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Books > Hindu > Vedas > Upanishads > The Chhandogya Upanishad
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The Chhandogya Upanishad
The Chhandogya Upanishad
Description
Publishers' Preface

The Chhandogya Upanishad is one of the most prominent among the major group of philosophical and mystical texts constituting one of the threefold foundation of India's spiritual lore, the tripod of Indian culture, being constituted of the Upanishads, the Brahmasutras and the Bhagavadgita. While the Veda Samhitas are the recognised primary source of divine inspiration, their hidden intention, purported message, is supposed to be prominently revealed in the Upanishads. The Vedas are said to be capable of a variety of interpretations,- a knowledge of the adhidaiva or the transcendent divinity, adhibhuta or the created universe, Adhyatma or the deepest sacrifice, and adhidharma or the function of law and order. Though, in a restricted sense, the Adhyatma, in this mentioned classification, may appear as an insight into the perceiving and knowing subject as distinguished from its involvements in the objective universe and the transcendent divinity, thus categorizing the Upanishads as records of inward revelations of the ancient sages, yet, the Upanishads constitute Adhyatma-Vidya or knowledge of the pure self in a wider sense, inasmuch as the self can be envisaged in the different degrees of its connotation and the many levels of its expression God above, the universe outside, the society of persons and things in the midst of whom one's own individuality may be included, are all, in the final analysis, comprehended within the status of the absolute Self, so that, in its broad outlook the Upanishads may be considered as a groundwork in whose light may be studied every branch of knowledge and learning.

Among the ten major Upanishads, the Chhandogya and the Brihadranyaka stand above others in their grand stature and majesty, these two texts being viewed by scholars as representing the cosmic and the acosmic aspect of Reality. In the Brihadaranyaka there is a preponderating emphasis on the ultra-spiritual nature of every plane of existence and stage of evolution, a rather super-idealistic sweep of all the Phenomena of experience. The Chhandogya, however, tries to be more realistic in its rather matter- of-fact consideration of the issues of life. This is the reason why, evidently, there is a prevalent feeling that the Chhandogya is saprapancha (Considerate as to the visible forms of experience), while the Brihadaranyaka is nishprapancha (transcendent to all available experience).

This exposition of the Chhandogya Upanishad is, perhaps, the most in-depth study ever made of its philosophical and spiritual message, and goes certainly as a companion to the author's interpretative exposition of the brihadaranyaka Upanishad in a separate volume. Herein, the first chapter constitutes a brilliant study of the Panchagni-Vidya and the Vaishvanara-Vidya sections occurring in he fifth chapter of the original text. This single chapter of the book may well form a classical presentation of a grand theme for the cosmical meditations characteristic of the Upanishads in general. The second chapter expounds the great content of sixth chapter of the original, constituting the instruction of Sage Uddalaka to his son Svetaketu. The third chapter is a study of the seventh section of the original, dealing with the majestic Bhuma-Vidya, being the teaching of Sage Sanatkumara to Narada. The fourth chapter studies the eighth section of the original, which actually concludes the Upanishad. The Samvarga-Vidya and the Sandilya-Vidya occurring at other places in the Upanishad are also included in the end as pieces of stimulating meditation of Absorbing interest. The internal details of this vast study of the Upanishad can be gathered from the list of contents appended herein.

May this valuable production come as a solacing blessing to seekers of Truth the world over.

About the Author

Sri Swami Krishnanandaji Maharaj was a great spiritual master whose unparalleled understanding of Indian scriptures as well as Eastern and Western philosophy make his teachings incomparable and unique in their insight and profundity.

Among the ten major Upanishads, the Chhandogya and the Brihadaranyaka stand above others in their grand stature and majesty, these two texts being viewed by scholars as representing the cosmic and the acosmic aspect of Reality.

CONTENTS
Page
CHAPTER I
VAISHVANARA VIDYA
The Panchagni Vidya3
The Course of the Soul After Death5
Vaishvanara, the Universal Self42
Heaven as the Head of the Universal Self47
The Sun as the Eye of the Universal Self49
Air as the Breath of the Universal Self50
Space as the Body of the Universal Self50
Water as the Lower Belly of the Universal Self51
The Earth as the Feet of the Universal Self 52
The Self as the Universal Whole52
The Five Pranas-Prana58
Vyana
59
Apana
59
Samana
60
Udana
60
The Need for Knowledge is Stressed61
Conclusion64
CHAPTER II
UDDALAKA'S TEACHING CONCERNIGN THE ONENESS OF THE SELF
Section 1 - Preliminary68
Section 2 - The Primacy of Being74
Section 3 - Threefold Development83
Section 4 - Threefold Development (Contd.)85
Section 5 - Illustrations of the Threefold Nature91
Section 6 - Further Illustrations93
Section 7 - Importance of Physical Needs94
Section 8 - Concerning Sleep, Hunger, Thirst and Dying97
Section 9 - The Indwelling Spirit106
Section 10 - The Indwelling Spirit (Contd.) Illustration of River and the Ocean109
Section 11 - The Indwelling Spirit (Contd.) Illustration of a Tree111
Section 12 - The Indwelling Spirit (Contd.) Illustration of the Banyan Tree and Its Seed114
Section 13 - The Indwelling Spirit (Contd.) Illustration of Salt and Water116
Section 14 - The Indwelling Spirit (Contd.) The Need for a Guru119
Section 15 - The Indwelling Spirit (Contd.) The Order of Merging124
Section 16 - The Indwelling Spirit (Contd.) Illustration of the Order128
SANTKUMARA'S INSTRUCTUIONS ON BHUMA-VIDYA
Section 1 - Name134
Section 2 - Speech 142
Section 3 - Mind145
Section 4 - Will 144
Section 5 - Memory151
Section 6 - Contemplation153
Section 7 - Understanding155
Section 8 - Strength157
Section 9 - Food160
Section 10 - Water 163
Section 11 - Heat164
Section 12 - Ether165
Section 13 - Memory 167
Section 14 - Hope170
Section 15 - Life172
Section 16 - Truth177
Section 17 - Truth and Understanding178
Section 18 - Thought and Understanding179
Section 19 - Faith180
Section 20 - Steadfastness181
Section 21 - Activity181
Section 22 - Happiness182
Section 23 - The Infinite186
Section 24 - The Infinite and the finite189
Section 25 - The Ego and the Self191
Section 26 - The Primacy of Self194
CHAPTER IV
AN ANALYSIS OF THE NATURE OF THE SELF
Section 1 - The Universal Self Within the Heart and in the World199
Section 2 - Different Higher Worlds211
Section 3 - The Space within the Heart213
Section 4 - Life Beyond220
Section 5 - Importance of Brahmacharya 222
Section 6 - Course after Death226
Section 7 - Prajapati's Instruction to India Concerning the Real Self233
Section 8 - The Bodily Self237
Section 9 - Indra Feels the Inadequacy of the Physical Theory240
Section 10 - The Dream Self242
Section 11 The Self in Deep Sleep244
Section 12 - The Self as Spirit246
Section 13 - Exclamation of the Perfected Soul266
Section 14 - The Prayer of a Seeker for Eternal Life268
Section 15 - Parting Advice to the Pupil269
APPENDIX I
SANDILYA-VIDYA275
APPENDIX II
SAMVARGA-VIDYA285
Section 1285
Section 2290
Section 3293
INDEX303

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The Chhandogya Upanishad

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Publishers' Preface

The Chhandogya Upanishad is one of the most prominent among the major group of philosophical and mystical texts constituting one of the threefold foundation of India's spiritual lore, the tripod of Indian culture, being constituted of the Upanishads, the Brahmasutras and the Bhagavadgita. While the Veda Samhitas are the recognised primary source of divine inspiration, their hidden intention, purported message, is supposed to be prominently revealed in the Upanishads. The Vedas are said to be capable of a variety of interpretations,- a knowledge of the adhidaiva or the transcendent divinity, adhibhuta or the created universe, Adhyatma or the deepest sacrifice, and adhidharma or the function of law and order. Though, in a restricted sense, the Adhyatma, in this mentioned classification, may appear as an insight into the perceiving and knowing subject as distinguished from its involvements in the objective universe and the transcendent divinity, thus categorizing the Upanishads as records of inward revelations of the ancient sages, yet, the Upanishads constitute Adhyatma-Vidya or knowledge of the pure self in a wider sense, inasmuch as the self can be envisaged in the different degrees of its connotation and the many levels of its expression God above, the universe outside, the society of persons and things in the midst of whom one's own individuality may be included, are all, in the final analysis, comprehended within the status of the absolute Self, so that, in its broad outlook the Upanishads may be considered as a groundwork in whose light may be studied every branch of knowledge and learning.

Among the ten major Upanishads, the Chhandogya and the Brihadranyaka stand above others in their grand stature and majesty, these two texts being viewed by scholars as representing the cosmic and the acosmic aspect of Reality. In the Brihadaranyaka there is a preponderating emphasis on the ultra-spiritual nature of every plane of existence and stage of evolution, a rather super-idealistic sweep of all the Phenomena of experience. The Chhandogya, however, tries to be more realistic in its rather matter- of-fact consideration of the issues of life. This is the reason why, evidently, there is a prevalent feeling that the Chhandogya is saprapancha (Considerate as to the visible forms of experience), while the Brihadaranyaka is nishprapancha (transcendent to all available experience).

This exposition of the Chhandogya Upanishad is, perhaps, the most in-depth study ever made of its philosophical and spiritual message, and goes certainly as a companion to the author's interpretative exposition of the brihadaranyaka Upanishad in a separate volume. Herein, the first chapter constitutes a brilliant study of the Panchagni-Vidya and the Vaishvanara-Vidya sections occurring in he fifth chapter of the original text. This single chapter of the book may well form a classical presentation of a grand theme for the cosmical meditations characteristic of the Upanishads in general. The second chapter expounds the great content of sixth chapter of the original, constituting the instruction of Sage Uddalaka to his son Svetaketu. The third chapter is a study of the seventh section of the original, dealing with the majestic Bhuma-Vidya, being the teaching of Sage Sanatkumara to Narada. The fourth chapter studies the eighth section of the original, which actually concludes the Upanishad. The Samvarga-Vidya and the Sandilya-Vidya occurring at other places in the Upanishad are also included in the end as pieces of stimulating meditation of Absorbing interest. The internal details of this vast study of the Upanishad can be gathered from the list of contents appended herein.

May this valuable production come as a solacing blessing to seekers of Truth the world over.

About the Author

Sri Swami Krishnanandaji Maharaj was a great spiritual master whose unparalleled understanding of Indian scriptures as well as Eastern and Western philosophy make his teachings incomparable and unique in their insight and profundity.

Among the ten major Upanishads, the Chhandogya and the Brihadaranyaka stand above others in their grand stature and majesty, these two texts being viewed by scholars as representing the cosmic and the acosmic aspect of Reality.

CONTENTS
Page
CHAPTER I
VAISHVANARA VIDYA
The Panchagni Vidya3
The Course of the Soul After Death5
Vaishvanara, the Universal Self42
Heaven as the Head of the Universal Self47
The Sun as the Eye of the Universal Self49
Air as the Breath of the Universal Self50
Space as the Body of the Universal Self50
Water as the Lower Belly of the Universal Self51
The Earth as the Feet of the Universal Self 52
The Self as the Universal Whole52
The Five Pranas-Prana58
Vyana
59
Apana
59
Samana
60
Udana
60
The Need for Knowledge is Stressed61
Conclusion64
CHAPTER II
UDDALAKA'S TEACHING CONCERNIGN THE ONENESS OF THE SELF
Section 1 - Preliminary68
Section 2 - The Primacy of Being74
Section 3 - Threefold Development83
Section 4 - Threefold Development (Contd.)85
Section 5 - Illustrations of the Threefold Nature91
Section 6 - Further Illustrations93
Section 7 - Importance of Physical Needs94
Section 8 - Concerning Sleep, Hunger, Thirst and Dying97
Section 9 - The Indwelling Spirit106
Section 10 - The Indwelling Spirit (Contd.) Illustration of River and the Ocean109
Section 11 - The Indwelling Spirit (Contd.) Illustration of a Tree111
Section 12 - The Indwelling Spirit (Contd.) Illustration of the Banyan Tree and Its Seed114
Section 13 - The Indwelling Spirit (Contd.) Illustration of Salt and Water116
Section 14 - The Indwelling Spirit (Contd.) The Need for a Guru119
Section 15 - The Indwelling Spirit (Contd.) The Order of Merging124
Section 16 - The Indwelling Spirit (Contd.) Illustration of the Order128
SANTKUMARA'S INSTRUCTUIONS ON BHUMA-VIDYA
Section 1 - Name134
Section 2 - Speech 142
Section 3 - Mind145
Section 4 - Will 144
Section 5 - Memory151
Section 6 - Contemplation153
Section 7 - Understanding155
Section 8 - Strength157
Section 9 - Food160
Section 10 - Water 163
Section 11 - Heat164
Section 12 - Ether165
Section 13 - Memory 167
Section 14 - Hope170
Section 15 - Life172
Section 16 - Truth177
Section 17 - Truth and Understanding178
Section 18 - Thought and Understanding179
Section 19 - Faith180
Section 20 - Steadfastness181
Section 21 - Activity181
Section 22 - Happiness182
Section 23 - The Infinite186
Section 24 - The Infinite and the finite189
Section 25 - The Ego and the Self191
Section 26 - The Primacy of Self194
CHAPTER IV
AN ANALYSIS OF THE NATURE OF THE SELF
Section 1 - The Universal Self Within the Heart and in the World199
Section 2 - Different Higher Worlds211
Section 3 - The Space within the Heart213
Section 4 - Life Beyond220
Section 5 - Importance of Brahmacharya 222
Section 6 - Course after Death226
Section 7 - Prajapati's Instruction to India Concerning the Real Self233
Section 8 - The Bodily Self237
Section 9 - Indra Feels the Inadequacy of the Physical Theory240
Section 10 - The Dream Self242
Section 11 The Self in Deep Sleep244
Section 12 - The Self as Spirit246
Section 13 - Exclamation of the Perfected Soul266
Section 14 - The Prayer of a Seeker for Eternal Life268
Section 15 - Parting Advice to the Pupil269
APPENDIX I
SANDILYA-VIDYA275
APPENDIX II
SAMVARGA-VIDYA285
Section 1285
Section 2290
Section 3293
INDEX303

Sample Pages

H






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