William Irvine's Later Mughals is an outstanding narrative of the period following the death of Aurangzeb in 1707. It covers the period from the time of Bahadur Shah I, who ascended the Mughal throne in 1707 and continued to rule till 1738, when Muhammad Shah became the emperor. The tumultuous period between the years 1738-39 when Nadir Shah invaded India and occupied Delhi after defeating Muhammad Shah has also been included in order to complete the survey of this important phase of Indian history.
Planned on a grand scale, the present work is based entirely on the original Persian and other contemporary sources besides the mass of information gathered from the East India records of the Dutch, French and Portuguese governments as well as the Christian Missions of the East. The outcome of this painstaking research, Later Mughals, however, could be continued only up to 1739, even though Irvine had planned to cover the entire rule of the later Mughals.
In the first of the two volumes, Irvine covers the period from Bahadur Shah, who ascended the Mughal thorne in 1707, to the brief rule of Rafi-ud-darzat and Rafi-ud-daulah and the death of the latter in September 1719. The second volume deals with the period beginning with the accession of Muhammad Shah tot the throne; in the final chapters the events connected with the rise and progress of Nadir Shah and his departure from Delhi have been discussed.
The array of details, culled from various sources, have been presented by William Irvine with objectively and scholarship. It is thus a permanent source book fro the history of the later Mughal rulers. It embodies the varied information provided by the various contemporary sources which Irvine verified and supplemented by carefully sifting the information from the accounts of individual travelers and writers.
About the Author:
William Irvine was born in Aberdeen (Scotland) on the 5th July 1840. After his early education in London, he studied at the King's College, London, where he completed his studies. During this he also acquired a very good knowledge of the French and German. In 1862 he entered the Indian Civil Service and between 1863 and 1888 held various administrative positions at Saharanpur, Farrukhabad and Ghazipur districts. During this tenure, he wrote books on the questions dealing wit the settlement, rent and land revenue. His primary interest was, however, in historical studies and he went to the extent of building up his own collection of rare Persian MSS. He is justly famous for his edition of Manucci's Storia do Mogor and his many original articles published in various academic journals. Some of the major works of William Irvine are: The Rent Digest or the Law of Procedure relating to Landlord and Tenant, Bengal Presidency (1869); The Army of the Indian Mughuls, its Organization and Administration (1903); Settlement Report of Ghazipur District (1886); and Storia do Mogor or Mogul India by Niccolao Manucci, tr. With introduction and notes, in four volumes (1907 and 1908).
Chapter I. Bahadur Shah
Chapter II. Interregnum
Chapter III. Jahandar Shah
Chapter IV. Farrukh-siyar
Chapter V. Rafi-ud-darjat and Rafi-ud-daulah
Chapter VI. Muhammad Shah: Tutelage under the Sayyids
Chapter VII. Muhammad Shah's Reign
Chapter VIII. Mahrattas in Gujarat
Chapter IX. Bundelkhand and Malwa
Chapter X. Muhammad Shah to 1738
Chapter XI. India in 1738: Rise and Progress of Nadir Shah
Chapter XII. Nadir Shah's invasion or India
Chapter XIII. Nadir in Dihli: His Return
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