The Ayurvedic Formulary of India, Part III, First Edition, Bilingual version contains description of 350-classical Ayurvedic formulations. Methods of preparation of different group of formulations like asava, arishta, arka, avleha, kvatha churna, guggulu, ghrita, churna, taila, lepa, vati, anjana, parpati, pishti, bhasma, mandura, rasa and lauha are mentioned in detail with the ingredients. Scientific/ Botanical and English names for single drugs of plant, mineral/metal and animal origin are given in the appendix which will make this book more user friendly for scientists, teachers, students and manufactures of Ayurvedic medicines. Definitions and terminologies used in Ayurvedic pharmacy are also mentioned in detail with authentic references. Purification method of poisonous drugs are given in its appendix to facilitate Ayurvedic drug manufacturing pharmacists. The use of various formulations in different disease conditions are also given. In the end, weights and measurements followed by the references are also given. In general this book will be more user friendly for scientists, research scholars, pharmacists, students and general readers.
The first part of Ayurvedic Formulary in English was published in the year 1978. This was the first attempt of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee to compile the information available in scattered form about various Ayurevedic Compouund Formulations in such a way to make it suitable to develop Pharmacopoeial Standard and also to meet the requirements of Drugs and Cosmetics Act. The formulations selected for Ayurvedic Formulary of India were those formulation, which were used by most of the Vaidyas. In second part of Ayurvedic Formulary of India those formulations which are described in texts and are manufactured by the state pharmacies for their use in Government hospitals and dispensaries are included.
The third part of AFI, the present volume is published in bilingual form contains formulations. These formulations are of great therapeutic but could not find place in earlier part of AFI. Several formulations from Hospital pharmacies that have been for over fifty years, using classical remedies suitable modified for larger use, have been included. It was a difficult task for the committee to decide upon the methods of manufacture. However with the help of eminent scholars in the profession, this has been achieved and we are glad to present the third part of Ayurvedic Formulary of India.
On behalf of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee it is my duty to place on records our sincere thanks and appreciation to the Deptt. of AYUSH, Govt. of India, Directors of ISM&H of State Governments Institutions and CCRAS for their whole hearted cooperation in preparing the third part of the Ayurvedic Formulary of India in bilingual form. I thank all members of the APC especially Ms. Savita Satakopan, without whose cooperation this volume would not have seen the light of day. I sincerely thanks Dr. S.K.Sharma, Vice Chairman, APC and Advisor (Ay.), Dr. Ramesh Babu, Member Secretary, DG, CCRAS, Dr. M.M.Padhi, Deputy Director (Tech.), CCRAS, Dr. A.K.S.Bhadoria, Dr. Chhote lal and Dr. M.N. Range of Deptt. of AYUSH. Thanks are extended to Dr. Pramila Pant, A.D.(Chem) and Coordinator, APC; Dr. B.S. Sharma, R.O.(Ay.); Dr. Shruti Khanduri R.O.(Ay.); Dr Renu Dixit, Consultant (Bot.); Smt. Jyoti Bageja, Consultant; Sh.Ashish kumar, Ms. Meenakshi and Mrs. Deepti, DEO form CCRAS who have done wonderful task in setting manuscrips in bilingual form and completion of work.
The system of Ayurveda, although at present mainly confined to India, has had a much wider recognition and prevalence in the past as early as dawn of human civilisation and Vedic period.
This system has undergone many vissicitudes in the course of its long and chequered history. However, it still remains the mainstay of medical relief to the majority of the people in this country. Even in the neighbouring countries the system of Ayurveda is reported to be fairly prevalent. During the mediavel period the system of Unani medicine was introduced and it was only in the sixteenth century A.D. that the western (allopathic) system came to be introduced in the country. However, Ayurveda continues to be the largest system of medical relief for the masses.
The system of Ayurveda embraces within its fold drugs of plant, animal and mineral origin, both single drugs and compound formulations. Although Ayurveda does not rule out any substance from being used as a potential source of medicine, presently about 1000 single drugs and 8000 compound formulations of recognised merit are in vogue. All the main classical works on Ayurveda, such as Caraka Samhita, Susruta Samhita, Astanga Sangraha and Astanga Hrdaya deal with drugs, their composition and action in addition to the other aspects of the medical system. Some of the Ayurvedic books known as Nighantu granthas like Dhanvantarinighantu, Kaiyadevanighantu , Bhavaprakasanighantu, Rajanighantu etc., deal mainly with single drugs, describing their habitat, characteristics and therapeutic action. Ayurvedic compound formulations are divided into two group viz. (1) Kasthausadhi (predominantly plant drugs) and (2) Rasausadhi (predominantly metals and minerals).
There are many authentic books on both the groups of compound formulations. While Sarangadhara Samhita, Cakradatta, Bhaisajyaratnavali, Sahasrayogam, Bharat Bhaisajya Ratnakara, etc. deal with both the groups of formulations, others like Rasendra Sarasangraha, Rasaratna Samuccaya, Rasaprakasa Sudhakara, Ayurvedaprakasa, Rasatarangini, Rasayogasagara etc. deal only with Rasausadhi group of formulations.
There are several categories of kasthausadhi formulations such as Asavarista, Avaleha, Ghrta, Curna, Taila, etc., and of Rasausadhis such as Bhasma, Pisti, Lauha, Mandura, Kupipakva Rasayana, etc., which are described in this volume.
Till recently Ayurvedic medicines used to be prepared by the practicings physician himself for the use of his patients. He was well qualified for identifying the single drugs and trained in the various processes of preparing the compound formulations because of his training in the Guruparampara system. The physician was at liberty to modify the composition of any preparation according to prevailing local conditions and with a view to serve the needs of any individual patient. In course of time, though the name of the formulation remained the same, variation in composition became an established practice. This resulted in the same preparation having different composition as well as different therapeutic indications. This inevitably resulted in assort of confusing in the unwary physicians who find themselves at a loss to choose an appropriate remedy. In the case of individual drugs, on account of various ecological factors, the same plant has varying properties depending upon the region, the climatic conditions of its growth etc. The text is being interpreted in regional languages and conclusions drawn, as based on the actual clinical experience of the physician in that region. Due to lapse of long period and the break of continuity over the ages, drugs which were at one time identified with one term have now been equated with others of the same name. All these factors have contributed, as in the case of formulations, to a state of uncertainly about the identity and use of the drugs.
The practice of the individual physician identifying drugs and preparing medicines himself for the use of his patient has been largely supplanted by the pharmaceutical industry. No longer, except in a few cases, does the physician, particularly in the urban areas, undertake to prepare his own requirement of drugs; he preface to purchase them straight from the market. Even the patient has become more sophisticated and prefers purchasing a readymade drugs from a manufacturer instead of obtaining it from his own physician. On account of increasing urbanization, the tendency is towards more and dependence on readymade preparations. The increasing needs of the population and the chronic shortage of authentic raw materials have made it incumbent that some sort of uniformity in the manufacture of Ayurvedic medicines should be brought about. Evolution of standards for Ayurvedic drugs, in the modern sense, considering the vast number of such drugs and their formulation, is a time-and money-consuming task, and will take considerable time for its achievement.
In view of the present of commercialisation in the preparation and marketing of Ayurvedic medicines and to ensure the interests of the profession and public, the Government of India considered it expedient to utilise law which controls the standards of allopathic drugs, namely the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940, to also control, in a limited measure, the Ayurvedic , Siddha and Unani drugs by amending the Act.
The Act was accordingly amended in 1964, to ensure only a limited control over the production and sale of these medicines, namely-
1 The manufacture should be carried under prescribed hygienic condition, under the supervision of a person having prescribed qualification;
2 The raw materials used in the preparation of drugs should be genuine and properly identified;
3 The formula or the true list of all the ingredients contained in the drug, should be displayed on the label of every container.
Development of standards for the identity, quality and purity of single drugs, to start with, and of formulations, at a later stage, assume importance for the effective enforcement of the provisions of the Act. If the raw materials to be used in a medicine and stage by stage processes of manufacture are standardised, the final product, namely, the compound formulation can be expected to conform to uniform standards. The requirement that the list of ingredients be displayed on the label will enable analysts, in important cases, to verify label claims and to that extent will bind the manufacturer to make a true claim. Arrangements to evolve and lay down physical, chemical and biological tests, where necessary, to identify the drug and ascertain its quality, and to detect adulterations are an urgent necessity. Setting up of Drug Standardisation Research, Testing and control Laboratories for Ayurvedic Medicines both at all-India and regional levels for this purpose is, therefore, essential. The several Committees appointed by the Government of India to Assets and Evaluated the Status and Practice of Ayurvedic Medicine have stressed the importance of preparing an Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia.
Having regard to all these considerations, the Central Council of Ayurvedic Reseach recommened the consititution of an Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee consisting of experts on Ayurvedic and other sciences.
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