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Books > History > Irfan Habib:The Agrarian System of Mughal India: 1556-1707 (Second Revised Edition)
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Irfan Habib:The Agrarian System of Mughal India: 1556-1707 (Second Revised Edition)
Irfan Habib:The Agrarian System of Mughal India: 1556-1707 (Second Revised Edition)
Description
About the Book:

This is a new edition of a classic first published in 1963. It contains much that is fresh in both description and perception, for example in the treatment of agricultural technology, price movements, and the village community. There is also an expanded bibliography, a new descriptive index, and new illustrations and maps.

About the Author:

Irfan Habib was Professor of History at the Aligarh Muslim University (1969 to 1994), and Chairman, Indian Council of Historical Research (1987 to 1993). His other works include An Atlas of the Mughal Empire and Essays in Indian History-Towards a Marxist Perception. He has co-edited the Cambridge Economic History of India, Vol. I, and History of Humanity, UNESCO, Vols. IV and V.

Excerpts from Reviews of the First Edition:

'Once in a very long while something happens to stir the...extensive waters of Indian historiography. The publication of Irfan Habib's The Agrarian System of Mughal India is generally recognized-even in Tapan Raychaudhuri, Enquiry

'...a brilliant achievement in breadth and depth...'
Percival Spear, A History of India, Vol. 2

'The author's diligent search for sources and careful scrutiny of the texts deserve the highest praise.'

Riazul Islam, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies

'...a fine book...a major event in South-Asian historiography.' -p. Hardy in English Historical Review

'...a work developed on rigorous and diligent lines...The author reviews a century and a half of Indian agrarian history from a quite definitely socialist standpoint.'

-Luigi Pignatelli, East and West

'This erudite treatise...marked by wide knowledge and scrupulous accuracy...His elaborate bibliography, a model of its kind, reveals the colossal task which has been undertaken.'

-Collin C. Davies in History

'No serious student of the history of the sub-continent can afford to ignore the penetrating analysis of the weakness of the Mughal regime contained in the final chapters...'

-G. R. G. Hambly in Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society

'...a book which will be read with profit by the undergraduate as well as by the research historian of medieval India...a superb piece of work.'

-J. H. Bloomfield in Journal of Asian Studies

'[One] of the books on earlier epochs which have profoundly influenced the writings on modern Indian history'.

-Amiya Kumar Bagchi in The Political Economy of Underdevelopment

Excerpts from Reviews of the Second Edition:

'Students of medieval Indian history should consider themselves unfortunate if they do not possess the volume or if they do not read it'.

-Meena Bhargava, The Book Review

'The reprinting of the 1963 classic is a publishing event. The book initiated a historiographical revolution in the world of medieval Indian history...What he [Irfan Habib] has done in this book is to add a tremendous amount of new evidence which enriches and deepens his original contribution.'

-Rudrangshu Mukherjee, The Telegraph

CONTENTS

Prefacex
Excerpts from Preface to the First Editionxvi
I.AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION1
1. Extent of Cultivation1
2. Means of Cultivation and Irrigation24
3. The Crops and Other Agricultural Produce39
4. Agricultural Manufactures62
II.TRADE IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE68
1. Long-distance Trade68
2. Local Trade; the Peasant and the Market82
3. Movements of Agricultural Prices90
III.MATERIAL CONDITIONS OF THE LIFE OF THE PEASANTRY103
1. General Description103
2. Famines112
IV.THE PEASANT AND THE VILLAGE COMMUNITY123
1. Agrarian Property; the Pleasant and the Land123
2. Peasants and Labourers135
3. The Village Community144
4. Village Officials160
V.THE ZAMINDARS169
1. Nature of Zamindari Right169
2. Genesis, Composition and Strength
of the Zamindar Class
3. Imperial Administration and the
Zamindars
208
4. Autonomous Chiefs222
VI.THE LAND REVENUE230
1. Magnitude of the Land-Revenue Demand230
2. Methods of Land-Revenue Assessment236
3. The Systems of Revenue Assessment
in the Different Regions
259
4. The Basic Unit of Assessment; the
Individual Peasant Holding and the Village
271
5. The Medium of Payment276
6. Collection of Land Revenue281
7. Rural Taxes and Exactions Other
than Land Revenue
283
8. Methods of Relief and Agricultural Development290
VII.REVENUE ASSIGNMENTS298
1. Jagirs and Khalisa298
2. The Machinery of Revenue Administration316
VIII.REVENUE GRANTS342
IX.THE AGRARIAN CRISIS OF THE MUGHAL EMPIRE364
1. The Empire and the Assignment System364
2. Oppression of the Peasantry366
3. Armed Resistance by the Peasantry378
4. The Political Role of the Zamindars384
5. Agrarian Aspects of the Revolts
Against the Mughal Empire
390
APPENDICES406
A.MEASURES OF LAND406
1. Gaz-i Sikandari406
2. Gaz-i Ilahi409
3. Bigha-i-Daftari415
B.WEIGHTS420
1. Standard Mans420
2. The Mans and Other Weights
used in the Various Religions
423
3. Weights used in European Sources430
C.THE COINAGE AND THE GOLD AND COPPER
VALUE OF THE RUPEE
432
1. The Coinage432
2. Gold Value of the Rupee436
3. Copper Value of the Rupee439
4. The 'Price Revolution' in India445
D.REVENUE STATISTICS450
1. Jama450
2. Hasil464
BIBLIOGRAPHY467
1. Contemporary and Earlier Sources468
2. Modern Works491
ABBREVIATIONS508
INDEX516

Irfan Habib:The Agrarian System of Mughal India: 1556-1707 (Second Revised Edition)

Item Code:
IDG359
Cover:
Paperback
Edition:
2005
ISBN:
01956555958
Size:
8.5" X 5.5"
Pages:
570 (B & W Illus: 6)
Price:
$32.00   Shipping Free
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About the Book:

This is a new edition of a classic first published in 1963. It contains much that is fresh in both description and perception, for example in the treatment of agricultural technology, price movements, and the village community. There is also an expanded bibliography, a new descriptive index, and new illustrations and maps.

About the Author:

Irfan Habib was Professor of History at the Aligarh Muslim University (1969 to 1994), and Chairman, Indian Council of Historical Research (1987 to 1993). His other works include An Atlas of the Mughal Empire and Essays in Indian History-Towards a Marxist Perception. He has co-edited the Cambridge Economic History of India, Vol. I, and History of Humanity, UNESCO, Vols. IV and V.

Excerpts from Reviews of the First Edition:

'Once in a very long while something happens to stir the...extensive waters of Indian historiography. The publication of Irfan Habib's The Agrarian System of Mughal India is generally recognized-even in Tapan Raychaudhuri, Enquiry

'...a brilliant achievement in breadth and depth...'
Percival Spear, A History of India, Vol. 2

'The author's diligent search for sources and careful scrutiny of the texts deserve the highest praise.'

Riazul Islam, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies

'...a fine book...a major event in South-Asian historiography.' -p. Hardy in English Historical Review

'...a work developed on rigorous and diligent lines...The author reviews a century and a half of Indian agrarian history from a quite definitely socialist standpoint.'

-Luigi Pignatelli, East and West

'This erudite treatise...marked by wide knowledge and scrupulous accuracy...His elaborate bibliography, a model of its kind, reveals the colossal task which has been undertaken.'

-Collin C. Davies in History

'No serious student of the history of the sub-continent can afford to ignore the penetrating analysis of the weakness of the Mughal regime contained in the final chapters...'

-G. R. G. Hambly in Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society

'...a book which will be read with profit by the undergraduate as well as by the research historian of medieval India...a superb piece of work.'

-J. H. Bloomfield in Journal of Asian Studies

'[One] of the books on earlier epochs which have profoundly influenced the writings on modern Indian history'.

-Amiya Kumar Bagchi in The Political Economy of Underdevelopment

Excerpts from Reviews of the Second Edition:

'Students of medieval Indian history should consider themselves unfortunate if they do not possess the volume or if they do not read it'.

-Meena Bhargava, The Book Review

'The reprinting of the 1963 classic is a publishing event. The book initiated a historiographical revolution in the world of medieval Indian history...What he [Irfan Habib] has done in this book is to add a tremendous amount of new evidence which enriches and deepens his original contribution.'

-Rudrangshu Mukherjee, The Telegraph

CONTENTS

Prefacex
Excerpts from Preface to the First Editionxvi
I.AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION1
1. Extent of Cultivation1
2. Means of Cultivation and Irrigation24
3. The Crops and Other Agricultural Produce39
4. Agricultural Manufactures62
II.TRADE IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE68
1. Long-distance Trade68
2. Local Trade; the Peasant and the Market82
3. Movements of Agricultural Prices90
III.MATERIAL CONDITIONS OF THE LIFE OF THE PEASANTRY103
1. General Description103
2. Famines112
IV.THE PEASANT AND THE VILLAGE COMMUNITY123
1. Agrarian Property; the Pleasant and the Land123
2. Peasants and Labourers135
3. The Village Community144
4. Village Officials160
V.THE ZAMINDARS169
1. Nature of Zamindari Right169
2. Genesis, Composition and Strength
of the Zamindar Class
3. Imperial Administration and the
Zamindars
208
4. Autonomous Chiefs222
VI.THE LAND REVENUE230
1. Magnitude of the Land-Revenue Demand230
2. Methods of Land-Revenue Assessment236
3. The Systems of Revenue Assessment
in the Different Regions
259
4. The Basic Unit of Assessment; the
Individual Peasant Holding and the Village
271
5. The Medium of Payment276
6. Collection of Land Revenue281
7. Rural Taxes and Exactions Other
than Land Revenue
283
8. Methods of Relief and Agricultural Development290
VII.REVENUE ASSIGNMENTS298
1. Jagirs and Khalisa298
2. The Machinery of Revenue Administration316
VIII.REVENUE GRANTS342
IX.THE AGRARIAN CRISIS OF THE MUGHAL EMPIRE364
1. The Empire and the Assignment System364
2. Oppression of the Peasantry366
3. Armed Resistance by the Peasantry378
4. The Political Role of the Zamindars384
5. Agrarian Aspects of the Revolts
Against the Mughal Empire
390
APPENDICES406
A.MEASURES OF LAND406
1. Gaz-i Sikandari406
2. Gaz-i Ilahi409
3. Bigha-i-Daftari415
B.WEIGHTS420
1. Standard Mans420
2. The Mans and Other Weights
used in the Various Religions
423
3. Weights used in European Sources430
C.THE COINAGE AND THE GOLD AND COPPER
VALUE OF THE RUPEE
432
1. The Coinage432
2. Gold Value of the Rupee436
3. Copper Value of the Rupee439
4. The 'Price Revolution' in India445
D.REVENUE STATISTICS450
1. Jama450
2. Hasil464
BIBLIOGRAPHY467
1. Contemporary and Earlier Sources468
2. Modern Works491
ABBREVIATIONS508
INDEX516
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