Back of the Book (Vol 2)
The oldest system of medicine Ayueveda, is a combination of science and philosophical that aspires for the perfect health and development (physical, mental, social and spiritual) of the individual and the society. The utility of this science consists in the maintenance of health in the healthy and quieting of diseases in the ailings. It is a science of longevity and perfect health which are the highest generalisation and proved by proved deductive applications.
In the present book Authors have tried their best to present the basics of Dravyaguna in very elaborative and simple way so that all the parameters of dravya (related to drug actions) namely Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karm and Prabhava etc. Be easily understood along with brief description of pharamacy (Kalpkhanda) as it is believed to be a part of Dravyaguna. During description special attention has been given regarding references taken from the original texts in from of footnotes wherever necessary which will be very much beneficial in understanding the facts.
Further more, regarding identification of plants through their taxonomic approach an effort has been made to ascertain their identity (family wise). In addition to these a glossary related with specific identifying characteristics with top graphic representation in separate section will be proved helpful.
In view of above efforts this book will given a new guideline in understanding the basics of Dravyaguna and so Ayurveda as a whole to the student to serve the suffering Via Ayurveda, the science of life and certainly the oldest system of medicine.
About the Book (Vol 1)
The author of this book after 4 decades of teaching the subject in English medium at Govt. Ayurvedic Medical College Bangalore/Mysore has written this book according to the needs of the students and for easy understanding the subjects. Most of the writings are from class notes which are accepted by the students of BSAM/BAMS courses. It is according to CCIM syllabus. For some reference of the topics, the footnotes have been restricted but the references are given there itself.
Upto chapter eleven the basic principles of Dravyaguna has been covered according to classical texts. Modern equivalent terminologies have been used very carefully to avoid confusions and difference of opinions. In chapter eleven some more Karmas, other than mentioned in Syllabus are included which are very common in practice on questioned in viva and practical examinations. Chapter twelve Dravyanamakarana consists of three topics they have been dealt in detail and separately. In chapter fifteen Dravyaguna Itihasa, the author has included the scholars of modern period upto Prof. P.V. Sharma. Mentioned about Indian Medicine central council Act. 1970; CCIM, CCRAS, RAV, etc, Pharmacopoeia laboratory Ghaziabad API, AFI, etc. In chapter sixteen on Nighantus, the Bhavaprakash Nighantu has not been included in CCIM syllabus, the author has discussed about it, because of the importance of this nighantu. This work in English will fulfil the dearth of texts in English language and specially on the basic principles of Dravyaguna-vijnana.
About the Book (Vol 2)
I have written this book after four decades of teaching the subject of Dravyaguna in English medium at Government Ayurvedic Medical College, Bangalore/Mysore upto August 1999 and at ALN Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa, Chickmagalur till August 2006. Most of the writing are from my class notes which were accepted by BSAM/BANS Students.
This work is according to CCIM syllabus for BAMS Courses. All the four chapters prescribed in the syllabus has been written. They are (a) study of drugs in detail, (b) Study of drugs in non-detail, (c) Drugs of animal origin and (d) Groups of Drugs. The synonym for detail study of drugs has been covered from different Nighantu like Paryaya Ratnamala, Saushruta Nighantu. Ashtanga Nighantu and Priya Nighantu alongwith other commonly known Nighantus with their references. This plants are described according to synonyms too.
The swaaroopa or the morphological charading of the plant has been described according to botany from different Floras. Completed description is given for detail drugs and salient points are given for the study of non-detail drugs, thereby the vague descriptions of the plants are avoided because the students are well aware of Botany. The part used of each detail drugs is also described.
In the appendix, I have given the list of dissertations done by MD (AY.) Dravyaguna students from different Post-Graduate Centres in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. If anyone interested in knowing more about the drugs may get references from the concerned colleges. This will help in avoiding the repetition of dissertation work in P.G. Courses.
About the Author (Vol 1)
The author is from a family of doctors of Western System of Medicine. Most of them doctor missionaries from India to other countries. The author is a freak in the family of Lucas to study Graduate Course of Indian Medicine (GCIM) an integrated course, with Ayurveda and Western system of Medicine. He was born on 10th August 1941 of Bangalore. GCIM from Taranath Ayurveda Vidyapeetha, Bellary. Selected by Karnataka Public Sercrice Commission as Medical officer of Health for the Department of Karnataka Health services in Nov. 1965.
He was the first Medical Officer from Karnataka Health services to be deputed for PG Studies in Ayurveda at BHU. Completed Doctor of Ayurvedic Medicine-Dravyaguna under the guidance of Prof. P.V. Sharma. After completion of the course in 1971 worked as Lecturer, Asstt. Prof., Professor and Principal of Govt. Ayurvedic Medical College, Bangalore and retired in August 1999. From Dec. 1999 till now working as professor P.G. Dravyaguna Department, ALN Rao Memorial Ayurveda Medical college, Koppa, Chickmangalore.
He was the first Dean of Ayurvedic Faculty of Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences Karnataka, Banglore. He was member and chairman of various academic bodies of Bangalore University, Mysore University, RGHS Bangalore. He was an examiner for MD and Ph.D. courses in many universities in India, notably, BHU, GAU, Jamnagar, NIA Jaipur, University of Pune, Kerala University etc. Examiner for UG courses of various universities in India.
Presented about 100 scientific and research papers in various seminars, conferences and workshops in India and abroad.
Preface (Vol 1)
Ayurveda, the Science of Life in as old as vedas. It is a science which advocates the maintenance of health and to relieve the sufferings of human being, which includes Sartra-physical body, atma-spirituality, indria-sence organs and manas-mind. Ayurveda has many unique means to maintain health and relieve diseased conditions like herbal medicaments, mineral preparations, pancakarma, rasayana etc. To understand all these subjects one has to have a complete knowledge of the fundamental principles of the subjects. The classical text on Ayurveda has divided the subject matter into eight parts or subjects, which are commonly known as Astangas. In these eight angas the subject of Dravyaguna has not been given a place, but every subject of asatangas deal with dravyaguna without dravyaguna no anga will be a complete subject.
The mention of dravya is found fram the time of vedas, specially Rgveda and Atharvaveda. The use of dravya and their preparations are described in Samhitas. Later the Nighantukavas have described the dravya with their synonyms, properties and their uses from the time of Sansruta Nighantu till the period of Bhavaprakasa. Narahari Pandita of Rajanighantu has quoted for the first time, the important of study of Dravya.
In the modern era, the authorities on the subject of Dravyaguna like Acarya Yadavji Trikamji, Shri Viswanath Dwivediji, Prof. P.V. Sharmaji and others have written texts on the basic concepts on Dravyaguna. Most of these works are mainly in Devanagari scripts. There are books in other regional language of our country. But There is a dearth for books in english language. Prof. P.V. Sharmaji, Dr. K.R. Srikanta Murthy, Principal (Retd.), Government Ayurvedic Medical College, Bangalore and some others have written books in English and translated some of the classical books into english language.
The systematic study of Ayurveda was started by the Indian Medical Council Act. 1970, by the Government of India, Ministry of Health, New Delhi. Uniform courses were started all over India affiliated to different Universities. Syllabuses on different subjects were framed by the Central Council of Indian Medicine, New Delhi, for the BAMS Course. For the study of Dravyaguna Vijnana two parts are prescribed as Paper I, dealing with the Basic Principle on Dravyaguna and Paper II, consisting of the study of drugs including practicals. Most of the topics for the syllaus of Dravyaguna Vijnana Part I are taken almost as it is from Dravyaguna Vijnana Volume I of Prof. P.V. Sharmaji.
I have written this book after four decades of teaching the subject in english medium of Government Ayurvedic Medical College Bangalore, Mysore, up to August 1999 and latter on at ALN Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, KOPPA, Chickmagalur Dist. Karnataka till now. Most of the writtings are from my class notes and many points according to the needs of the students. I have restricted the subject mostly to the CCIM syllabus. Same of the foot notes are note given but the references are given there and then, when explaining the subject matter. Up-to chapter eleven the basic principles have been covered according to classical texts. Some of the points are taken from the books by Dr. H.V. Savanur, Fundamental Principles of Ayurveda, Dr. C. Dwarkanath, Dravyaguna Vijnana by Prof. P.V. Sharmaji etc. In chapter nine, a table is given showing the difference between Prabhava and Vicitrapratyayarabodha for easy understanding. The chapter ten which deals with Karma, I have explained the topics of the syllabus and included some more Karmas like Abhisyandi, Yogavahi etc. In the chapter eleven-Misraka Varga, some more combinations are added which are commonly practiced or questioned in theary and viva-voice examinations. Chapter twelve-Dravyanam Namakaranam, according to CCIM syllabus consists of three topics- (a) Dravyanam Namakaranam, (b) Dravyasangrahavidhi and (c) Mana Paribhasa. These topics have been dealt separately in this chapter. The chapter thirteen-Dravyanam Vividhasodhanam, Ayurvedic Formulary of India, Rasatarangini etc. have been reffered. In chapter fifteen-Dravyaguna Sastra Itihasa, I have put forth same of the new view points and included the scholars of modern period upto Prof. P.V. Sharmaji, mentioned about Indian Medicine Central Council Act. 1970, CCIM, CCRASH etc., Pharmacopocial Laboratory, Ghaziabad, API, AFI etc. In the 16th chapter on Nighantu, discussions on the prescribed nighantu of the syllabus in dealt. I have discussed about Bhavaprakasa Nighantu, which is not included in the .syllabus. I have also mentioned some other Nighantus which are in vogue.
This work is manily on the basis of CCIM syllabus framed for the BAMS Course of studies. This will be useful for M.D. Dravyaguna scholars also. This work is just a drop in the ocean of Ayurveda. If there are any short comings, it may kindly be intimated so that in future editions they may be taken care off.
I sincerely extend my warm regards to Prof. P.V. Sharmaji my teacher and guide who has encouraged me to do this work and in introducing Shri-Sunil Guptaji & Ashok Gupta of Chaukhambha Visvabharti, Varanasi for Publication. I thank Prof. Satya Deo Dubey, Head of the Department of Dravyaguna, BHU, Varanasi, for going through the manuscript and suggesting necessary corrections. I thank my spouse Smt. Grace Vanajakshi Lucas B.A., B.Ed. Assistant Mistress, Gootrnment Fort High School, Bangalore and my 'Sons Ajoy Lucas and Kiran Lucas (now in U.K.) for their constant encouragement I also thank my students and colleagues Dr. Shobha G. Hiremath, Dr. B.R. Lalitha and Dr. Shraddha and others for encouraging to do this book. I thank Chaukhambha Visvabharati, Varanasi for printing and publishing this work.
Preface (Vol 2)
The subject of Dravyguna is not included in the Astanga of Ayurveda. But Draya has been mentioned from the time of Vedas and described their properties and uses. The Rgevda which is the oldest repository of human knowledge has described about the plants. Rgevda claims that ousadhi were known even from the period of stone age. The classification of plants according to their external appearance as well as medical virtues was also attempted. In Rgveda even references Cryptogamy-flowerless plants and Phanerogamus flowering plant are mentioned which refer to the knowledge of botany.
Atharvaveda is a curious canpendium of medicine in its various stages of evolution. The drug system in Atharvaveda is regarded as the earliest source of authority.
Atharvaveda not only gives a number of families of plants, such as Asikini, Prisni, Stambini, ect. A detail classification of plans is given according to colour, growth, property, origion and from. The Atharvaveda includes substances from the vegetable kingdom, minerals, manufactured things and a number of miscellaneous substances. Water is given the first place. The use of water is mentioned for the sake of drinking, sprinkling, washing as a holy water as panaceas, as medicinal heated water and even as a drug. During the period of kausika sutrathe value of medicinal herbs was more and more realised and were used extensively. The plants mentioned in Kausika sutra are Abhaya, Ajasrngi, Ala, Apamarga, Aparajita, Arka, Guggulu, and Haridra ect.
The analysis of dravya, rasa, guna, virya and vipaka on the basis of Pancamahabhuta is a remakable land mark during samhita period. A number of drugs were in practical use and the datas were recorded in the form of Samhitas. Systamatic descritions of Dravya are available in Samhitas. The knowledge of Dravyaguna attained its peak during this period. The formulations of various vajikara and rasayana drugs in Samhitas are notable descriptions. The rasayana drugs are very effective and are promotors of health, immunity and life. Numbers of Nighantu have originated in medieval period. It cantains synonyms of dravya, usage, properties and varieties. Notable among them them are Dhanvantarinighantu Rajanighantu, Madanapalanighantu, Kaiyadevanighantu and Bhavaprakashanighantu. Caraka has described 526 dravya, Susruta 573 dravya, Vagbhata 902 dravya and Bhavaprakasa 450 dravya. Therefore, the study of Dravyaguna Sastra is one of the important aspects of Ayurveda.
Now-a-days, many drugs are claimed as Ayurvedic drugs. If a drug has to be considered as Ayrvedic deug, it should be bound by Drugs and cosmetic Act 1940(and its amendments) time to time According to this Act, Ayurvedic drug means, that which is mentioned in the authoritative book of Ayurveda, Specified in the First Schedule of the Act. In this schedule there are 54 books. The drugs which are there in Ayurvedic Formulary of India and Ayurveda Pharmacopoeia of India. Part-I Volume 1-4, Published by Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family walfare, Department of AYUSH, New Delhi are the official drugs of Ayurveda. If other than these drugs mentioned in other books, may not be taken as Ayurvedic drugs. It should fulfill the definition stated by Caraka in Vimanasthana, Chapter 8 and veses 87, to be included as Ayurvedic drug. These points clearly states anything and everything cannot be taken as Ayurvedic drugs. To justify these pointes the below given quotation will give a clear taught:
Contents (Vol 1)
Dravyguna Sastrasya Laksanam
Dravya Vargikarana-Classification of Dravya
dravyanam Vividha Sodhanam
Prasasta Bhesajam-Bhesaja Prayogah
Dravyaguna Sastra Itihasa
Contents (Vol 2)
Chapter-1: Study of drugs in detail
Chapter-2: Study of non detail drugs
Chapter-3: Drugs of animal origin
Chapter-4: Groups of Deugs
Chapter 3 and 4
Desecration submitted from the different college of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh
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