthetic experience 178
1. Inability to get at the meaning 178
2, 3. Subjective and objective limitations of time and space 179
4. The influence of personal joys and sorrows. 179
5. Lack of clarity due to insufficient stimulus 179
6. Subordination of the principal 179
7. Dubiousness of the presentation 180
The conclusion 180
Aesthetic experience not truly emotive 181
Abhinavagupta's explanation of the omission "Sthayin" in Bharata's definition of Rasa 183
Aesthetic experience from drama and poetry. 185
Aesthetic experience possible from even hearing the recitation of drama 186
Different opinions on types of Rasa 188
Does Bhavabhuti admit Karuna to be the only Rasa ? 188
Bhanudatta's approach to the problem of types of Rasa 192
Does Bhoja admit Srngara to be the only Rasa ? 193
His conception of Srngara 194
Rasa and Bhava distinguished 198
Aesthetic experience 198
The process 200
Three stages of Srngara 201
The reply 201
Dhananjaya's approach 201
Abhinavagupta's approach to the problem of types of Rasa 202
Aesthetic experience of love (Srngara) 205
The meaning of Srngara 205
Derivation of Srngara 206
Love, the basic emotion of Srngara 206
The process in the rise of aesthetic experience of love (Srngara) 208
Aesthetic experience of anger (Raudra) 210
Aesthetic experience of enthusiasm (Vira) 212
Aesthetic experience of disgust (Bibhatsa) 212
Bibhatsa in relation to Moksa 213
Aesthetic experience of laughter (Hasya). 213
Aesthetic experience of grief (Karuna) 215
Karuna and Vipralambha Srngara distinguished 216
Srisankuka's conception of Karuna 217
Its criticism 218
Abhinavagupta's view of Karuna 218
Aesthetic experience of wonder (Adbhutarasa). 219
Santa Rasa 219
Dhananjaya and Abhinavagupta on Santa Rasa 220
The text of the Natya Sastra 221
Evidence of the Abhinava Bharati 222
Opposition to Santa on textual basis 223
Its criticism 224
Opposition to Santa independently of the text 224
Opposition on the basis of the indirect evidence of Bharata 225
Its criticism 225
Semi-textual opposition to the semi-textual exponents of Santa 226
Its criticism by Abhinava's predecessors. 227
Criticism of the above 228
Expositions of Santa on the basis of indirect evidence of Bharata 229
Nirveda as Sthayin of Santa 229
Its criticism 230
Philosophical conception of Vairagya and its relation to self-realisation (Tattvajnana)  
Para or higher Vairagya. 234
Relation between Nirveda and Tattvajnana in the light of the Nyaya system 234
Dhananjaya on Nirveda as Sthayin of Santa 235
Any one of the eight accepted Sthayins as the Sthayin of Santa 236
All the eight together as Sthayin of Santa 237
The view on Santa with slight difference from that of Abhinavagupta 237
Dhananjaya on Sama as Sthayin of Santa 237
Additional reason for unpresentability of Sama, 238
The view of Santa based on another conception of Sama 239
Abhinavagupta's theory of Santa 239
Santa in practical life 241
The hero of Santa Rasa 241
The self as the Sthayin of Santa 242
Why is Tattvajnana (Sama) mentioned separately ? 243
Why does Bharata use the word Sama and not Tattvajnana? 244
Other constituents of Santa. 245
Other Sthayins in the context of Santa. 245
Discussion on Rasa in the Nagananda 246
Manuscript authority 249
The nature of aesthetic experience of Santa 249
Division of Rasas into two classes 250
Basic and dependent Rasas 252
Another kind of causality of one Rasa to the rise of another, 254
Identical natural tendency necessary for aesthetic experience 255
Language and aesthetic configuration 257
History of Dhvani 258
The presence of the suggested meaning in the earliest poetic production 260
The probable time of the discovery of the spiritual meaning 264
The chief exponent of the spiritual meaning of language or Dhvani 264
The theory of meaning before the acceptance of the theory of Dhvani 267
An illustration of Dhvani 269
Can Laksana explain the negative meaning conceived by hearer on hearing the positive statement under discussion ? 271
Unsoundness of the opponent's position 271
Review of the position of the opponents of the theory of suggested meaning 272
The views of the opponents of the theory of suggested meaning summarized. 275
The arguments of the opponents of the theory of Dhvani 277
The position of the exponeut explained 280
The various meanings of the word Dhvani and their origin. 281
Abhinava's conception of poetry 283
The position of the Laksanavadin explained 284
Laksanavadin's position criticised 285
The process analysed. 286
Another conception of Laksana and its criticism 287
Laksanalaksana as substitute for Dhvani 289
Laksanalaksana criticised 290
Criticism of Laksana summarised 291
The Anvitabhidhana theory of the Prabhakaras. 291
Criticism of the Anvitabhidhanavada 292
Necessity of admission of the instrumentality of consciousness of one meaning in the rise of another 294
Bhatta Nayaka's explanation of the consciousness of the suggested meaning and its criticism 296
Dhvani distinguished from figures of speech, 298
Figure Samasokti defined 298
The distinctive spheres of Upama and Rasavat Alankara on the one hand and that of Resadhvani on the other. 301
Embellishments and aesthetic presentation 303
The psychological basis of the classification of the suggested meaning 304
Vastudhvani. 305
Alankaradhvani 305
Rasadhvani 306
Bhavadhvani 306
Avivaksita vakya and vivaksitanyaparavacya 307
The situation 308
Arthantara Sankramitavacya 309
The situation 309
Atyantatiraskrtavacya 311
Sabdasaktyudbhava 312
Arthasaktyudbhava 314
The situation 315
Classification of the suggested meaning, according to the means of suggestion 315
Suggestive poetry distinguished from unsuggestive. 316
The distinction of the suggestive poetry from the embellished 317
Dhvani Chart 319
Dhvani as a controversial problem 320
An introduction to Mahima Bhatta 320
The purpose of the book 323
His attitude towards Dhvanikara, 324
Kashmir Saiva tendencies of Mahima Bhatta 325
(I) His reference to Para 325
(II) His reference to the Saiva theory of Abhasavada 325
(III) His admission of the Saiva theory of Abhasavada. 325
(IV) His reference to the causal theory of Kashmir Saivaism 333
His theory of aesthetics 335
Charm in poetic presentation 335
His conception of rasa as a reflection of a Sthayin, 336
His answers to the objections against the inferential theory of aesthetics 336
His advance on Srisankuka 338
His conception of Camatkara 339
The background of the theory of meaning 340
Mahima's approach to the problem of meaning 341
His division of words 342
His reference to and rejection of the view that function is the basis of the use of a noun for an object. 343
His division of meaning 345
Anumeyartha 347
His conception of Kavya in the context of the criticism of Bhatta Tauta's definition of it. 347
His conception of Gamyagamakabhava 349
Ananda Vardhana's points of view 349
His criticism of the theory of Dhvani 350
His refutation of other powers of word than the conventional 351
(a) His criticism of Laksana 352
(b) His criticism of the Tatparyasakti of words 356
(c) His criticism of Abhivyakti 356
Dhvanivadin's position explained 361
The defects in the definition of Dhvani Kavya 362
(I) Criticism of the adjunct of 'Artha'. 363
Dhavanivadin's position explained 364
His criticism of the word 'Artha' in the definition of Dhvani. 364
(II) Criticism of the use of the word 'Sabda' 365
Dhvanivadin's position explained. 367
(III) Criticism of the adjunct of 'Sabda' 367
(IV) Criticism of the masculine gender in the pronoun 'Tam' 368
(V) Criticism of the dual in 'Vyanktah' 368
(VI) Criticism of the use of 'Va' 369
(VII) His criticism of the suggestive power of word, indicated by 'Vi-anj' in the definition 369
(VIII) Criticism of the use of the word 'Dhvani' for poetic composition, 371
(IX) His criticism of Ananda Vardhava's conception of the particular Kavya (Kavyavisesa) 373
Dhvanivadin's position explained 375
(X) Criticism of the use of the subject of the predicate 'Kathitah' 376
The necessity of inclusion of 'Abhidha' in the definition 376
Dhvanivadin's position explained 377
His conception of incongruity (Anaucitya) 378
His criticism of Kuntaka's theory of Vakrokti 381
His criticism and rejection of some of the types of Dhvani 381
His criticism of Vastu and Alankara Dhvani 381
His criticism of the division of Kavya into Dhvani and Gunibhuta Vyangya. 382
Ruyyaka 383
What does the dramatist present ? 387
Incongruity 387
Action in Sanskrit Drama, 389
Rules of dramatization and dramatic genius 390
Method of dramatisation 393
Presentable and unpresentable in drama 396
Unities of time, place and action, 397
Difference between Sanskrit and English dramas in respect of action and emotion. 399
Analysis of the main plot. 403
Absence of tragedy in Sanskrit literature explained 405
(i) The traditional conception of the hero of drama. 405
(ii) The triadic relation 407
The conception of the five stages elaborated 408
The beginning (Prarambha) 410
The effort (Yatna). 411
The effort situation 412
The height (Praptyasa). 413
Praptyasa situation 414
The consequence (Niyatapti) 418
The close (Phalagama) 420
The means to the end (Arthaprakrti) 420
The seed (Bija) and its psychological necessity 421
The recollection of the motive force (Bindu) 425
Sub-plot (Pataka). 427
Minor plot (Prakari) 428
The resources (Karya) 429
Sandhis (Parts) in Sanskrit drama 430
Mukha Sandhi (Birth of the seed) 432
Pratimukha (Opening of the seed) 432
Garbha 432
Avamarsa 432
Nirvahana (Fruition) 436
The Sandhyanga defined 437
The general purpose of Sandhyangas 437
The purposes of Sandhyangas from the point of view of dramatist, 438
Freedom in the use of Sandhyangas 439
Two main types of drama 442
(1) Nataka 442
The name "Nataka" explained 444
(II) Prakarana 444
(i) Subject-matter 444
(ii) The hero and his helpers 445
(iii) The heroine 446
(iv) Subdivisions of Prakarana 446
(III) Samavakara 446
Duration of each act 447
Meaning of Samavakara 448
Three kinds of flight, deception and love 448
The absence of the graceful action in Samavakara explained 448
(IV) Ihamrga 449
(V) Dima 450
(VI) Vyayoga 452
(VII) Utsrstikanka 452
(VIII) Prahasana 453
(IX) Bhana 454
(X) Bithi. 455
Aesthetic configurations (Rasas) presentable in different types of drama 455
Meaning of Vrtti 458
Action in poetic composition 459
Dramatic action distinguished from the worldly. 460
The origin of different forms of action. 461
Employment of different forms of action in the presentation of Rasas 464
Difference of opinion on the number of forms of action (Vrtti) 464
Consciousness of fruit (Phalasamvitti Vrtti) as a form of action admitted by Udbhata 465
Its criticism. 466
The view of the followers of Udbhata on forms of action (Vrtti) 467
Abhinavagupta's criticism 468
Bhoja's positioning regard to the number of Vrttis 469
Difference of opinion on the/use of different forms of Vrtti 474
Pravrtti or local usages 477
The relation between Vrtti and Pravrtti 479
Acting or Abhinaya 479
Change of personality in acting 481
Four types of acting (Abhinaya) 482
(I) Physical gesture (Angikabhinaya) 482
(II) Verbal acting or histrionic representation in words. (Vacikabhinaya) 483
(III) Gesture that flows from mental state (Sattvikabhinaya) 484
(IV) Costume and make-up (Aharyabhinaya) 484
Difference of opinion on the presentation of death on the stage. 485
Hero's death never to be presented in any way. 487
Restriction about the number of characters on the stage 487
Dramatic presentation in the open air and in the theatre. 487
The dramatic and the poetic experiences differentiated 490
Bhamahs 491
Bhamaha's conception of poetry 492
His conception of poetic experience 493
Bhamaha's conception of gunas 494
The poetic qualities in the eyes of Bhamaha 495
Bhamaha's indebtedness to Bharata in the conception of Vakrokti 495
Difference between Laksana and Alankara 497
Laksana defined 498
Difference between Bharata and Bhamaha 499
Other conceptions of Vakrokti 500
His scanty treatment 500
Dandin's conception of poetry 501
Difference of opinion on the qualities of poetry explained 502
Vamana's conception of poetry 505
Vamana's contribution 507
Udbhata's position. 508
Music and poetry 511
History and evolution of the art of music 512
Samavedic Schools of Music 513
The texts of the Kauthuma School 513
The relative chronology of the Samavedic texts. 514
Indication of the pitch of syllable in the Kauthuma tradition of the Sama Veda 515
Drone tone 516
Musical and poetical metre 516
Changes in the chant introduced by Udgata 517
The relation between the spoken and the chanted Vedic language 517
Samavedic melodization 518
Evolution of the number of tones 519
Gandharvaveda, the subsidiary Veda (Upaveda) of the Sama Veda. 521
Progress of music reflected in the Brahmanas 522
Development of the Samavedic Music in the Sutra period 525
Fixation of interval. 526
Seven Notes in the Paniniya Siksa 527
Nandikesvara's conception of seven notes and three pitches 527
Disappearance of distinction between the Samavedic and the classical notes 531
Samavedic and classical music 532
Writers on classical music before Bharata 533
Bharata and his contemporaries 535
(1) Kasyapa 535
Did Bharata know the Ragas ? 536
(2) Sardula 538
(3) Dattila 538
Successors of Bharata 538
Utpalacarya 539
Authors of independent works on music after Bharata 540
Abhinavagupta 541
Jayadeva 542
Sarngadeva, the author of the Sangita Ratnakara 542
Mohamedan influence on Indian Music 543
Gopala Nayaka 544
Commentators on the Sangita Ratuakara. 545
(1) Sirhha Bhupala 545
(2) Kallinatha, 546
Locana Kavi 547
Ramamatya 547
Gwaliar School of Music 549
Music during the reigu of Akbar 550
Suppression of Indian music by Aurangzeb. 551
Sangita Ratnakara Vyakhya, Setu. 552
Rise of Southern and Northern Schools of Indian Music. 553
The Influence of the Mela System on North Indian Music. 555
Recognition of the spiritual value of music in the Chandogya Upanisad 557
Abhinavagupta's Philosophy of Music 557
Experience of Ananda at the transcendental level of aesthetic experience from music 561
Metaphysical basis of the musical notes 562
Pasyanti and musical notes 564
Identification with Para-Nada in musical experience 564
Notes, produced by musical instruments and Madhyama, 565
Subtle and transcendental forms of Pasyanti, Madhyama and Vaikhari. 565
Harmonious unity of notes as the essential of charm in music 566
Yoga and Nada-Brahmavada. 566
Importance of the Cakras for music. 569
Mental concentration on Nada as a means to liberation 569
Ahata Nada as a means to liberation 570
Nada-Brahma-Vada of Sarngadeva 571
Nagesa Bhatta on the origin of musical notes 572
Philosophy of music in the light of the Siddhanta Saiva Dualism 575
Bindu And Nada 576
Meaning of Vastu 579
Presupposition of Vastu Sastra 579
Division of literary sources of information on architecture 580
Non-technical references to architecture 581
The sources of technical information on architecture 582
1. Atharvaveda and Sutras 582
2. Architectural material in works on subjects other than architecture 583
3. Saiva tradition. 585
4. Brahma tradition 587
Painting 589
Sculpture 591
5. Maya tradition 591
Uncertainty about the dates of books on architecture 593
Spread of Indian Culture and architectural tradition 594
Wood, the earliest material for the construction of human dwelling 596
The relation between building and its inmate 597
Style as the basis of classification of architectural work, 600
Another basis of classification of Indian architecture 600
The relation of styles and enshrined deities 601
The principle of harmony as the basis of different conceptions of pillar 602
Works of architecture most enduring 602
Sculpture and painting as dependent arts 603
Philosophy of Architecture or Vastu-Brahma-Vada 609
Aesthetic experience from architecture 609
Indian Philosophy of fine Art 611
The Textual Authority indicated by foot-notes 617
Index 717


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