Of these 27 articles on Dravidian subjects, 23 deal with linguistic topics, several ranging through the Dravidian family as a whole: others concentrate on specific language, such as Toda, Kota, Kodagu, Brahui, but all attempt to fit specific language data into the comparative study of the languages of the family. The author has realized that the comparative study of a language family depends on the firm identification of etymologies, and several of the papers concentrate on etymological study. Such general questions as India as a somewhat unified linguistic area, or the structure of personal names, or the ethnological basis of some lexical items, appear in several papers. Four of the papers are on specific Toda subjects; in three of these the approach is in the first place linguistic. These results of some 50 years of study further knowledge of the Dravidian component of India's people and culture.
M.B. Emeneau, born in Canada on February 28, 1904, is Professor Emeritus of Sanskrit and General Linguistics at the University of California, Berkeley, having taught there from 1940 to 1971. He studied Latin and Greek at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (B.A. 1923), and at Oxford (B.A. 1926). At Yale University he added Sanskrit to his studies (Ph.D. 1931). And thereafter received training in anthropological linguistics from Edward Sapir. In 1935-38 he did field work on unrecorded Dravidian tribal languages of south and Central India - Toda, Kota, and Badaga in Nilgiris, Kodagu in Coorg, and Kolami in Madhya Pradesh.
Professor Emeneau is a member of the American Philosophical Society (1952), and honorary fellow of the Royal Asiatic Society (1969), and honorary member of the Linguistic Society of India (1964), and has received honorary degrees from the University of Chicago (L.H.D. 1968), Dalhousie University (LL.D. 1970) and the University of Hyderabad (D. Litt. 1987).
His many publications on Dravidian subjects include: Dravidian Linguistics, Ethnology and Folktales (1967); collected papers to 1958; Kota Texts (1944-46); Kolami: A Dravidian Language (1955); Toda Songs (1971); Toda Grammar and Texts (1984); Language and Linguistic Area (1980); and with T. Burrow, Professor of Sanskrit, Oxford University, A Dravidian Etymological Dictionary (1961); Supplement; 1968; 2nd edition revised, (1984); and Dravidian Borrowings from Indo-Aryan (1962).
In 1967 the Linguistics Department of Annamalai University brought out as its Publication no. 8 a collection of my papers, entitled Dravidian Liguistics, Ethnology and folktales. The preface was dated 1965, but the latest item included in the volume appeared in 1958. Since that time I have published much on Dravidian linguistics. To the earlier volumes, Kota Texts (1 944-46) and Kolami, a Dravidian Language (1955), there have been added the Dravidian Etymological Dictionary works (with the late T. Burrow, 1st edition [DED] 1961, 2nd revised edition [DEDR] 1984, Brahui and Dravidian Compartative grammar (1962), Dravidian Comparative Phonology: A Sketch (first composed in 1959, printed in 1970), Toda Songs (1971), Ritual Structure and Language Structure of the Todas (1974), Toda Grammar and Texts (1984). My interest in Dravidian as part of the larger Indian linguistic area was already seen in several papers included in the 1967 volume. Several later papers on the linguistic area, including Dravidian data, were joined to those earlier ones and published in 1980 by Stanford University Press under the editorship of Anwar S. Dil, and entitled Language and Linguistic Area. Apart from all this, since 1958 there have been published 21 papers dealing with topics in Dravidian linguistics (one with Indian areal relevance), and 4 papers having to do with the Todas. These are gathered in the present collection, along with two chapters involving general Dravidian linguistics from Brahui and Dravidian Comparative Grammar Apart from the inaccessibility of some of the papers, a better reason for reprinting is the general focusing of interest of the papers on Dravidian linguistics—even three of the four papers on Toda matters are of linguistic interest.
lt will be noted that 7 of the items in the volume have to do with Brahui, and another, the first of the papers, deals with Brahui data as part of North Dravidian. This results from the facts that the excellent presentation of the language by Bray (1909, 1934) presented many problems which admitted of searching study and solution, once general Dravidian etymological work had been undertaken and brought near completion, that my interest had been aroused in the language by a short period of contact with it early in 1936 at the Chanhudaro excavations where the diggers were mainly Brahuis, and that the lranianization of the language, already adumbrated by Bray, was one facet of the Indian areal linguistics in which l had become generally interested.
Another 6 papers deal with features of the southern languages on which 1 had done extensive fieldwork in 1935•38—Toda, Kota, and Kodagu. A seventh, the elaborate paper on ‘The South Dravidian languages`, starting from data from these languages, attempted to analyze in depth a part of the verb morphology of all the languages (except Tulu) of the South Dravidian subgroup. Another paper is a general one on the languages of the Nilgiris, where I started my fieldwork. A few of the other papers have amore general Dravidian scope, e. g. that entitled ‘Studies in Dravidian verb stem formation’ (which, among other matters, attempts to set right my unfortunate early  paper on the verbs ‘give’ and ‘come’). Areal preoccupations are seen in three papers: ‘Indian pronominal demonstrative bases’, ‘The right hand is the "eating hand" ’, and ‘The languages of the Nilgiris’ (a microarea).
Of the Toda papers, two deal with some linguistic aspects of Toda poetry, and one with the Toda basis of the name of the town Ootacamund. My general interest in Indian personal names accounts for the paper on Coorg names and that on Kampa/Kampan; these form a unity with ‘Towards an onomastics of South Asia’ (JA OS 98.113-30 ) and the treatment of Toda names in Ritual Structure and Language Structure of the Todas (1974).
I have already recorded (Language and Linguistics Area, p. 352) that, on my going to India in 1935, my teacher Edward Sapir suggested field work on unrecorded Dravidian languages, specifically on Toda; he even tentatively spoke of Dravidian comparative grammar for my future. It is fitting that during the centenary celebration of his birth I should have made this collection and that I should dedicate it to this memory. It was through his influence that they had their beginning; to him I owe much.
I should record my deep gratitude to my former student, Professor Bh. Krishnamurti, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Hyderabad, through whose efforts this volume sees the light of day. Mention should not be omitted of Motilal Banarsidass Indological Publishers for the thoroughly professional production of the volume.
Finally, there must be acknowledgement of indebtedness to the editors and publishers, holders of copyright, for their ready permission to reprint the articles in the volume. Special acknowledgment must be made as follows: ‘Style and meaning in an oral literature’, Language42: 323-45 (1966); reprinted _ by permission of the Linguistic Society of America;
‘Brahui sal-/Sali-"to stand" ’, Pratidanam… presented to FB.J Kuiper pp. 339-41 (1968; The Hague; Mouton), and ‘The right-hand is the "eating hand"’, Dimensions of Social Life in Honor of David G. Mandelbaum, pp. 263-73 (1987; Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter); reprinted by permission of Mouton de Gruyter (Walter de Gruyter and Co.), Berlin;
‘Kodagu and Brahui development of Proto-Dravidian 'r’, Indo-Iranian Journal 13: 176-98 (1971) (The Hague: Mouton); reprinted by permission of Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands; ‘Some notes on Dravidian intensives’, Festschrift for Henry Hoenigswald... (eds. George Cardona and Norman H. Zide; 1987), pp. 109-13; reprinted by permission of Gunter Narr Verlag, Tubingen;
‘The languages of the Nilgiris’, Blue Mountains.• The Ethnography and Biogeography of a South Indian Region (ed. Paul Hockings; 1989), pp. 1.33-43; reprinted by permission of Oxford University Press, Delhi.
Some updating has had to be supplied at various points in the papers, indicated in general by matter included within in the text or in notes. This is to be found especially in the first paper, that on ‘North Dravidian velar stops. This subject has been treated so differently in the 1988 paper on Proto-Dravidian c-that the 1961 paper has been included here only because of its almost complete in accessibility. The following two papers also have much updating. Occasional new items of verb data have been added in the paper on ‘The South Dravidian Language’.
Bibliography of M.B. Emeneau's Publications
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