About the Book
Sanskrit world of scholarship is fortunate in having a profound scholar in Professor Hari Dutt Sharma of the Department of Sanskrit of Allahabad University, who has deep penetration into original texts of Sanskrit Poetics and at the same time into theories adumbrated by Western literary criticism, and who has made himself acquainted with the works of modem Sanskrit poets ...
All the essays structured by Professor Sharma bear stamps of originality and new sparks of thought and flashes of ideas are traceable in each paragraph of his compositions ...
The aforesaid analysis of 'Glimpses of Sanskrit Poetics and Poetry' composed by Professor Sharma indicates the quality of the essays structured by the scholar and his movement in diverse fields of literature and literary theory, both Indian and Western, and bears testimony to his profundity of critical insight, which has enabled him to adjudicate the value not only of Sanskrit Poetry but also of Thai Poetry and present Sanskrit literary theories in the backdrop of Western theories ...
About the Author
Prof. Hari Dutt Sharma
Born- Hathras, U.P., 27th September, 1948. M.A. Gold-medallist, D.Phil. Sanskrit Poetics. Teaching University of Allahabad w.e.f. 1972. 20 Doctorates awarded under supervision. Awards U.P. Sanskrit Sansthan-5 books, Delhi Sanskrit Academy - 1 book. Honours & Posts : Visiting Professor of Sanskrit, Silpakorn University, Bangkok, Thailand (3 years), Executive Member IASS, AIOC (4 sessions) Sectional President AI OC (4 sections), Chairperson-Several National & International Conferences/Seminars, UGC-nominated Member- Academic Council, Executive Council & Advisory Committee CASS, Tirupati, Delhi & Kolkata Universities. Foreign visits : Germany, Netherlands, France, Austria, Thailand, Malaysia, Italy, Indonesia, Mauritius, Scotland etc. Participation in 15 International & 15 National Conferences, 45' Seminars. Publications: 40 Research Papers, 12 books- Samskrta-kavyasastriya Bhavom ka Manovaijnanika Adhyayana, Gitakandalika, Tripathaga, Utkalika, Akrandanam, Lasallatika, Adhunika Samskrta Laghukavya, Glimpses of Sanskrit Poetics and Poetry etc.
Though Sanskrit happens to be the most ancient language structured in the early dawn of human civilisation and though Sanskrit literature happens to be the most significant literature dealing with diverse topics, constant attempt is being made to show that the Sanskrit language has -not exerted any influence on other languages and that Sanskrit literature is not that rich, as it is claimed to be. These thinkers echo the observation of Macaulay that the 'entire 'Sanskrit literature can be kept in a single shelf of a European Library. Sanskrit Poetics is equally rich, inasmuch as, the theories adumbrated by it are applicable to all literatures and it is possible to evaluate any specimen of Poetry by applying the norms set forth by Sanskrit Poetics. Sanskrit Poetics considers 'Rasa' as the centre of gravity of Poetic Art and in analysing the poetic elements it says that, all the elements in poetry like the literary embellishment or the literary excellence, the style or the technique are to be incorporated, keeping an eye on the emotive content or the 'Rasa' of paramount importance. It says further that, a balance is to be maintained between the music of sound and the music of sense, each of which has a tendency to surpass the other in point of strikingness.
In order to establish the proposition that Sanskrit is a modem language, as claimed, because of its inclusion in the Schedule VIII of Indian Constitution, it is necessary to analyse modern Sanskrit Poetry and to place Sanskrit Poetics in the backdrop of global Aesthetics, particularly of Western Literary Criticism, which is evolving certain new theories, that, in spite of their novelty, do no: appear to be acceptable to the Indian mind, guided by the Philosophy of Spirituality. To quote an example, the theory of Deconstruction, adumbrated by Jack Derrida, which says that Poetry is to be analysed into component parts for its appreciation as also criticism is not approved by the Sanskrit Poetics, according to which Poetry is an integrated whole and is incapable of being analysed into component parts. This Gestalt theory of Poetry propounded by Sanskrit Poetics runs contrary to the theory of Deconstruction floated by Western Criticism and it is for the connoisseurs of all Poetry to analyse the relative merits and demerits of the two theories, and consequently the acceptability of one over the other.
All this shows that Sanskrit literature and literary theory are to be placed in the backdrop of modem literature' and modem literary theory, so that the contributions of both these to the realm of human knowledge can .be ascertained. and the stand of Sanskrit literature can be vindicated. This comparative projection, however, is a difficult task, because scholars, initiated into the hieroglyphics of Sanskrit Poetics and at the same time thoroughly acquainted with the theories and principles floated by Western literary criticism are not easily available.
Sanskrit world of scholarship is fortunate in having a profound scholar in Professor Hari Dutt Sharma of the Department of Sanskrit of Allahabad University, who has deep penetration into original texts of Sanskrit Poetics and at the same time into theories adumbrated by Western literary criticism, and who has made himself acquainted with the works of modem Sanskrit poets. Modern Sanskrit Poetry is vast in its range and most part of this huge literature has developed by adapting the techniques employed by modem poets for structuring their poetical paintings in modem Indian languages. To know the vastness of Sanskrit literature, to have an idea of the principles of Sanskrit Poetics that are eternal in nature, and finally to establish the proposition that Sanskrit language is not simply a classical language, but a modem language as well, as contemplated by Indian Constitution, a comparative analysis of the type indicated is a desideratum. Professor Hari Dutt Sharma has come forward to remove this long-felt want and to offer to the inquisitive readers a bunch of essays grouped under the title 'Glimpses of \ Sanskrit Poetics and Poetry'. This book of essays contains psychological analysis of Bhavas, folk elements in Sanskrit Drama, as also an analysis of the concept of Camatkara, which is closely linked with the process of aesthetic realisation. Professor Sharma proceeds to analyse the contents of the great epics also, - The Ramayana and the Mahabharata and shows how Vyasa has presented his world-view in the Mahabharata and Valmiki has propounded a lasting message for the world community in his Ramayana, During his association with Silpakorn University, Professor Sharma had the opportunity of penetrating into Thai literature and also of getting a first- hand view of Thai life and culture, and this association had enabled him to identify the influence of Sanskrit Poetics cm Thai Poetics as also the impact of Indian Mythology on Thai Archeology. After all Thailand formed a part of the greater Indian 'peninsula and. with the movement of Buddhism to Thailand, Indian literature and philosophy also moved to that region in which marks of Indian culture are still present significantly.
All the essays structured by Professor Sharma bear stamps of originality and new sparks of thought and flashes of ideas are traceable in each paragraph of his compositions. Thus, while traditional Sanskrit literary theoreticians are of opinion that 'Rasa' constitutes the soul of poetry, Professor Sharma projects the theory that Bhavas constitute the soul and justifies his proposition by drawing parallels from the Western criticism. When one comes to the modern Sanskrit literature, which paints the sufferings of the common man, the' pangs experienced by him for being unable to feed his children, he becomes able to understand the' veracity of the theory propounded by Professor Sharma, because the soul of these specimens of Poetic Art cannot be grouped under one of the eight or nine 'Rasas' accepted by traditional theory. Similarly the inter-relation between sentiment, embellishment and metrical arrangement in Sanskrit Poetry is also another field ip which Professor Sharma has been able to find out new Truths. In discussing modern Sanskrit literature, Professor Sharma has quoted copiously from Shrinivas Rath, Abhiraj Rajendra, Jagannath Pathak and has shown how modern Sanskrit lyrical Poetry is capable of being regarded as the finest specimen of lyrical literature, produced by human talent.
The aforesaid analysis of 'Glimpses of Sanskrit Poetics and Poetry' composed by Professor Sharma indicates the quality of the essays structured by the scholar and his movement in diverse fields of literature and literary theory, both Indian and Western, and bears testimony to his profundity of critical insight, which has enabled him to adjudicate the value not only of Sanskrit Poetry but also of Thai Poetry and present Sanskrit literary theories in the backdrop of Western theories including the theory of Symbolism propounded by Stephen Mallarme and Paul Valery. I am sure the collection of essays will be appreciated by scholars and general readers alike, and will remain a source book for consultation by research scholars of posterity.
I congratulate Professor Hari Dutt Sharma for the sparks of new ideas and flames of novel thoughts projected by him and welcome his collection of essays to the arena of Sanskrit literature and literary criticism, hoping that it will continue to ignite the minds of research scholars of ' posterity perpetually
Sanskrit is a vast treasure house of various branches of knowledge. It has produced a magnificent and sublime poetry since time immemorial. Ancient Indian thinkers thought a lot on various aspects of poetry from different angles and criticism of poetry developed here in the form of a full-fledged sastra. So Sanskrit literary criticism became rich and richer day by day. New and new views emerged, new and new principles were explored and series of schools of poeticians developed. Streams of both creativity and criticism, poetry and poetics flew incessantly side by side. Some such glimpses of poetics and poetry are visible here in this book as an outcome of my thinking on various aspects of the same. This book is a collection of eighteen research papers written by me from time to time for presentation before a gathering of scholars in foreign universities or international conferences and seminars. Eighteen rounded lines on the cover page of the book symbolically indicate flashes of eighteen thoughts in global perspective.
Since 1987 the chain of my foreign visits started. First I went to Germany under Indo-G.D.R. Cultural Exchange Programme of the U.G.C. First chapter 'A Psychological Analysis of Bhava in Sanskrit Poetics' is a form of lecture delivered by me in the Department of Indology, Humboldt University, Berlin in May 1987 .. The second chapter entitled 'Folk-elements in Sanskrit Drama' is a project undertaken in the. same visit and prepared by me mostly with the help of German State Library. 'Soul of Poetry: A New Approach' is a thought, a paper presented by me in 7th World Sanskrit Conference, held in Leiden, The Netherlands in August 1987. 'The Concept of Purusartha in Sanskrit Poetics' is a lecture delivered me in Sorbonne University, Paris, France, during my visit to France in January-March, 1990 under Indo-French Cultural Exchange Programme of the U.G.C. 'Modem Sanskrit Lyrical Poetry is a paper presented by me in 8th World Sanskrit Conference held in Vienna, Austria in September, 1990. In the same way 'The Concept of Camatkara in Sanskrit Poetics' is a research paper presented in 10th World Sanskrit Conference held in Bangalore in January 1997.
In 1998 I was appointed as Visiting Professor of Sanskrit in Silpakorn University, Bangkok, Thailand through the I.C.C.R. In Thailand I delivered my first lecture on the topic 'Philosophy of Life in Sanskrit Poetry' at Thai Bharat Cultural Lodge, Bangkok on 20th August, 1998 'Influence of Sanskrit Language and Literature in Thailand is a paper presented at the seminar on 'Indian Cultura Influence in Thailand' organized by India Studies Centre Thammasat University, Bangkok in November, 1998 Similarly 'Elements of Sanskrit Poetics in Thai Poetry' is ; paper presented at the seminar on 'Nurturing the Link India-Thailand' organized by the I.S.C. at Thammasa University, Bangkok on 1 st October, 1999.
During my tenure at Thailand I visited other foreign3 countries also for academic purposes. Consequently 'The Banishment of Sita: A Review of Rama-story' is a paper presented at the 'International Conference on Ramayan and Mahabharata' held at the University of Malay Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, during 21-24 October, 1999. In the same way I paid a visit to Italy and contributed a research paper entitled 'Inter-relation between Sentiment, Embellishment and Metrical Arrangement in Sanskrit Poetry' at the 11 th World Sanskrit Conference organized by the CESMEO, International Institute of Advanced Asian Studies, Turin, Italy during 3rd _8th April, 2000. In this order 'The Mahabharata : A Clarion Call for World-Peace' is a research article presented at the second International Conference on Ramayana and Mahabharata' held at Udayana University, Denpasar-BaJi, Indonesia on 13-15 September, 2000. Again 'India-Thai: Affinity in Rituals and Festivals' is a paper presented in the seminar 'India- Thai.. Not Far Apart' organized by I.S.C. at Thammasat University,. Bangkok, Thailand on 3rd October, 2000. 'Status of Sanskrit Studies in Thailand' is a research article written by me, when I paid a visit to India from Thailand to participate: in' World Sanskrit Conference held in Delhi ' during 5-9 April, 2001.
During my stay as Visiting Professor of Sanskrit, Sanskrit . Studies Centre and Department of Oriental Languages, Silpakom University, Bangkok organized an International Conference on 'Sanskrit in Southeast Asia: The Harmonizing Factor of Cultures' and I contributed a paper on 'Impact of Indian Mythology on Thai Archeology' therein. 'The Ramayana : A Torch-bearer to New Millennium' is a paper presented in 'Third International Conference on Ramayana and Mahabharata' held in Mauritius in September, 2002. Sanskrit Studies Centre, Silpakom University, Bangkok again organized an International Conference on 'Sanskrit in Asia : Unity in Diversity' on June 23-26, 2005. 'Modern Sanskrit Poetry in Global Perspective' is a paper presented therein. At last 'The Concept of Symbolism in Sanskrit Poetics and Poetry' is a paper presented in 13th World Sanskrit Conference held in the University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland during 10th_14th July, 2006. Thus this is a systematic description of each research paper', written, presented and published in order.
Sanskrit studies are not confined to any place and, time. Rather Sanskrit studies are widely spread all over the world. So the papers here are discussed in a wider plane with a deeper insight into Sanskrit literature and literary criticism. The approach is critical as well as comparative. The various topics on Sanskrit poetics have been interpreted with modem approach in global perspective. I hope this endeavour will be fruitful, if it enhances and advances thinking in literary field. May the glimpses of Sanskrit poetics and poetry spark the path of further research and deeper investigation, I express my heart-felt gratitude to Prof. Rama Ranjan Mukherji, a great scholar, doyne of Sanskrit Poetic's in the modem age, former Chancellor, Tirupati Sanskrit University and former Vice-Chancellor, Burdwan and Rabindra Bharati Universities, who has written some brilliant words in the form of 'Foreword' on my request. It is 'a great achievement on my part to be able to attain blessing son my writing from such a celebrated scholar of the age. His expression is an enlightening inspiration in my academic life. I convey my sincere thanks to Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan, New Delhi for its financial assistance towards publication of the book, otherwise it would have been a difficult task. I send my deep sense of gratefulness to all Sanskritists and Indologists of different countries of the world, who have extended their kind co-operation in any way in preparing these papers :-
May the Goddess of Knowledge illuminate our intellect to attain more and more in the field of Sanskrit learning.
A Psychological Analysis of Bhava in Sanskrit Poetics.
Folk-Elements in Sanskrit Drama
Soul of Poetry: A New Approach
The Concept of Purusartha in Sanskrit Poetics
Modern Sanskrit Lyrical Poetry
The Concept of Camatkara in Sanskrit Poetics
Philosophy of Life in Sanskrit Poetry
Influence of Sanskrit Language and Literature in Thailand
Elements of Sanskrit Poetics in Thai Poetry
The Banishment of Sita : A Review of Rama-Story
Inter-Relation between Sentiment, Embellishment and Metrical Arrangement in Sanskrit Poetry
The Mahabharata : A Clarion Call for World-Peace
India-Thai: Affinity in Rituals and Festivals
Status of Sanskrit Studies in Thailand
Impact of Indian Mythology on Thai Archaeology
The Ramayana : A Torch-Bearer to New Millennium
Modern Sanskrit Poetry in Global Perspective
The Concept of Symbolism in Sanskrit Poetics and Poetry
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