Temporal and Modal Forms in Old Indo Aryan and Their Linguistic Analysis

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Item Code: NAD282
Author: Biswanath Thakur
Publisher: Sanskrit Pustak Bhandar
Edition: 2003
Pages: 408
Cover: Hardcover
Other Details 8.5 inch x 8.5 inch
Weight 560 gm
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About the Book

The title indicates the Tense and the Mood: Kãla & Prakara of 0. l. A : Sanskrit and presents their linguistic analysis on the morphed as well as the semiotic basis with special reference to Greek, Latin Gothic and other kindred languages of lndo European.

The 1st chapter deals with the theoretical discussion which serves as the base for the grammaticolinguistic deliberations in the following chapters. In chapters 2 & 3 the temporal forms and the modal forms of Sanskrit having personal terminations have been discussed and herein the connotation of the tenses and the moods as grammems is explained in the tradition of the Sanskrit grammar. In the 4th chapter figure the nominal forms. Indicating tense and mood. under two subheads, declinable and in declinable. Here after depicts the 5th chapter whose non-verbal temporal and modal vocal’s used in Sanskrit are studied in minute details. These vocables are termed as aviary’s in the traditional grammar and which possess temporal and modal niceties.

About the Author

Date of Birth : 14-04-1948 Head, Department of Sanskrit, Purnea College. Purnia. Under B. N. M. U. Service Bihar, Pin 854301.

Departiment of Sanskrit, V. S. J. College Rajnagar, Madhubani Under K. N. M. U. Service Bihar.


Parameshwari Bhavanam Viii. & P. O. Shibipatti. Madhubani, Bihar -847211 Vyakarana- Sahityacarya K. S. D. Sanskrit University, Darbhanga.


Vangtya Sanksrit Siksa Parisad, Kolkata.

Ananta Sri Onkaranatha Medialist. B. S. E. Board, Patna.

Allan Bequest Scholarship Holder of Scottish Church Collage, Kolkata.

B. A. Hons. (Sanskrit) Sanskrit & Presidency college, Kolkata.

Jyotish Chandra Basu Medalist M. A. & Ph. D. University of Calcutta.

Certificate Course in German.


•The Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan, New Delhi. It has been a haven for scholars rushed by the daily and often mundane pressures of earning a living
•Purnima and UmeshJha, my mother and father-in.-law, for their best blessings
•Usha Thakur, my wife and partner in everything, for her inspirational energy and her unconditional love
•Sharmishtha Ghosh, WBSC (Exe), for her ideas and her illumination during my days in Kolkata
•Bithi Biswas, for her affection and her uniqueness
•Anita Biswas, librarian, West Bengal State Library, who helped me in every step of my way in my search for an explanation
•Binay Kant Jha, Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt. of India, Ram ChandraJha, now Chief Engineer, CWPC, Delhi and Navendra Narayan Mishra, M.D. Bhagalpur, my bosom friends, for their intimacy
•Courinath Thakur, Reader & Head, Deptt. of Sanskrit, R.D.S.Co. Muzaffarpur
•Shri NathThakur, now D.G.M. HEC, Ranchi and Dhaiyañath Thakur, my own brothers, for their affection
•My everyday protectors, daughter Richq son-in-law Rajiv Pathak, my Sons Pankaj and Ravinath. one in the sciences, the other in commerce, all my emotional links to the future
•Raj KamaI Jha, younger brother and friend, writer and journalist
•Bhazrya, and Saumya my grand-daughters, their songs echo the soul, their presence makes everything worthwhile


The title ‘Temporal and Modal forms in old Indo Aryan and, their Linguistic Analysis’ has been given to the book to present a complete and valuable account of the temporal and modal categories of the Sanskrit. The essentials of such an analysis could be found in ancient treatises primarily in Pãz:iini’s Atadhyay and ancient Pratiãkhyas. Many detailed and minute investigations in this field and in other fields of Sanskrit philology have been carried out in India and abroad in last two hundred years. But in the present research-work attempts have been made to continue the deliberation made by the ancient grammarians on the basis of the new trends and techniques prevalent in modern linguistics. Hence the task would be a grammatical as well as linguistic study of the verbal forms of O.I.A. in their historical perspectives. Grammatically and linguistically the importance of the verbal forms in the structure of San skirt language has been shown in the forefront. Other grammatical categories have been dealt with taking the verbal categories as their pivot.

Accordingly, the study of the verbal category will figure in the 1st chapter as the general consideration of the proposed project. The two notions, time and mood, kãla and prakara, indicating the two facets of the Sanskrit-verbal forms will be explained and their interrelations will be discussed in details. Consequently our endeavor would be to treat the time and mood as two grammas, tense and mood, which are traditionally limited to the verbal inflexion. O.I.A., like other kindred Indo-European languages: Greek, Latin, Goths etc. has been characterized by its grammaticalisation. Just like all other old languages of the family, Sanskrit has been highly in flexional. Hence, its verbal forms are characterized by their inflexion, viz; possessing two elements, radical and nonracial, datum and tin. The origin, the nature and the inflexion of these two categories will be grammatically and linguistically discussed to form the back-ground of the study, to be undertaken in the following chapters.

In the land chapter, the time notion will be the prime factor of the discussion. The linguistic and extra-linguistic expressions of the temporal reference will be taken up for the clarification of the temporal categories found in the language. The three-fold classifications of time, usually known in day-to-day life as past, present and future: attar, vartamãna and bhav4yat, will be analyzed as the actual and non-actual forms with special reference to Sanskrit. In this context the different lakãras adopted by the Sanskrit grammarians for expressing the niceties of the temporal notions of the three kãlas will be explained in the light of both, the traditional authorities as well as the modern linguistic observations. The overlapping and interfusions of different tense forms will be determined linguistically. It is well established that in linguistic expression the tense system does not correspond to the physical divisions of time in any language. This fundamental difference will be well depicted with ample illustrations of Sanskrit verbal forms drawn from the Vedic period to the modern time.

In the chapter III will figure, the other aspect, i.e., the modal aspect of the verbal forms. In it, the theory of syncretism will be a guiding principle for the discussions and observations on the modal forms of Sanskrit. It should be mentioned here that the logical distinction was hardly observed in the modal usage in the Indo-Aryan languages. However, in Sanskrit, both Vedic and Classic, mainly differ on the ground that the former has well-knit modal fabrics, while the latter has minimized the niceties of such forms. In the present context, it is to be remarked that the minimization of the Classical Sanskrit modal forms has been carried to almost total negation so much so that there have been constant shifts in the function of the modal forms in the later Indo-Aryan languages. As a matter of fact, in the modern Indo Aryan languages, the ancient modal distinctions are hardly observed. Hence, our analysis of modal uses in Sanskrit will have significance not only for Sanskrit study, but also for Indian languages in general. As the moods are subjective expressions of the verb, in which both the time and the syntactical study of the modal forms of Sanskrit will be made to explain the elimination of the pure modal verbal forms of the early O.I.A. in later O. LA., and other Indo-Aryan languages. Consequently the present chapter will not only be the synchronic study but also the diachronic.

In the following chapter, i.e., in the IVth chapter, forms of verbs other than the verbal ones will be the subject matter. it has been established by the diachronic study of Sanskrit language that nominal forms, such as infinitives, absoluteness and participles have acquired the time and mood notions in the later Sanskrit. It has also been established that such forms have accrued to the verbal significance in course of further linguistic evolution of the Sanskrit language. As such the comparative estimate of the two Sanskrit’s: Vedic and Classic, will figure herein with ample chronological paradigms. The present chapter will deal with the nominal forms, both declinable and indeclinable; and at the same time, the linguistic analysis of such forms will be given in details. Herein it has been observed that the richness of the Vedic verbal forms denoting the time and the mood has been eroded by the ‘activity’ of the nominal forms in Classical Sanskrit, replacing the old forms by the participial ones. Hence, it will present a study of the advent of such nominal forms indicating the temporal and modal categories as helps of the Sanskrit and the later Indo-Aryan languages in getting rid of the complexity of the old inflexion of the early Vedic period. With the elimination of the old pure verbal forms by resorting to, the nominal form, the verbal nature of the old roots has been affected. As such this linguistic phenomenon of the Sanskrit baggage will be analyzed so as to warrant the historical preserves to carry convictions. To sum up, in .the preceding three chapters, we may state that the linguistic nicety of temporal and modal forms in Sanskrit, has been aptly postulated by our great grammarians, by the way of enunciating the verbal inflexion of Sanskrit. Actually, the lakãras of Panini have created a maximally complete system where all possible combinations of temporal and modal nuances are mixed up by the verbal forms. We have proceeded on the said line and also befitting our interpretation of the temporal and modal nuances in the wider perspective. We have tried to present a wide rd -pervasive account of the, modal and temporal forms in skirt on the basis of available textual materials.

It has also been observed that there is also the richness of the modal nuances found in the earliest period of Sanskrit ‘by other combative as well as syntactic means. Likewise, the gradual replacement of the finite forms of the verb by non-finite ones, well as the preference for the nominals to express various temporal and modal relations has been accepted as the influence of Prakrits. But it is a natural linguistic evolution of Sanskrit depending on timely expressive stylistic considerations.

Finally, in the Vth chapter, an elaborate discussion has been made as regards the other grammatical category fell under the head of ‘indeclinable’ aviary, having the temporal and modal adverbial forms as well as particles.

•The nominal, pronominal, adjectival and, also such forms made by means of suffixes are described in details. At the same time, the adverbial particles of association, limitation, interjection, exclamation, negation and prepositions are explained fully. Lastly, the abstract nominal formations and uncle tic sentences are also dealt with.

To conclude, it may be stated that the observations made in this link treatise have been mainly theoretical. However, to make them lucid and appreciable to the scholars as well as general readers, theories along with ample examples have been illustrated with original texts of Sanskrit, both Vedic and Classic.

Accordingly, a condensed summary of the discussions and observations made in the preceding chapters will be given in the conclusion. The salient characteristics of the Sanskrit verbal forms will also be summed up in the concluding notes. Doubtless, the new findings established on the basis of the study made will be presented here to account for the originality of the project.

References are not placed in footnotes. Instead they are given at the end of the chapter concerned. This methodology will be helpful to the scholars who are interested to get the full descriptions of the subject as a whole by means of going through the references; as well as to the general readers who are to go through the content at one stretch without bothering for exact reference. The texts quoted are generally documented with the exact mention of the references. However, at times the important adages which have become almost maxims in Sanskrit and dance on the lips of the common people are given without any documentary mention.

So also, there are three separate indices. In the 1st Index, temporal, whereas in the land Index modal terms and in the Lard Index temporal as well as modal forms used in the preceding chapters with exact indication of pages of the book are mentioned in alphabetical order. It will serve a great purpose of the scholars who are interested to know the such forms exactly at a glance.

Relevant books from whose the references are quoted as well as those which have been utilized while preparing the present thesis, are enlisted in the Bibliography. It will serve as a guideline to those who are interested in Grammatical-Linguistic field of Sanskrit. Lastly figure abbreviations and symbols. Finally, I beg to present this book before academic world and, if it pleases them, I would treat my endeavor successful and worth-rewarding; as our poet of poets, Kalidasa has aptly said: aparitoad vidusãi na sUdhu manyeprayoga-vijnanam.


Dedications: I
About the AuthorIII
System of Transliteration:XVII
Chapter One Verbal Inflection
1Bhasa.: Linguistic expression1
2Language defined1
3Linguistic Constituents: abda-artha Word & Meaning2
4Vakya: Sentence .2
5Syntactical Segments: Uddeya-Vidheya: Subj. & Pred.4
6Vyakarana-koti: Grammatical Categories4
7Prominence of the verb5
8Dhatu: Verbal root6
9Four — fold — categories of a word: Pädajatãni7
10. Two-fold meaning of a root: Dhatvartha8
11Verbal form: Kriyapada8
12Kriyabhedas: Verbal categories10
13The imperosonal verb: One more verbal category11
14Importance of the verb11
15Subanta & Tiñanta padas: Two-fold classifications of words ...13
16Dhatupathas: Glossaries of roots14
17Ganas: Conjugational classes15
18Thematic & a-thematic classes16
19Kalas & Prakãras: Tenses & Moods18
20Voice Double Termination: Parasmaipada & Atmanepada22
21Prayogas: Syntactical verbal usages25
22Tense-systems & personal terminations31
23The Present system: La prakrti33
24The Aorist system : Lun prakrti34
25The Perfect system: Lit prakrti36
26Process of the verbal formation37
27Reduplication: Abhyãsa39
28Infixes: Vikaranas ...42
29Infixes in the derivatives45
30Personal Endings: Tin47
31Nominal or adjectival verbal forms53
32Infinitive: tumartha ...54
33Absolutives: -ktvã, -lyap, & -am55
34Present participles: -atf & -ãnac55
35Past participles: -kta & -ktavatu56
36Future participles: Gerundives: -tavyat, -tavya, -anlyar, ..ya56
Chapter Two Temporal Forms
1Kala: Time-notion63
2Time as grammatical category64
3Present: Vartamana65
4Future : Bhaviyat73
6Past: Bhuta80
7Lit: Perfect80
8Luñ: Aorist85
9Lan: Imperfect References ...91
References ...98
Chapter Three : Modal Forms
1General Consideration105
3Present Subjunctive108
4Aorist Subjunctive.109
5Perfect Subjunctive11
7Imperative Lot117
Chapter Four: Nominal & Adjectival Verbal forms
1Verbal Nominals149
2Participial Forms149
3Participial of the Present150
4Past Participles154
5Participles of the Perfect: Lit167
6Future Participles: Gerundives171
7Periphrastic Future: Lut174
8Indeclinable Past Participle: Gerund180
9Infinitive: Tumartha186
10Miscellaneous nominal expressions194
Chapter Five: Non-Verbal Temporal & Modal Forms
1Non-verbal Non-Verbal Temporal & Modal Categories213
3remporal & Modal Categories214
4Adverbial Connective P
(A) Adverbial Participles as well as Limitation.225
(B) Adverbial Forms made by means of suffixes.232
5Inflected Adverbial Forms245
6Exclamatory Adverbs258
7Indeclinable Particles of exhortation269
8Interjective Particles270
9Negative Adverbial Pai272
10Miscellaneous Temporal & Modal Indeclinables274
12Adjectival Adverbial Forms294
13Nominal Adverbial Forms297
14Pronominal Adverbial Forms . ,300
15Miscellaneous Nominal Temporal & Modal Forms328
16Abstracted Nominal Formations330
17Enclitic Sentences333
Appendix — I356
Appendix : —II357
Appendix : — III358
Selected Bibliography359
Abbreviations & Symbols365
Index I : Temporal Index370
Index II: Modal Index381
Index III : Common Index389
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