Buddhist Parables (An Old and Rare Book)

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Item Code: IDC141
Publisher: Pilgrims Publishing
Author: Engene Watson Burlingame
Language: Translated from the Original Pali
Edition: 1994
ISBN: 8120807383
Pages: 377
Cover: paperback
Other Details 8.5" X 5.4"
Weight 350 gm
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Book Description


This volume contains upwards of two hundred similes, allegories, parables, fables, and other illustrative stories and anecdotes, found in the Pali Buddhist texts, and said to have been employed, either by the Buddha himself or by his followers, for the purpose of conveying religious and ethical lessons and the lessons of common sense. Much of the material has never before been translated into English.

Chapters I-III contain parables drawn, with a single exception, from the Book of the Buddha's Previous Existences, or Jataka Book. This remarkable work relates in mixed prose and verse the experiences of the Future Buddha, either as an animal or as a human being, in each of 550 states of existence previous to his rebirth as Gotama. The textus receptus of this work represents a recension made in Ceylon early in the fifth centuries A.D., but much of the material is demonstrably many centuries older. For example, the stanzas rank as Canonical Scripture, and many of the stories (including Parables 4 and 14 and 27) are illustrated by Bharahat sculptures of the middle of the third century B.C. Parable 6 is taken from the Book of Discipline or Vinaya, and was very possibly related by the Buddha himself.

With Parable 1, The grateful elephant, compare the story of Androclus and the lion, and Gesta Romanorum 104. With Parable 2, Grateful animals and ungrateful man, compare E. Chavannes, Cinq Cents Contes 25; A. Scheifner, Tibetan Tales 26; Gesta Romanorum 119; and the following stories in Grimm, Kinder-und Hausmarchen: 17 Die Goldkinder, 107 Die beiden Wanderer, 126 Ferenand getru un Ferenand ungetru, 191 Das Meerhaschen. For additional parallels, see J. Bolte und G. Polivka, Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- und Hausmarchen der Bruder Grimm, Marchen 17, 62, 191.

Parable 9, Vedabbha and the thieves, is the original of Chaucer's Pardoner's Tale. With Parable 10, A Buddhist Tar-baby, compare E. Chavannes, Cinq Cents Contes 89 and 410; also the well-known story in Joel Chandler Harris, Uncle Remus, His Songs and His Sayings. With Parable 13, Part 1, Gem, hatchet, drum, and bowl, compare Grimm, Kinder- und Hausmarchen: 36 Tischchen deck dich, Goldesel, und Knuppel aus dem Sack; 54 Der Ranzen, das Hutlein, und das Hornlein. For additional parallels, see Bolte-Polivka. A more primitive form of Parable 15, A Buddhist Henny-Penny, will be found in A. Schiefneer, Tibetan Tales 22. Compare the well-known children's story of the same name. Parables 5 and 14 are the oldest known prototypes of Panchatantra, Book 2, Frame-story.

Chapter IV contains four specimens of Jataka parables in early and late forms. Compare also Chapter II, Parables 6 and 7; and Chapter VIII, Parables 45 and 47, with Chapter III, Parables 8 and 11, respectively. The reader will observe that in the earlier (Canonical) versions, the Future Buddha has not yet become identified with any of the dramatis personae. This material is offered as a contribution to the history of the evolution of the Buddhist Parable.

Chapter V contains four remarkably fine old parables which may well have been related by the Buddha himself.

Chapter VI contains several typical specimens of a variety of parable which will undoubtedly be new to many students of religious literature-the Humorous Parable.

Chapter VII contains several specimens of Parables on Death. With Parable 30, Kisa Gotami, compare E. Chavannes, Cinq Cents Contes 224; Budge, Ethiopic Pseudo-Callisthenes, pp. 306-308, 374-376; Sir Edwin Arnold, Light of Asia, Book 5; John Hay, Poems, The Law of Death. A modern Burmese version of Parables 30 and 31 combined will be found in H. Fielding Hall, Soul of a People, pp. 272-278. For a Tibetan version of Parable 31, Patacara, see Tibetan Tales, pp. 222-226. Parable 31 is one of the three principal sources of the legend of St. Eustace, the other history of this legend, see H. Delehaye, La legende de saint Eustace, Bull. De l'Acad. Roy. De Belgique (Classe des lettres), 1919, pp. 175-210. Compare the history of Faustus, Faustinus, and Faustianus, in the Clementine Recognitiones, 200 A.D. (outline in dict Chr. Biog., i. 569-570); Gesta Romanorum 110; Golden Legend, St. Eustace; Early English metrical romance of Sir Ysumbras; and the story of Abu Sabir in the Arabian Nights (Burton, Supplemental Nights, i. 81-88).

Chapter VIII contains, in the form of an imaginary dialogue between an unbeliever and the Buddhist sage Kumara Kassapa, a lengthy discussion of the subject: "Is there a life after death?" In order to refute objections advanced by the unbeliever, the sage relates thirteen remarkably fine parables, finally vanquishing his antagonist. The arguments pro and con are the same that have been used ever since men began to discuss this important subject. The dialogue forms one of the chapters of the Long Discourses, one of the oldest of the Buddhist books, but is quite modern in its freshness.

Chapter IX contains several parables from a commentary on the Anguttara Nikaya composed by Buddhaghosa in the early part of the fifth century A.D. The first two parables in Chapter VII are from the same source. Parallels from a commentary on the Dhammapada composed by a contemporary of Buddhaghosa will be found in the author's Buddhist Legends.

Parable 49, Ghosaka, has traveled all over the world. For the principal Oriental versions, see J. Schick, Corpus Hamleticum, Berlin, 1912. For an interesting Chinese Buddhist version, see E. Chavannes, Cinq Cents Contes 45. This story appears to be the source of the ninth century apocryphal legend of the seven marvels attending the birth of Zoroaster; se the author's paper in Studies in Honor of Maurice Bloomfield, pp. 105-116. For some interesting European derivatives, see Gesta Romanorum 20 and 283; Golden Legend, Pope St. Pelagius; William Morris, Old French Romances, Kinig Coustans the Emperor (thirteenth century); Schiller's ballad Fridolin; Grimm, Kinder- und Haus-marchen, 29 Der Teufel mit den drei goldenen Haaren. For additional derivatives, see Bolte-Polivka, i. 286-288. The story of Amleth in the Danish History of Saxo Grammaticus contains two derivatives, of which one is utilized by Shakespeare in Hamlet.

Chapter X is a miscellaneous collection of parables from early sources. These parables are all much older than the beginning of the Christian era, and it is altogether probable that some of them, more particularly Parables 57, 58, 59, 60, 63, and 65, enshrine the very words of the Buddha himself is one,-Professor Charles Rockwell Lanman of Harvard University, Professor Maurice Bloomfield of the Johns Hopkins University, and the late Professor Morris Jastrow of the University of Pennsylvania. Through his exercises in the Fables of Bidpai, the late Professor Jastrow first opened my eyes to the immense possibilities of this body of literature. In innumerable ways, such as will readily suggest themselves to those who knew him well, he assisted me in my work, and through his untimely death I have suffered a profound personal loss. Under Professor Bloomfield I studied for many years, and through his exercises in the Vedas, in the fiction-collections of India, and in Comparative Grammar, laid the foundations of a sound philological method. Professor Lanman first opened the Pali texts to me, and did more than any other to assist me to interpret them. It is not only a duty but a pleasure to record my indebtedness to these three distinguished scholars.

I wish also to thank Professor E. Washburn Hopkins of Yale University for a careful review of the manuscript of the present work, and for many helpful suggestions.

I am greatly indebted to M. Andrew Keogh, Librarian of Yale University, and to Mr. James I. Wyer, Director of the New York State Library, for generous facilities accorded me in the loan of books. I am also under obligations to Professor Lanman for the loan of a rare copy of Buddhaghosa's Anguttara Commentary, Colombo, 1904. It is from this text that the translation of Buddhaghosa's Legends of the Saints have been made.

I have to thank Mr. Langdon Warner, Director of the Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia, for permission to reproduce the beautiful Graeco-Buddhist head which forms the frontispiece to the present volume.

Last, but by no means least, my most hearty thanks are due to Mr. George Parmly Day, President of the Yale University Press, for invaluable assistance rendered in connection with the execution and publication of the book.

Back of the Book

This book contains upwards of two hundred similes, allegories, parables, fables and other illustrative stories and anecdotes, found in the Pali Buddhist texts, and said to have been employed, either by the Buddha himself or by his followers, for the purpose of conveying religious and ethical lessons and the lessons of common sense.

The book is thus a collection of specimens of an unusually interesting type of literary composition; a text-book of the teachings of the Buddha, presented just as the Buddha and his followers presented them, by discourse and example; and a collection of good stories, all in one. It contains much that will interest children; it also contains much that will puzzle the profoundest philosopher.

Introductory Note

Gotama Buddha was born nearly twenty-five centuries ago in the city of Kapila, in North-East India. Kapila was the principal city of the Sakya tribe, and his father was king of the tribe. Gotama was his family name. Buddha means Awakened or Enlightened, that is to say, awakened or enlightened to the cause and the cure of human suffering.

The Buddhist Scriptures tell us that when Gotama was born, the agnels rejoiced and sang. An aged wise man inquired: "Why doth the company of angels rejoice?" They replied: "He that shall become Buddha is born in the village of the Sakyas for the welfare and happiness of mankind; therefore are we joyful and exceeding glad."

The wise man hastened to the king's house, and said: "Where is the child? I, too, wish to see him." They showed him the child. When he saw the child, he rejoiced and was exceeding glad. And he took him in him arms, and said: "Without an equal is he! foremost among men!" Then, because he was an old man, and knew that he was soon to die, he became sorrowful and wept tears.

Said the Sakyas: "Will any harm come to the child?" "No," replied the wise man, "This child shall one day become Buddha; out of love and pity for mankind he shall set in motion the Wheel of Religion; far and wide shall his religion be spread. But as for me, I have not long to live; before these things shall come to pass, death will be upon me. Therefore am I stricken with woe, over-whelmed with sorrow, afflicted with grief."

Seven days after Gotama was born, his mother died, and he was brought up by his aunt and stepmother. When he was nineteen years old, he married his own cousin. For ten years he lived a life of ease, in the enjoyment of all the comforts and luxuries which riches and high position could give him. When he was twenty-nine years old, a change came over him.

For many centuries, it has been a common belief in India that when a human being dies, he is at once born again. If he has lived a good life, he will be born again on earth as the child of a king or of a rich man, or in one of the heavens as a god. If he has lived an evil life, he will be born again as a ghost, or as an animal, or in some place of torment.

According to this belief, every person has been born and has lived and died so many times that it would be impossible to count the number. Indeed, so far back into the past does this series of lives extend that it is impossible even to imagine a beginning of the series. What is more to the point, in each of these lives every person has endured much suffering and misery.

Said the Buddha: "In weeping over the death of sons and daughters and other dear ones, every person, in the course of his past lives, has shed tears more abundant than all the water contained in the four great oceans."

And again: "The bones left by a single person in the course of his past lives would form a pile so huge that were all the mountains to be gathered up and piled in a heap, that heap of mountains would appear as nothing beside it."

And again" "The head of every person has been cut off so many times in the course of his past lives, either as a human being or as an animal, as to cause him to shed blood more abundant than all the water contained in the four great oceans."

Nothing more terrible than this can be imagined. Yet for many centuries it has been a common belief in India. Wise men taught wished to avoid repeated lives of suffering and misery, he must leave home and family and friends, become a monk, and devote himself to fasting, bodily torture, and meditation.

The Buddhist Scriptures tell us that when Gotama was twenty-nine years old, he saw for the first time an Old Man, a Sick Man, a Dead Man, and a Monk. The thought that in the course of his past lives he had endured old age, sickness, and death, times without number, terrified him, and he resolved to become a monk.

Leaving home and wife and son, he devoted himself for six years to fasting, bodily torture, and meditation. Finally he become convinced that fasting and bodily torture were not the way of salvation, and abandoned the struggle. One night he had a wonderful experience. First he saw the entire course of his past lives. Next he saw the fate after death of all living beings. Finally he came to understand the cause of human suffering and the cure for it.

Thus it was that he became Buddha, the Awakened, the Enlightened. He saw that the cause of rebirth and suffering was craving for worldly pleasures and life and riches. He saw that if this craving were uprooted, rebirth and suffering would come to an end. He saw that this craving could be uprooted by right belief, right living, and meditation.

For forty-five years the Buddha journeyed from place to place, preaching and teaching. He founded an order of monks and nuns, and won many converts. He lived to be eighty years old. Missionaries carried his teachings from India to Ceylon and Burma and China and Tibet and Japan. In a few hundred years the religion of the Buddha had spread over the whole of Asia. Hundreds of millions of human beings have accepted his teachings.

In at least two respects, the teachings of the Buddha were quite remarkable. In the first place, he insisted on the virtue of moderation. He urged upon his hearers to avoid the two extremes of a life devoted to fasting and self-torture and a life of self-indulgence. In the second place, he taught that a man must love his neighbor as himself, returning good for evil and love for hatred. But this was not all. He taught men to love all living creatures without respect of kind or person. He taught men not to injure or kill any living creature, whether a human being or an animal, even in self-defense. All war, according to the teaching of the Buddha, is unholy.

In the course of time it came to be believed that Gotama had become Buddha as the fruit of good deeds performed in countless previous states of existence, especially deeds of generosity. At any time, had he so desired, he might have uprooted craving for worldly pleasures and life and riches by meditation, and thus have escaped the sufferings of repeated states of existence. But this he deemed an unworthy course. Out of pity and compassion and friendliness for living creatures, he preferred to be reborn again and again, to suffer and to die again and again, in order that, by the accumulated merit of good works, he might himself become enlightened and thus be able to enlighten others.

In comparison with the career of the Future Buddha, devoted to the performance of good works, unselfish, generous to the point of sacrificing his own body and blood, the career of the monk, isolated from the world, selfish, seeking by meditation to uproot craving for worldly pleasures and life and riches, seemed low and mean. The disciple began to imitate his Master. Thus began the Higher Career or Vehicle of Mahayana or Catholic Buddhism, as distinguished from the Lower Career or Vehicle of the more primitive Hinayana Buddhism of the Pali texts. Thus did the quest of Buddhahood supplant the quest of Nibbana. This development took place long before the beginning of the Christian era.




  Preface xix
  Acknowledgements xxiii
  Introductory Note xxv
  Note on Pali Names xxviii
  Bibliographical Note xxviii
Chapter I. Parables from the Book of the Buddha's Previous Existences on the gratefulness of animals and the ungratefulness of man  
1. The grateful elephant 1
  Where there's a will, there's a way  
2. Grateful animals and ungrateful man 6
  Driftwood is worth more than some men  
3. Elephant and ungrateful forester 11
  The whole earth will not satisfy an ungrateful man  
Chapter II. Parables from the Book of the Buddha's Previous Existences and from the Book of discipline, on unity and discord  
4. Quail, crow, fly, frog, and elephants 16
  The biter bit  
5. Quails and fowler 18
  In union there is strength  
6. Brahmadatta, Dighiti, and Dighavu (cf. 7) 20
  Love your enemies  
7. Dighavu and the king of Benares (cf. 6) 28
  Love your enemies  
Chapter III. Parables from the Book of the Buddha's Previous Existences on divers subjects  
8. Two caravan-leaders (cf. 45) 30
  Adhere to the Truth  
9. Vedabbha and the thieves 36
  Cupidity is the root of ruin  
10. A Buddhist Tar-baby (cf. 21) 41
  Keep the Precepts  
11. Two dicers (cf. 47) 44
  Take care  
12. Brahmadatta and Mallika 45
  Overcome evil with good  
13. King Dadhivahana  
  Evil communications corrupt good manners  
  Part 1. Gem, hatchet, drum, and bowl 49
  Part 2. Corrupt fruit from a good tree 51
14. Antelope, woodpecker, tortoise, and hunter  
  In union there is strength  
15. A Buddhist Henny-Penny 55
  Much ado about nothing  
Chapter IV. Parables from the Book of the Buddha's Previous Existences in early and late forms  
16. Partridge, monkey, and elephant  
  Reverence your elders  
  A. Canonical version 59
  B. Uncanonical version 60
17. The hawk  
  Walk not in forbidden ground  
  A. Canonical version 62
  B. Uncanonical version 68
18. Snake-charm  
  A blessing upon all living beings!  
  A Canonical version 64
  B. Uncanonical version 66
19. Dragon Jewel-neck (cf. 20)  
  Nobody loves a beggar  
  A. Canonical version 68
  B. Uncanonical version 70
Chapter V. Parables from early sources on divers subjects  
20. The birds (cf. 19) 73
  Nobody loves a beggar  
21. The monkey (cf. 10 and 17) 74
  Walk not in forbidden ground  
22. Blind men and elephant 75
  Avoid vain wrangling  
23. The anger-eating ogre 77
  Refrain from anger  
Chapter VI. Humorous parables from early and late sources  
24. Mistress Vedehika 79
  Patient is an patient does  
25. Monkey and dyer 81
  The Doctrine of the Buddha wears well  
26. How not to hit an insect  
  Better an enemy with sense than a friend without it  
  A. Boy and mosquito 82
  B. Girl and fly 84
27. Monkey-gardeners  
  Misdirected effort spells failure  
  A. One-stanza version 85
  B. Three-stanza version 87
28. Boar and lion 89
  Touch not pitch lest ye be defiled  
29. Beetle and elephant 90
  Pride goeth before a fall  
Chapter VII. Parables from various sources on death  
30. Kisa Gotami 92
  There is o cure for death  
31. Patacara 94
  Kinsfolk are no refuge  
32. The Heavenly Messengers  
  Prepare for death  
  Part 1. Makhadeva 97
  Part 2. Nimi 99
33. Upasalhaka 104
  Cremated fourteen thousand times in one place !  
34. Ubbiri 106
  Why weep for eighty-four thousand daughters?  
35. Visakha's sorrow 107
  So many dear ones, so many sorrows  
Chapter VIII. Parables from the Long Discourses on the subject: "Is there a life after death?"  
  The wicked do not return to earth 109
36. The condemned criminal 110
  The virtuous do not return to earth 110
37. The man in the dung-pit 111
  The virtuous do not return to earth 112
38. Time in heaven 113
  How do we know that the gods exist? 113
39. The blind man 113
  Why do not the virtuous commit suicide? 114
40. The woman with child 115
  We cannot see the soul after death 116
41. We cannot see the soul during life 116
  The dead are heavier than the living 116
42. Heat makes things light 117
  We cannot see the soul 117
43. Villagers and trumpet 118
  We cannot see the soul 119
44. The search for fire 119
  Wilful persistence in error 121
45. Two caravan-leaders (cf. 8) 121
  Wilful persistence in error 123
46. Dung for fodder 124
  Wilful persistence in error 124
47. Two dicers (cf. 11) 124
  Wilful persistence in error 125
48. Giving up better for worse 125
  Conversion of the unbeliever 126
Chapter IX. Parables from Buddhaghosa's Legends of the Saints  
49. Ghosaka  
  He that diggeth a pit shall fall into it  
  A. Story of the Past: A father casts away his son  
  B. Story of the Present: Ghosaka is cast away seven times 130
50. Little Wayman  
  The last shall be first  
  A. Birth of Little Wayman 133
  B. Little Wayman as a monk 140
  C. Story of the Past: The mouse-merchant 143
51. Nanda the Elder  
  Giving up worse for better  
  A. Canonical version 146
  B. Uncanonical version 149
52. Bhadda Kundalakesa 151
  Quick is the wit of woman  
53. Visakha's marriage 158
  Honor the household divinity  
54. King Kappina and Queen Anoja (cf. 62) 171
  Behold the fruit of faith  
55. Khema (cf. 56) 176
  Beauty is but skin-deep  
56. Nanda (cf. 55) 178
  Beauty is but skin-deep  
Chapter X. Parables from early sources on the Doctrine  
57. The sower 180
  Like the soil of the earth is the soil of the heart  
58. The Buddha and Ananda 182
  Whoever walks in righteousness, honors the Buddha  
59. The Buddha and Vakkali 182
  Whoever sees the Truth, sees Me  
  Whoever sees Me, sees the Truth  
60. The Buddha and the sick man 184
  He that would wait upon Me, let him wait upon the sick  
61. The snake 185
  Grasp the Scriptures aright  
62. Walking on the water (cf. 54) 186
  Behold the fruit of faith !  
63. The Beginninigless Round of Existences (cf. 78-80) 188
  Uproot Craving, the Eye of Existence  
64. The relays 190
  The Religious Life is only a means to an end  
65. The Great Ocean 193
  The Doctrine Tastes only of Deliverance  
66. The Buddha and the herdsman Dhaniya 197
  So If thou wilt, rain, O god  
67. The axe in the mouth 199
  Every man is born with an axe in his mouth  
Chapter XI. Similes and short parables from the Questions of Milinda  
  1. There is no permanent individuality 201
68. Chariot 202
  2. There is no continuous personal identity 204
69. Embryo and child 204
70. Lamp and flame 205
71. Milk and butter 205
  3. What, then, is reborn? 206
  Name-and-Form is reborn 206
72. Theft of mangoes 206
73. Fire in a field 207
74. Lamp under a thatch 207
75. Girl and woman 208
76. Milk and curds 208
  What is Name and what is Form? 209
77. Gem and egg 209
  4. Time has no beginning (cf. 63) 209
78. Seed and fruit 210
79. Egg and hen
80. Circle. 210
81. Timbers and house 211
82. Seeds and plants 211
83. Clay and vessels 211
84. Lyre and sound 211
85. Fire-drill and fire 212
86. Burning-glass and fire 212
87. Mirror and reflection 212
  6. There is no soul 213
88. Six Doors of the Senses 213
89. Men in palace 213
90. Man outside of gateway 214
91. Man in trough of honey 214
  7. Why does ot the fire of Hell destroy the of Hell? 215
92. Embryo of reptiles and birds 215
93. Embryo of beasts of prey 216
94. Human embryo 216
  8. Nibbana is unalloyed bliss 217
95. Bliss of sovereignty 218
96. Bliss of knowledge 218
  9. Nibbana is unlike anything else 219
  Unlike anything else also are:  
97. The great ocean 219
98. The Gods without form 220
  But it has the following qualities:  
99. One quality of he lotus 221
100. Two qualities of water 221
101. Three qualities of medicine 222
102. Four qualities of the great ocean 222
103. Five qualities of food 222
104. Ten qualities of space 223
105. Three qualities of the wishing-jewel 223
106. Three qualities of red-sandalwood 223
107. Three qualities of the cream of ghee 224
108. Five qualities of a mountain-peak 224
  10. Nibbana is neither past nor future nor present 224
  It is neither produced nor not produced nor to be produced. Yet it exists, and may be realized  
109. Escape from a bon-fire 225
110. Escape from a heap of corpses 225
111. Escape from peril 226
112. Escape from mud 226
113. Red-hot iron ball 227
114. Bon-fire 227
115. Traveler who has lost his way 228
  11. Nibbana is not a place 228
116. fields and crops 228
117. Fire-sticks and fire 229
118. Seven Jewels of a King 229
  12. How do we know that the Buddha ever existed? 230
  How do we know that Kings existed of old? 230
  So is it in the case of the Buddha 231
119. The builder of a city is known by his city 231
120. So is the Buddha known by his City of Righteousness 232
  Seven Shops of the Buddha: 233
121. Flower-shop 233
122. Perfume-shop 233
123. Fruit-shop 234
124. Buyer and seller of mangoes 235
125. Medicine-shop 235
126. Herb-shop 236
127. Ambrosia-shop 237
128. Jewel-shop 237
  Seven Jewels of the Buddha: 238
129. Morality 238
130. Concentration 238
131. Wisdom 239
132. Deliverance 240
133. Insight 240
134. Analytical Powers 241
135. Prerequisites of Enlightenment 242
136. General shop 243
  13. The Pure Practices  
137-162. Twenty-six similes 244
Chapter XII. Parables from the Long Discourses on the Fruits of the Religious Life  
  Removal of the Five Obstacles 246
163. Payment of a debt 246
164. Recovery from a sickness 247
165. Release from prison 247
166. Emancipation from slavery 247
167. Return from a journey 248
  The Four Trances 248
  first Trance 248
168. Ball of lather 249
  Third Trance 249
169. Pool of water (cf. 179 and 203) 249
  Third Trance 250
170. Lotus-flowers 250
  Fourth Trance 250
171. Clean garment 250
  Insight 251
172. Threaded gem 251
  Creation of a Spiritual Body 251
173. Reed, sword, snake 252
  The Six Supernatural Powers 252
174. Potter, ivory-carver, goldsmith 253
  The Heavenly Ear 253
175. Sounds of Drums 253
  Mind-reading 253
176. Reflection in a mirror 254
  Recollection of previous states of existence 254
177. Recollection of a journey 254
  The Heavenly Eye 255
178. Mansion at cross-roads 255
  Knowledge of the means of destroying the three Con taminations: Nibbana 256
179. Pool of water (cf. 169 and 203) 256
Chapter XIII. Parables from the medium-length Discourses on two kinds of herdsmen  
180. Mara, the Wicked Herdsman 253
  Destruction of the Eye of Mara 263
  The Four Trances 263
  Knowledge of the means of destroying the taminations 264
181-183. The Buddha, the Good Herdsman I 264
  How Gotama mastered his thoughts 265
181. Herd of cows 265
  How Gotama concentrated his thoughts 266
182. Herd of cows 266
  How Gotama attained Enlightenment 267
  The Four Trances 267
  Recollection of previous states of existence 267
  The Heavenly Eye 268
  Knowledge of the means of destroying the Three Contaminations 268
183. Herd of deer 269
  The Buddha, the Good Herdsman 270
184. The Buddha, the Good Herdsman II 270
Chapter XIV. Parables from the Medium-length Discourses on the Pleasures of Sense  
185-191. Seven Parables 274
185. Skeleton 274
186. Piece of meat 275
187. Torch of grass 275
188. Pit of red-hot coals 275
189. Dream 276
190. Borrowed goods 276
191. Fruit of tree 276
192. Fruit of tree 276
Chapter XV. Parables from the Medium-length Discourses on the fruit of good and evil deeds  
  Four Courses of Conduct 280
  Pain now and pain hereafter 280
  Pleasure now and pain hereafter 280
  Pain now and pleasure hereafter 281
  Pleasure now and pleasure hereafter 281
193. Poisoned Calabash 281
194. Poisoned cup 281
195. Foul-tasting medicine 282
196. Curds and honey and ghee and jaggery 282
197. Even as the sun, so shines righteousness 283
  Five Future States 283
  Hell 283
198. Pit of red-hot coals 284
  Animal kingdom 285
199. Dung-pit 285
  Region of the fathers 285
200. Tree with scanty shade 285
  World of men 286
201. Tree with ample shade 286
  Worlds of the Gods 286
202. Palace 286
  Nibbana 287
203. Lotus-pond (cf. 169 and 179) 287
Chapter XVI. Parables of the Sacred Heart of Buddha  
  Thou alone, O my Heart, art called to be the Saviour of All  
  A. On the Treasury of Merits of Buddha  
  Thou art a Treasury of Merits !  
204. On the Perfecting of the Perfections Dhammapada Comm. 289
  Mine eyes have I torn out! My heart's flesh have I uprooted !  
205. On the attainment of Enlightenment Dhammapada Comm. i. 8a 289
  Blessed indeed is that mother, whose son is such a one as he !  
206. Abatement of plagues at Vesali Dhammapada Comm. Xx. 1 291
  If he but come hither, these plagues will subside  
207. The king who took upon himself the sins and sufferings of his people Sanskrit-Chinese 293
  If there be any that hunger, it is I that have made them hungry  
  B. On the Sacrifice of the Body and Blood  
  I will satisfy the hunger of my friends with my own body and blood !  
208. Boar and lion 297
  Eat me, O lion !  
209. Fairy-prince and griffin 298
  Eat me, O griffin !  
210. Jeweler, monk, and goose 305
  I am ready to sacrifice my body to preserve the life of this goose !  
211. Rupavati 313
  Only that I might attain Supreme Enlightenment !  
212. King Shibi and the bird 314
  Thou alone, O my Heart, art called to be the Saviour of All  
C. On the Sacrifice of the Eyes  
  Here is your eye! Take it!  
213. King Sivi and the blind beggar 324
  Should any man name my eyes, I will pluck them out and give them to him!  
214. Subha of Jivaka's Mango Grove  
  Here is your eye! take it!  
  A. Prose version 325
  B. Poetical version 327
215. The prince-ascetic 330
  Behold this, such as it is! Take it, if you like  
216. Prince Kunala 331
  Plucked out, the eye of flesh; but gained, the Eye of Knowledge!  
217. St. Brigid of Kildare  
  A. Medieval Latin version 332
  Dearer the Eye of the Soul than the eye of the body  
  B. Middle Irish version 332
  Lo, here for thee is thy beautiful eye!  
218. St. Lucy of Syracuse  
  A. Medieval Latin version (early) 333
  B. Medieval Latin version (late)  
  Philippus Bergomensis, De Claris Mulieribus 333
  Here hast thou what thou hast desired! Leave me in peace!  
219. St. Lucy of Alexandria  
  John Moschus, Leimon, Patrologia Graeca 334
  And seising here spindle, she bit, and gouged out here two eyes  
220. King (Richard of England) and nun  
  Jacques de Vitry, Exempla, 57 335
  Behold the eyes that thou desirest! Take them, and leave me in peace!  
  Lost, the eyes of the flesh; but kept, the Eyes of the Spirit  
  Table of Parallels 336


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