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Books > Buddhist > Biography > Early Buddhism and its Origins
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Early Buddhism and its Origins
Early Buddhism and its Origins
Description
About the Book

Buddhism is a subject of absorbing interest to student of comparative religions, ethics, history and social philosophy. Its historical foundations have been discussed by Senart, Oldenberg and C.A.F. Rhys Davids. In this book there has been presented not only an objective and scholarly exposition of the teaching and philosophy of early Buddhism but the Vedic roots of its concepts have been demonstrated. The methods of sociology of Religion have also been followed. The section entitled Buddhism and the Social Science (chaps. XV-XIX) constitutes an original contribution to knowledge from the pen of an eminent teacher of political philosophy.

About the Author

Dr. Vishwanath Prasad Varma received his B.A. Honours (1942) and M.A. (1944) degrees in History at the Patna University, obtaining the first position in the first class. He studied Political Science, Social Philosophy and Sociology at the Columbia University in the City of New York (1949-48) and at the University of Chicago (1948-50) and worked with Professors MacIver, Franz Neumann, Leo Strauss, Hans Morgentau and Louis Wirth. Before his departure for advanced studies in Social Sciences in the United States, Dr. V.P. Varma had studied Buddhist philosophy for two years (1945-47) with Dr. D.M. Datta, the great Indian philosopher. He read the Upanishads and Indian philosophy under Acharya Brahmananda and other renowned Pandits. Dr. Verma is a great Vedic scholar. For his book Bharatiya Darshan, he was awarded the Malaviya Prize of the U.P. Government (1969).

Dr. Verm is renowned teacher of political theory. He has been teaching this subject for over two decades. He has been the president of the All India Political Science Association (1968). His Rajaniti aur Darshana has received two prizes from the U.P. Government and the Bihar Rashtrabhasa Parishad. His Modern Indian Political Thought is well known classic of political science. The Times Literary Supplement (London) paid eloquent tributes to him as an "exceptionally learned political philosopher."

CONTENTS

    PREFACE

    PART ONE

    THE PHILOSOPHY & SOCIOLOGY OF EARLY BUDDHISM

    Section I. Introduction

    Chapter 1. The life, Personality and Prophecy of Buddha

    1. The life and Personality of Buddha
    2. Buddha's Leadership

    Chapter 2. The Origins of Religion and Early Buddhism

    1. The Origins of Religion
    2. Philosophical and Sociological Analysis of Buddhism

    Section II. Evolution of Indian Religion and Buddhism

    Chapter 3. The Vedic Religion and the Origins of Buddhism

    1. Introduction :Vedic Roots of Spiritual Idealism
    2. Some Aspects of the Origins of the Upanisadic Religion and Philosophy in the Vedas
    3. Vedic Scepticism as one of the Roots of Buddhism

    Chapter 4. The Post-Vedic Religion and the Origins of Buddhism

    1. The Development of the Yajna in the Brahmanas: Cults & Myth
    2. Upanisadic Idealism and Pantheism
    3. The Religion of the Upanisads
    4. Monism and the Origins of Monasticism
    5. The Attitude of the Upanisads and Buddhism Towards the Vedas
    6. The Upanisadic and the Buddhistic Revolt against the Sacrificial system (800 BC-500 BC)

    Chapter 5. The Philosophy of the Upanisads and the Origins of Buddhism

    1. The Fundamental Difference Between the Upanisadic and the Early Buddhistic Philosophy
    2. The Influence of the Upanisads upon Buddhism
    3. Conclusion: The Decline of Vedic Religion and the Rise of Early Buddhism

    Section III. Exposition and Analysis of Early Buddhism

    Chapter 6. Buddhist Pessimism

    1. Introduction
    2. Pessimism in Pre-Buddhist Indian Culture
    3. The Truth of Suffering: Pessimism
    4. The Origin and Extinction of Suffering: Optimism
    5. The Sociological Study of Buddhist Dukkhavada

    Chapter 7. Aatmavada

    1. Introduction
    2. Views Regarding the Atman in the Upanisadic Literature
    3. Buddha's Theory of Anatta
    4. Textual References to Atta in the Pali Scriptues
    5. Indirect Evidence and Implication in support of Buddhism Attavada
    6. Western Interpreters of Buddhist Non-Soul Doctrine
    7. Change in the View of C.A.F. Rhys Davids regarding the Interpretation of Anatman
    8. Conclusion

    Chapter 8. The Philosophy of Rebirth

    1. Introduction
    2. History of the Doctrine of Rebirth in India
    3. Sociological Analysis of the Concept of Rebirth

    Chapter 9. Early Buddhist Ethics

    1. Ethics in the Pre- Buddhistic Thought
    2. Evolution of Buddhist Moral Idea
    3. The Sociology of Early Buddhist Ethics
    4. Critical Reflections and Conculsion
    5. The Gospel of Buddha as a Philosophy of life

    Chapter 10. Karma, Moral Determinism and Freedom

    1. Theory of Determinism
    2. The Concept of Karman in the Vedas, Brahmanas and the Upanisads
    3. A Sociological Study of the Origine and Development of the Theory of Karman
    4. Modification of the Individualism of Karman in the Upanisads
    5. The Buddhist Philosophy of Moral Determinism (Karman)
    6. Sociological Implication of Moral Determinism
    7. Conclusion

    Chapter 11. The Concept of Nirvana

    1. Conceptual Analysis of Nirvana
    2. Nirvana as the Extinction of Pain
      1. Implication of the Extinction of Pain
      2. Nirvana as Bliss
      3. Nirvana and Mysticism
      4. Mara and Buddha's Parinirvana: an Anthropological Study of the Nature and Personality of Mara
      5. Nirvana and a Philosophy of life
    3. Nirvana as the Negation of Empiric Phenomena
    4. Nirvana as Utter Extinction
    5. Nirvana as the Absolute
    6. Nirvana according to the Abhidhamma
    7. Factors for the Silence Regarding Nirvanic Metaphysic
    8. Sociology of Nirvana

    Chapter 12. Early Buddhist Mysticism

    Section IV. Yoga, Samkhya and Buddhism

    Chapter 13. Yoga and Early Buddhism

    1. Yogic Ideas in the Vedic Literature
    2. Yoga and the Upanisads
    3. Yoga and Early Buddhist Religion and Philosophy
    4. Buddhism and Patanajala-Yoga
    5. Sociological Approach to Yoga

    Chapter 14. Samkhya and Early Buddhism

    1. Origins of Samkhya Thought and Philosophy
      1. Introduction
      2. The Vedic Roots of the Samkhya
        1. Materialism or Hylozoism in the Nasadiya Sukta
        2. Origin of the Concept of Prakrti in the Veda
        3. The Vedic Origins of Gunavada, Naturalism and Dualism
      3. The Upanisads and the Samkhya
        1. Refutation of the Views of Deuseen, Dahlmann, Keith and Barua
        2. Vedic, and not Upanisadic, Roots of the Samkhya
    2. Buddhism and Samkhya
        4. Summary and Conclusion

    PART TWO

    BUDDHISM AND THE SOCIAL SCIENCE

    Chapter 15. The Economic Foundation of Early Buddhism

    1. Economic Causation and Religion
    2. The Economic Background of Buddhism
      1. Trade and Commerce
      2. Economic Position of the Brahmin Class
      3. Economic Support to Buddhism
      4. The Influence of the Contemporary Economy upon Buddhism

    Chapter 16. The Political Foundation of Early Buddhism

    1. Buddhism as an Eastern Indian Movement
    2. The Political Background of Buddhism

    Chapter 17. The Social Foundation of Early Buddhism

    1. Introduction
    2. Buddhism as a Social Movement: The Relation between the Vedicists and the Early Buddhists
    3. The Social Foundation of the Buddhistic Movement
    4. Buddha's Technics for Social Integration
    5. The Sociology of Buddhist Monachism

    Chapter 18. The Anthropological Foundation of Early Buddhism

    1. Introduction
    2. Anthropological Foundation of Early Buddhism

    Chatper 19. Early Buddhism and the Methodology of Social and Political Research

    PART THREE

    APPENDICES

    1. Buddhist Nihilism

    1. Philosophical Factors for the Emergence of Nihilism
    2. Origins of Buddhist Nihilism and Nagarjuna
    3. Criticism of the Positive Interpretation of Madhyamika Philosophy
    4. Critique of Nihilism

    2. Asoka and Buddhism

    3. Buddha and Dayananda

    1. Vedism and Anti-Vedism
    2. Metaphysics and Mysticism
    3. Psychology
    4. Views Regarding the Universe
    5. Ethical Idealism
    6. The Social Philosophy of Buddha and Dayananda
    7. The Political Philosophy of Buddha and Dayananda
    8. Conclusion

    4. Buddha and Sri Aurobindo

    1. Introduction: Personality and Influence
    2. Methodology of Superior knowledge: Rationalism and Intuitionism
    3. Ontological Speculations
    4. Anatman and the Human Self
    5. The Problem of Pain
    6. Conclusion: A Plea for Increasing Synthesis

    5. Sri Aurobindo's Interpretation of Buddhist Philosophy

    6. Buddha and Marx

    1. Introduction
    2. Ontology and Dialectics
    3. Philosophy of Religion
    4. Philosophy of History
    5. Assessment of the Roles of Buddha and Marx in History

    7. Narendra Deva's Interpretation of Buddhist philosophy

    Bibliography
    Index

Early Buddhism and its Origins

Item Code:
IDC869
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2016
ISBN:
8121503264
Language:
English
Size:
8.9" X 5.8"
Pages:
529
Price:
$40.00   Shipping Free
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About the Book

Buddhism is a subject of absorbing interest to student of comparative religions, ethics, history and social philosophy. Its historical foundations have been discussed by Senart, Oldenberg and C.A.F. Rhys Davids. In this book there has been presented not only an objective and scholarly exposition of the teaching and philosophy of early Buddhism but the Vedic roots of its concepts have been demonstrated. The methods of sociology of Religion have also been followed. The section entitled Buddhism and the Social Science (chaps. XV-XIX) constitutes an original contribution to knowledge from the pen of an eminent teacher of political philosophy.

About the Author

Dr. Vishwanath Prasad Varma received his B.A. Honours (1942) and M.A. (1944) degrees in History at the Patna University, obtaining the first position in the first class. He studied Political Science, Social Philosophy and Sociology at the Columbia University in the City of New York (1949-48) and at the University of Chicago (1948-50) and worked with Professors MacIver, Franz Neumann, Leo Strauss, Hans Morgentau and Louis Wirth. Before his departure for advanced studies in Social Sciences in the United States, Dr. V.P. Varma had studied Buddhist philosophy for two years (1945-47) with Dr. D.M. Datta, the great Indian philosopher. He read the Upanishads and Indian philosophy under Acharya Brahmananda and other renowned Pandits. Dr. Verma is a great Vedic scholar. For his book Bharatiya Darshan, he was awarded the Malaviya Prize of the U.P. Government (1969).

Dr. Verm is renowned teacher of political theory. He has been teaching this subject for over two decades. He has been the president of the All India Political Science Association (1968). His Rajaniti aur Darshana has received two prizes from the U.P. Government and the Bihar Rashtrabhasa Parishad. His Modern Indian Political Thought is well known classic of political science. The Times Literary Supplement (London) paid eloquent tributes to him as an "exceptionally learned political philosopher."

CONTENTS

    PREFACE

    PART ONE

    THE PHILOSOPHY & SOCIOLOGY OF EARLY BUDDHISM

    Section I. Introduction

    Chapter 1. The life, Personality and Prophecy of Buddha

    1. The life and Personality of Buddha
    2. Buddha's Leadership

    Chapter 2. The Origins of Religion and Early Buddhism

    1. The Origins of Religion
    2. Philosophical and Sociological Analysis of Buddhism

    Section II. Evolution of Indian Religion and Buddhism

    Chapter 3. The Vedic Religion and the Origins of Buddhism

    1. Introduction :Vedic Roots of Spiritual Idealism
    2. Some Aspects of the Origins of the Upanisadic Religion and Philosophy in the Vedas
    3. Vedic Scepticism as one of the Roots of Buddhism

    Chapter 4. The Post-Vedic Religion and the Origins of Buddhism

    1. The Development of the Yajna in the Brahmanas: Cults & Myth
    2. Upanisadic Idealism and Pantheism
    3. The Religion of the Upanisads
    4. Monism and the Origins of Monasticism
    5. The Attitude of the Upanisads and Buddhism Towards the Vedas
    6. The Upanisadic and the Buddhistic Revolt against the Sacrificial system (800 BC-500 BC)

    Chapter 5. The Philosophy of the Upanisads and the Origins of Buddhism

    1. The Fundamental Difference Between the Upanisadic and the Early Buddhistic Philosophy
    2. The Influence of the Upanisads upon Buddhism
    3. Conclusion: The Decline of Vedic Religion and the Rise of Early Buddhism

    Section III. Exposition and Analysis of Early Buddhism

    Chapter 6. Buddhist Pessimism

    1. Introduction
    2. Pessimism in Pre-Buddhist Indian Culture
    3. The Truth of Suffering: Pessimism
    4. The Origin and Extinction of Suffering: Optimism
    5. The Sociological Study of Buddhist Dukkhavada

    Chapter 7. Aatmavada

    1. Introduction
    2. Views Regarding the Atman in the Upanisadic Literature
    3. Buddha's Theory of Anatta
    4. Textual References to Atta in the Pali Scriptues
    5. Indirect Evidence and Implication in support of Buddhism Attavada
    6. Western Interpreters of Buddhist Non-Soul Doctrine
    7. Change in the View of C.A.F. Rhys Davids regarding the Interpretation of Anatman
    8. Conclusion

    Chapter 8. The Philosophy of Rebirth

    1. Introduction
    2. History of the Doctrine of Rebirth in India
    3. Sociological Analysis of the Concept of Rebirth

    Chapter 9. Early Buddhist Ethics

    1. Ethics in the Pre- Buddhistic Thought
    2. Evolution of Buddhist Moral Idea
    3. The Sociology of Early Buddhist Ethics
    4. Critical Reflections and Conculsion
    5. The Gospel of Buddha as a Philosophy of life

    Chapter 10. Karma, Moral Determinism and Freedom

    1. Theory of Determinism
    2. The Concept of Karman in the Vedas, Brahmanas and the Upanisads
    3. A Sociological Study of the Origine and Development of the Theory of Karman
    4. Modification of the Individualism of Karman in the Upanisads
    5. The Buddhist Philosophy of Moral Determinism (Karman)
    6. Sociological Implication of Moral Determinism
    7. Conclusion

    Chapter 11. The Concept of Nirvana

    1. Conceptual Analysis of Nirvana
    2. Nirvana as the Extinction of Pain
      1. Implication of the Extinction of Pain
      2. Nirvana as Bliss
      3. Nirvana and Mysticism
      4. Mara and Buddha's Parinirvana: an Anthropological Study of the Nature and Personality of Mara
      5. Nirvana and a Philosophy of life
    3. Nirvana as the Negation of Empiric Phenomena
    4. Nirvana as Utter Extinction
    5. Nirvana as the Absolute
    6. Nirvana according to the Abhidhamma
    7. Factors for the Silence Regarding Nirvanic Metaphysic
    8. Sociology of Nirvana

    Chapter 12. Early Buddhist Mysticism

    Section IV. Yoga, Samkhya and Buddhism

    Chapter 13. Yoga and Early Buddhism

    1. Yogic Ideas in the Vedic Literature
    2. Yoga and the Upanisads
    3. Yoga and Early Buddhist Religion and Philosophy
    4. Buddhism and Patanajala-Yoga
    5. Sociological Approach to Yoga

    Chapter 14. Samkhya and Early Buddhism

    1. Origins of Samkhya Thought and Philosophy
      1. Introduction
      2. The Vedic Roots of the Samkhya
        1. Materialism or Hylozoism in the Nasadiya Sukta
        2. Origin of the Concept of Prakrti in the Veda
        3. The Vedic Origins of Gunavada, Naturalism and Dualism
      3. The Upanisads and the Samkhya
        1. Refutation of the Views of Deuseen, Dahlmann, Keith and Barua
        2. Vedic, and not Upanisadic, Roots of the Samkhya
    2. Buddhism and Samkhya
        4. Summary and Conclusion

    PART TWO

    BUDDHISM AND THE SOCIAL SCIENCE

    Chapter 15. The Economic Foundation of Early Buddhism

    1. Economic Causation and Religion
    2. The Economic Background of Buddhism
      1. Trade and Commerce
      2. Economic Position of the Brahmin Class
      3. Economic Support to Buddhism
      4. The Influence of the Contemporary Economy upon Buddhism

    Chapter 16. The Political Foundation of Early Buddhism

    1. Buddhism as an Eastern Indian Movement
    2. The Political Background of Buddhism

    Chapter 17. The Social Foundation of Early Buddhism

    1. Introduction
    2. Buddhism as a Social Movement: The Relation between the Vedicists and the Early Buddhists
    3. The Social Foundation of the Buddhistic Movement
    4. Buddha's Technics for Social Integration
    5. The Sociology of Buddhist Monachism

    Chapter 18. The Anthropological Foundation of Early Buddhism

    1. Introduction
    2. Anthropological Foundation of Early Buddhism

    Chatper 19. Early Buddhism and the Methodology of Social and Political Research

    PART THREE

    APPENDICES

    1. Buddhist Nihilism

    1. Philosophical Factors for the Emergence of Nihilism
    2. Origins of Buddhist Nihilism and Nagarjuna
    3. Criticism of the Positive Interpretation of Madhyamika Philosophy
    4. Critique of Nihilism

    2. Asoka and Buddhism

    3. Buddha and Dayananda

    1. Vedism and Anti-Vedism
    2. Metaphysics and Mysticism
    3. Psychology
    4. Views Regarding the Universe
    5. Ethical Idealism
    6. The Social Philosophy of Buddha and Dayananda
    7. The Political Philosophy of Buddha and Dayananda
    8. Conclusion

    4. Buddha and Sri Aurobindo

    1. Introduction: Personality and Influence
    2. Methodology of Superior knowledge: Rationalism and Intuitionism
    3. Ontological Speculations
    4. Anatman and the Human Self
    5. The Problem of Pain
    6. Conclusion: A Plea for Increasing Synthesis

    5. Sri Aurobindo's Interpretation of Buddhist Philosophy

    6. Buddha and Marx

    1. Introduction
    2. Ontology and Dialectics
    3. Philosophy of Religion
    4. Philosophy of History
    5. Assessment of the Roles of Buddha and Marx in History

    7. Narendra Deva's Interpretation of Buddhist philosophy

    Bibliography
    Index

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