There are number of controversies in accepting paramarśa as a key-factor in Inference. The Naiyayikas hold clearly an objective view of the paramarsa as an 'immediate cause of the process of Inference'. But the systems like Mīmāmsă, Buddhists etc. hold a subjective view of the concept. To them, this is just a conceptual fiction designed by the Naiyayikas having no practical reality.
The present work, therefore, attempts to settle down both the parties by high lighting their standpoints. After a chronological discussion of their standpoints it is concluded that without paramarśa a valid inference cannot be drawn.
The book is divided into two parts. Part one consists of nine chapters and Part two contains the Sanskrit text of lingaparamarsa-vada of Sasadhara with English translation.
Śasadhara has devoted a full chapter entitled lingaparâmarśa-väda in his monumental treatise 'Nyayasiddhantadipa' and the entire discussion in the present work is made in the present work is made in the light of his arguments. In the present study, the objections of opponents have been identified and have been solved from every possible angle.
This is the Revised Version of my Ph.D. thesis "Pre Gangesa concept of Lingaparâmarsa" (With special reference to Sasadhara) approved by the University of Pune for the award of Ph.D. degree in Sanskrit in 2002.
There are number of controversies in accepting paramarsa as a key-factor in Inference. On the one side stands the extreme realist among which the Naiyayika in chief, who holds clearly an objective view of the paramarśa being an 'immediate cause of the process of Inference', which is supposed to be an important factor of our day to day life. On the other side, we have systems like Mimämsä, Buddhists etc. who hold a subjective view of the concept. To them, this is just a conceptual fiction designed by the Naiyayikas having no practical reality. It is Sasadhara, the author of Nyaya siddhantadīpa, who stands in the middle keeping the realists on the one side and the idealists on the other, maintaining a relative view of the concept i.e. paramarsa. Here, he presents the grounds of both the parties, analyses it and finally solves it. Sasadhara, the author of Nyayasiddhäntadīpa, a monumental treatise of the system, devoted a full chapter entitled "Lingaparămarsavāda" of Nyayasiddhantadipa. We have made of Pandit B.K. Motilal's addition of Nyayasiddhantadipa.
It is my pleasure to record now the help I have received from various scholars in preparing this work. I sincerely hold this opportunity to express my great indebtedness to Prof. V.N. Jha, Director, Centre of Advanced Study in Sanskrit, University of Pune, my research guide, whose planned guidance canalized my efforts in a proper direction. It is Prof. Jha, who taught me the fundamentals of Navya-Nyaya language and methodology, which helped me a lot to design the present study.
I am obliged to all the members of the teaching and non-teaching staff of the department for the help I have received during my study period. I thank my seniors Dr. Yoshodhara Kar, Dr. Nilkantha Dash, Dr. Niranjan Jena. I am thankful to my friends Mr. D. Mohanty, A. Dash, J. Mishra, N. Kar and Miss. R. Nanda.
I convey my immense debt of gratitude to my brother Mr. Ramchandra Panda who ones dreamt me to be at this stage. My nieces Mamina, Ratan, my wife Manju, my daughter Sravani and my mother are the sources of my constant inspiration. It is their love and affection, which created a homely atmosphere for me to survive during my difficult days.
Finally, I thank Mr. C.P. Gautam, Publisher, Bharatiya Kala Prakashan, New Delhi, for accepting this work for publication.
Date: 15th August 2006 Amravati
Bhagaban Panda Govt. Vidarbha Institute of Science & Humanities Amravati. (Maharashtra)
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