Having thus explained the scope of the work, I shall say a few words with regard to its plan and arrangement. As will be seen from even a cursory glance at the contents, the chief feature of the Dictionary is that it gives quotations and references to the peculiar and noteworthy meaning of words, especially such as occur in books read by the student at School or College. It has been thought necessary to do so, because a student naturally expects that the Dictionary he uses will give appropriate equivalents for such words and expressions as have some peculiarity in use or meaning. Moreover, quotations and references often help the reader in determining any particular meaning of a word in a particular passage by enabling him to see and compare how the word is used elsewhere. In some cases these quotations might appear to be superfluous but to a student, especially a beginner, they are very useful as they supply him with illustrations of the uses of words, and firmly impress their meanings upon his mind.
Another noticeable feature of the Dictionary is that it gives explanations of the more important technical terms, particularly in Nyaya, Alarhkara, Grammar, Dramaturgy, with quotations in Sanskrit wherever necessary; e.g. see the words, etc. In the case of Alathkaras I have chiefly drawn upon the Kavyaprakaga, though I have occasionally referred to the Candraloka, Kuvalayananda and Rasagangadhara. In the explanation of Dramatic terms I have generally followed the Sahityadarpana. Similarly, striking phrases, some choice expression and idioms or peculiar combinations of words, have been noticed under every word wherever necessary; e.g. see the words, Mythological allusions in the case of all important names have been briefly but clearly explained, so as to give the reader most of the facts connected with those personages; see etc. Etymology had not been generally given except where peculiar; e.g. see the words make. The work also gives information about words though not of a technical nature, which it is believed, will be useful to the student; e.g. see the words Some of the Nyayas or maxims such as are frequently used in illustrations, have been collected under the word - for easy reference. To add to the usefulness of the word, I have added at the end three Appendices. The first is on Sanskrit Prosody which gives in a clear and intelligible form all the common metres, with definitions, schemes in Gallus, and ekahiples. In the preparation of this Appendix I have chiefly drawn upon the two popular works on Prosody, the Vrttaratnakara and Chando-Matijari, but some common metres which are omitted therein, have been added from the poems of Magha, Bharavi, Dahclin, Bhatti, etc. The second Appendix gives the dates, writing etc. cf. some of the important Sanskrit writers, such as Kalidaga, Bhavabhilti, and Barra etc. Here I have selected only those names about which something definite-something more than mere guesses and surmises-is known, and I have derived some hints from the Introduction of Vallabhadeva's Subhasitavali and Max Miillar's 'India', for which my thanks are due to the authors. The third Appendix gives the most important names in the ancient Geography of India with identifications on the modern map wherever ascertained, and in this part of the work I have to cordially acknowledge the help I have derived from Cunningham. Ancient Geography, but particularly from Mr. Borooah's Essay prefixed to the third volume of his English-Sanskrit Dictionary. Thus this Dictionary aims at serving as an useful aid to the student of Sanskrit by giving him almost everything that he is likely to require for ordinary purposes, and with this view I have incorporated as much useful information as could to be given within the limits of the book.
The arrangement of the work will be best understood from the "Directions to the student" which follow. I have only to refer to one points-the use of the anusvara instead of nasals throughout. This practice, whatever may be said with regard to its correctness, is very convenient for purposes of printing, and will not, it is believed, affect the usefulness of the work. The several contrivances used to effect saving in space will be understood by the reader with very short practice.
Before concluding I must gratefully acknowledge the help that I have derived from different sources. And in doing so I must give the first place to the great Sanskrit Encyclopaedia, the Vdcaspatya of Professor TdrAnatha Tarkavacaspti. Much of the general information given in this Dictionary has been derived from that work, though I have had to supplement it wherever defective. Several words and meanings not given in the existing Sanskrit-English Dictionaries, as also some quotations, have been borrowed from the same work. The Sanskrit-English Dictionary of Prof. Monier Williams is the next work to which I have been greatly indebted. I have constantly kept it by my side, and have freely utilized his renderings of some words, expressions etc. when I found them better than those I myself had to suggest. And though there is much in this Dictionary that is not to be found in that work, I must freely acknowledge the assistance it has often rendered me in the explanation of words and expressions. And the last, but not the least, is the great German WOrterbuch of Drs. Roth and Bothlingk. This great work abounds with references and quotations, but the works belonging to Vedic literature have been comparatively more copiously drawn upon by them than, those belonging to the pok-Vedic literature. A glance at the contents will show that I have drawn upon works seldom or not at all referred to by those scholars; such as the works of Bhavabhilti, Jagannatha Pandit, Rajagekhara, aana, the Kavyaprakga, 8igupalavadha, Kiratarjuniya, Naipdhacarita, 8Likara-Blidua, Veni-Sarhhara etc. and the great majority of quotations and references is from my own collection. But I am free to acknowledge that I have availed myself of the quotations in that Dictionary where my own collection was defective. To these authors, as well as to the authors and editors of several other works-too many to be here enumerated from which I have derived occasional help of one kind or another, my grateful thanks are due.
In conclusion I trust that The Student's Sanskrit-English Dictionary will be found useful not only by those for whom it is mainly intended, but by the general Sanskrit readers also. No work, howsoever carefully prepared, can pretend to be entirely free from defects, and my work cannot be an exception, especially as it has had to be carried through the Press in great haste. I have, therefore, to request such persons as will do me the honour to use this Dictionary, to be so good as to inform me if they discover any mistake, and also to make any suggestions for its improvement, and I shall be very glad to give them my best consideration in the second edition.
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