About the Book
book is an effort made in a direction to highlight the aims and objectives of
music which can be applied for the overall betterment of the life on our earth.
Scientific findings and the ancient literature support above role of music. Though
music has been known more as a good source of entertainment or a hobby but it
has a very important role to play and an indispensable place in our day-to-day
on the report from various corners this book is a record of the different ways
in which music is being applied to curb social and psychological evils and as a
complementary treatment for various illnesses all around the World. Hence this
is asserted in this book that music should given its due importance by applying
it on a larger scale in dealing with problems such as stress, mental
retardedness, communalism etc.
About the Author
Narendra Kaur, obtained Ph. D in Music from University of Delhi. She is a
vocalist. Presently she is working as Assistant Professor in Arya College, Pathankot,
Punjab, India. She has published a number of research papers and notations of
Shabads in the ragas prescribed in Guru Granth Sahib.
count it an honour to be a student of an eminent professor and performer, Dr.
Anupam Mahajan, who has inspired me for this book which is a detailed report on
the role and importance of music in our day-to-day life. The utility of music
has been established in many areas ranging from its indispensability in human
life to the positive effects, it has on other living beings like animals and
book is an effort to search about the scope of music while its main objective
is to highlight the contribution of music in solving psychological and social
problems and to focus on the application of music in shopping malls, street
junctions, railway coaches, operation theatres, board rooms, nursing hospitals,
rehabilitation centres and parks etc.
is a tool for soothing, relaxing and enchanting its listeners. its listeners.
Music has for long been applied as a remedy to treat physical and psychological
ailments, to eliminate social evils and for the cause of overall development of
human organism always remains in the process of development. Physical and
psychological changes occur continuously throughout life span. Our whole being
gets affected by our own heredity and the environment we live in. Music plays a
vital role by helping in physical, psychological and social development of the
child. It also in the enlightenment of the soul and is an indispensable part of
our education system.
is a system of education which imparts knowledge and experience as to how to
elevate and animate the levels of consciousness. Music evokes in us awareness
of the beauty of the nature, public life and art. It creates an aesthetic
outlook in us and hence develops our personality.
arouses various emotions in mind and can be regarded as medium for expressing
thoughts and feelings through its tones and rhythm. Musical compositions, forms
of music, rhythm and tempo, acoustics of music, various instruments, personal
preferences, efficiency of the performer, cultural backgrounds and various
ragas are the main factors which are responsible for the arousal of particular
kind of music has its origin in a particular society or culture. Traditional
activities of the societies and cultures give birth to folk music. Folk songs
depict the real picture of a particular culture or society and are an
imperative part of social ceremonies and festivals.
has natural power to fetch attention of the people therefore it has always been
used for the expression of social protest as well as publicity. In the
correctional centres, music is considered to be a very useful tool. Inmates may
have a choice to learn music in the prisons. They may listen to music or even
can have training in music. Nevertheless, music plays a pivotal contribution in
challenging communalism. Patriotic songs unite people belonging to various
castes, creeds and regions. Music inculcates in us the feelings of peace,
harmony and national unity.
there is a purpose behind applying music in shopping malls, hospitals,
rehabilitation centres, railway coaches and in parks etc. Music is serving
various purposes in every walk of life. It creates a very calm atmosphere in
the surroundings, fascinates people, refreshes mood and increases work
performance; that is why everyone longs for music. Though background music has
its limitations but if chosen appropriately, must have its effect.
this book, the role of music in addressing the social and psychological
problems of the human beings has been studied. The various social and
psychological problems have been highlighted and some of the organizations
dealing with these problems through music have also been mentioned.
express my deep sense of gratitude and warm regards to Prof.(Dr.) Anupam
Mahajan for her valuable guidance and encouragement for this work. I am very
much indebted to my family members for all their support; especially my lovely
son Jaideep Singh Madaan to spare me enough time so that I could carry out this
work. I owe my gratitude and respect to my husband, Jaswinder Singh, for his
untiring help and sincere advice and support at all the stages till the
completion of this project. I dedicate this book to my caring husband.
Art of Music
has been said that sound is the background of music. A sound is a composite
body of vibrations of ether-units, surcharged with energy. All the
musicologists have said sound is mainly divided into two parts, unconscious
unmanifested (anahata) and conscious manifested (ahata) ones. The manifested
sound represents itself as the non-musical sound like speech and the musical
sound like song. The musical sound is melodious, soothing, whereas non-musical
sound is suitable only for speech.
is a composition of melodic sound which pleases human mind. There is nothing in
nature that arouses our attention affects our feelings as quickly as sound. The
murmuring of water, the sighs of the zephyrs, the whispers of the evening
breeze, the roar of the storms, the chirpings of the birds, the cries of the
animals, and the hum of distant multitudes excite in our minds the feelings of
pleasure, pain, or fear, and contain in them the germs of music.
Sarangdeva says “Musical as well as all kinds of sound (nada) first emerges
from the navel base (muladhara) as a result of friction of the air (prana vayu)
and the heat energy (agni): nakaram prananamanam dakaramnalam viduh”. Hermann
Helmholtz saya “ a noise is accompanied by a rapid alteration of different
kinds of sensations of sound, whereas musical tone strikes the ear as a
perfectly undisturbed, uniform sound which remains unaltered as long as it
above slok means that music is singing, playing instruments and dancing. Margee
and Desi are kind of music. The music which is found by Brahma used by
Bharatmuni before Mahadev, and which leads to salvation is called margee
sangeet. Desi Sangeet is that which is in accordance with the different custom
of various provinces to mind and the one that different customs of various
provinces of the country and entertains the people there. Music gives pleasure
to mind and the one that does not please, is not music.
word Sangita has a complex signification. It consists of three thing
things-gita, vadya nritya, or song, percussion and dancing. The principles and
laws of Sangita get the nomenclature of Sangita Shastra. This may be
comprehended in a two-fold view-as an art and as science. As a science music
deals with the acoustics. It treats with the origin and propagation of Nada,
the sound-the doctrine of shrutis, the doctrine of swaras or musical sound, the
formation of the different scales, the rules of murchchanas and tanas, the
composition of ragas and their various modifications and variations, the
variety of talas or times conformable to regular meter and the rules and
directions with respect to the various styles of theatric representation. Music
as an art directs to cultivate human voice, to perform instrumental music and
lays guidelines for the motions and gestures in dancing. Music can divided into
two portions-theoretical and practical. The general and most essential
characteristic if gita, vadya and nritya is rakti or the power of affecting the
education is said to be Nada Vidya as the whole system of music is evolved from
Nada (Sound). Nada gives birth to shruties (microtones) which again form swaras
(notes). These swaras, in multiple successions, constitute various ragas and
from ragas and from ragas songs are produced. Vadya (Instrumental music) is
also related to nada. Because of being accompanied by gita and vadya, nritya
(dance) is also related to nada. There for we can say Nada underlies the three
constituents of Sangeeta.
Sharangdev in his book ‘Sangeet Ratnakar’ took singing, playing an instrument
and dancing as music but presently dancing is developing as a separate
discipline. During the time of Bharat, music was thought of as consisting of
vocal music, instrumental music and dancing. With the great strides made in
music later on, music was conceived of separate art apart from dancing.
is an intrinsic part of nature. Therefore music is as old as nature itself so
music definitely existed during prehistoric period also. As in the excavations
of Mohenjodaro and Hadappa, various musical instruments like flute, mridang,
lutes (veena) and dancing idols have been found.
people are of opinion that the creator of this world, Brahma gave the art of
music to Shiva, Shiva it to Saraswati. Narad got it from Saraswati and taught
to Gandharvas, Kinnarans and Apsaras. Rishis like Bharat and Narad etc.
Popularized this art on this earth.
first musicians are said to have been Narada, Tumburu, Huhu and Bharat. Bharat is
believed to have reduced music to a proper system and brought it down to earth
from the land of the gods.
‘Sangeet Darpan’ of Pt. Damodar, seven swaras are considered to be produced by
seven birds and animals like shadaj from peacock, rishabh from chatrik, gandhar
from goat, madhyam from crow, pancham from cuckoo, dhaivat from frog nishad
scholars believe that seven notes of music were created by Hazarat Moosa.
Art of Music
Society and Culture
Perspective in Music
Perspective in Music
Psycho Material Object and its
or Music Perception
of Music on Human Psyche
of Music in the Development of Human Being
of the Philosophical Attitude
An Indispensable Part of Education
of Emotions through Music
or Quality of Tone
Preferences and Receptiveness
of the Performer
Effects of Music
Sentiments (rasa) and Moods (bhavas)
in Swaras and Ragas
Theory of Musical and Tones and Emotional Sentiments (Rasas)
and Personality Development
and Mental Development
for Mentally Retarded Children
of Music on Emotional and Behavioural Problems
Management through Music
of Severe Stress
of Music in Stress Alleviation
Malls and Workplaces
Coaches and Automobiles
View of the Above
Associates with Culture
Ceremonies and Celebrations
of Music on Self-Esteem
and Social Evils
of Music Communalism
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