The Mind In Ayurveda and Other Indian Traditions
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The Mind In Ayurveda and Other Indian Traditions

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Item Code: IDE040
Author: Dr. A.R.V. Murthy
Publisher: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan
Language: English
Edition: 2004
ISBN: 8170842722
Pages: 480 (Tables: 61)
Cover: Hardcover
Other Details 8.8" X 5.8"
Weight 840 gm
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From the Jacket

Mind being an intriguing subject, has drawn attentions of scholars of varied times and fields. Volumes have been written on it and it has been a subject of debate since remote past. Mass has the most evolved and advanced mind. Surprisingly, in spite of tremendous material advances of the modern era, hardly any progress is made in unearthing the intricacies of human mind. Till date Upanishads, Vedas, Geeta and Ayurveda remains as an unsurpassed and monumental works on Mind. One can not think of a more rational, scientific and balanced approach to the functioning of the Human Mind than that described by these ancient sages. This book presents the subject in eight detailed and Comprehensive chapters; Introduction, Ayurveda-Back to Future, The Psyche of Poets and Seers, The Psyche of Intellectuals, The psyche of Medical Scientist, The Associates; The Soul-Atma, The Psyche of the Rationalist, and lastly Psycho-synthesis.

Born in 1961, in a tiny village, Arikere, in Kolar Dist. Of Karnataka, Dr. A.R.V. Murthy is presently Principal of Gomantak Ayurveda College & Research Centre, Shiroda-Goa. He was graduated from Udupi Ayurveda Collage, Udupi, in 1983, got his postgraduate degree (M.D.) in Kayachikitsa, from the prestigious Banaras Hindu University in 1987, under the Supervision of Prof. R.H. Singh. He obtained his doctoral degree Ph. D., from Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Tirupati in 1999. He was deputed as Ayurveda consultant to SVIMS Tirupati, a Modern Super Speciality Hospital to take up collaborative research work in 1995 and has done research work on Stroke, Epilepsy and Ascites. He is also deeply involved in literary research on Vedic sciences in relation to Ayurveda at Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Tirupati.

Dr. Murthy visited Japan in Oct. 2000 as an invited speaker in the International Conference on Ayurveda held at Tokyo. He has extensively traveled in India and delivered over 100 guest lectures in different parts of the country. He has published around 50 research articles in listed Journals and participated in more than 30 National and International Seminars. He is member, on Board of Studies, and postgraduate examiner at various universities. He has won a gold medal and M.V. Sastry memorial prize and Nambier memorial award for his meritorious performances during the B.A.M.S. degree course. This book is author's first work though he has significantly contributed to two other books Principles of Ayurveda Therapeutics and Ayurvedic Clinical Medicine, published by Sadguru Publications, Delhi.


The book "The Mind in Ayurveda and other Indian Traditions" authored by Dr. A.R.V. Murthy presents an unique blend of scientific and philosophic exposition of the concept of Psyche. The book presents the work in eight well-designed chapters, viz., Introduction, Back to Future, Psyche of Poets and Seers. Psyche of Intellectuals, Psyche of Medical Scientists, the Associates-The Soul-Atma, The Psyche of Rationalists and lastly Psychosynthesis. Such a surveying of the concept of Phyche in varied fields of expression in a range of contexts provides the author a comprehensive opportunity to realize the phenomenon of mind and psyche as depicted in varied fields of perception from folklore to poetry and from philosophy to science and logistics. The book beautifully develops an interface between subjective and objective ways of expression.

Mind has been an intriguing subject since antiquity down the ages. Modern psychology is yet to touch the bottom of the heights of ancient Indian classics on the subject. The Vedas, Upanishads, Geeta and the Yoga Sutras present such an in-depth insight into the subject of the concept of Psyche and consciousness in India tradition that it becomes an outstanding wisdom. Which still remains untapped and is beyond the philosophy have been intimately interwoven at times also overwhelmed with religion and spirituality, making the subject more difficult.

The westerners have been treating the subject in a crude physical manner. To begin with, attempts were made to separate psychology from philosophy and lately psychology too could not survive in real sense, as in major proportion psychology was gradually transformed into psychophysiology. And attempts were made to describe the Mind as the function of Brain. This reductionistic approach of reverse understanding back from subtle and advanced to gross and primitive did not allow the knowledge to grow further, rather it forced the endeavour in reverse gear. And as such there has been no growth and further unfolding of ancient classic wisdom of the orient India.

The oriental and the oxidantal approaches to psyche and consciousness are absolutely diverse. The ancient orients conceived consciousness a separate entity than psyche. Not only this, they connected individual consciousness with the cosmic consciousness merging the individual with the universe, i.e., the message of the great Advaita thought of the orients. That is the meaning of the great 'Whole' the 'Moksha'. In this context the mind is a lower entity and is an unconscious element. However, there are possibilities of its transformation and merger into the conscious. Thus there seems to be no meeting grounds for the orient and the oxidant on this issue.

The ray of hope is that a turning point is visible. The scientists on the apex have started thinking that the reality is in another direction. It can be stated quite safely that there have been only few original discoveries of the fundamental nature in western modern science. What we have all seen in the name of science today is really not science; that is all are application of few scientific discoveries. That is all the advancement in technology, are not fundamental scientific breakthrough. The first fundamental discovery in Science was the Newtonian observation when Newton saw an apple falling down on the earth from the tree. He speculated and established the principle of physical relationship between the big masses of the galaxy with each other. This knowledge led to a series of technological applications of this law culminating into many achievements. The second breakthrough in Science could be considered the work of Einstein who established the inter-relationship of particles of matter through quantum physics and discovered the inter-convertibility of 'Matter' and 'Energy'. This knowledge revolutionized the field of science and paved the way to innumerable technological applications. After Einstein there has been no real breakthrough of fundamental nature in Science although technological applications have been flourishing. Both Newton and Einstein have discovered the mysteries of the External World, i.e. the Unconscious. It is believed that the third big break-through discovery in Science will be in the Inner Word, i.e. in the 'Consciousness' the Self. And when it so happens both 'Inner' and the 'Outer' i.e. self and non-self or the unconscious and conscious will merge meaning that totality will be discovered. And that will touch the truth which our Vedas and Upanishads deliberate on.

The Scientists of today especially the psychologists have to turn their route from external world to internal world, from gross to subtle transcending the psyche to proceed towards the consciousness. Although it will be difficult because the scientists are great reductionists. They believe in observation and evidence, not always because it is the only right way to peruse, rather it is so because it is the way they have learned to proceed.

The concept of Manas, i.e. Mind/Psyche in Ayurveda is similar to the concepts prevalent in the main stream of Indian Philosophy. In order to reach a precise perception of this complex concept, it is necessary to assemble the classic descriptions and statements available in the authentic scriptures and to evaluate them through rational comparative study and interpretation. The literary data available in Ayurvedic classics is very rich and warrants weighage to Historicity, (2) Linguistics of classic descriptions and (3) Comparative study of emerging facts. It cannot be over-emphasized that the concepts which are being referred to in the present context are most ancient and their antiquity goes back to the Vedas. Hence inspite of the fact that many facts could be true beyond time and space, they do need their evaluation in relation to their historicity. Similarly, the ancient classic wisdom is recorded in Sanskrit and the allies using their own technical terms hence it is necessary to take appropriate linguistic insight to reach the right meaning. Further, to achieve workable contemporary meaning comparative Further, to achieve workable contemporary meaning comparative studies are always helpful. Thus there is a need of extensive debate n approaches and methodologies of investigating the ancient wisdom.




Introduction 1
Psychologists and their Approach to Mind 5
About the Work 7
A Blend of Psychology and Philosophy 9
An Unconscious Instrument of Atma 11
Components 12
Ayurveda Back to Future 16
Definition 17
Objective 21
Origin 22
Historical Background 24
Pre-vedic Period 25
Vedic Period 27
Arsa Period (Post-Vedic Period) 31
Branches of Ayurveda 34
Kayacikitsa 34
Salya 35
Salakya 35
Kaumarabhrtya 35
Agadatantra 36
Bhutavidya 36
Rasayana 36
Vajikarana 36
Foundational Doctrines 37
Psycho-spirituo Philosophical Aspects of Ayurveda 45
Code of Physical Health 46
Moral Code (Sadvrttam) 49
Rejuvenative Procedures 49
Yoga 49
Treatment of Diseases 50
Summary of Ayurvedic Approach to Health 52
The Psyche of Poets and Seers 54
Introduction 54
The Psyche of Intellectuals 66
Samkhya School 66
Origin 67
Mind as an Organ of Perception 68
Nature 69
Location 69
Specific Function 69
Yoga School 70
Origin of Mind 72
Nature 73
Location of Mind 73
Characteristics 73
Levels of Consciousness 74
Distractions 75
Pacification 75
Stabilisation 76
Dissolution 77
Multiplicity 77
Nyaya School 78
Existence 79
Nature 79
Vaisesika School 81
Existence 82
Nature 83
Mimamsa School 84
Nature 85
Vedanta School 87
The Carvaka Denial of Psyche 91
The Analytical Psyche of Buddhism 95
The Pudgle Psyche of Jainism 98
The Psyche of Medical Scientists 103
Physiological Considerations 103
Etymology and Definition 103
Manas 103
Citta 104
Sattva 104
Synonyms 105
Origin 108
Existence 111
Attributes 112
Functions 116
Control of Sense Organs 117
Self-Restraint 118
Cerebration 119
Consideration 119
Cogitation 119
Concentration 120
Conviction 120
Miscellaneous 120
Locations of Mind 122
Head as the Seat of Mind 123
Direct References 123
Indirect References 126
References (Specific) 127
References (Non-Specific) 128
Historical Survey 136
Medlar Search 150
More Locations for Mind 182
States of Mind 186
State of Wakefullness 188
Perception 188
Memory 191
State of Dreams 195
State of Sleep 200
Super-conscious State 205
Psychic Constitution 207
Manas Sattva 212
Sattva in Reference to Manas 215
Sattvika Disposition 220
Common Features 220
Variants and Their Features 221
Rajasa Disposition 222
Common Features 222
Variants and Their Features 223
Tamasa Disposition 225
Common Features 225
Variants and Their Features 225
Anatomical Considerations 241
Structure of The Mind 242
Nature of Mind 244
Mind as Matter 246
Dravyatva 246
Bhautikatva 247
Mind as an Instrument of Perception 251
Manovaha Srotas 253
Functional Aspects of Peripheral Nervous System 266
Mastiska - Playground of Mind 271
Psychology of Human Foetus 276
Factors Influencing Mental Faculty of Progeny 279
Mental Traits of Foetus 282
The Brain-Mind Enigma 284
Excerpts of Mind and Brain 284
The Associates : The Soul - Atma 305
Soul and Mind 309
The Great One - Mahat 311
Buddhi and Mind 318
Ego and the Rest 319
Ego and the Mind 320
Mind and Senses 320
Mind and Proto-elements 320
The Body-Mind Phenomenon 326
Body 326
Physical Body 326
The Subtle Body 327
The Causal Body 329
The Five Sheaths 330
The Body and The Mind 330
Vata vis-à-vis Mind 333
The Psyche of The Rationalists 343
Introduction 343
Historical Background 344
Schools of Psychology 350
Structuralism 350
Functionalism 350
Psycho-analysis 351
Purposivism 352
Behaviourism 352
Gestaltism 353
The Scholisasts of Western Psychology 353
Aristotle 353
Rene Descartes 354
Leibniz 354
George Berkley 355
David Hume 355
Ferdinand Van Helmholtz 357
Gustav Theodar Fechner 357
Wilhelm Wundt 358
William James 358
Sigmond Freud 359
Carl Jung 360
Watson 361
Alfred Alder 361
Methods of Psychology 362
Observational Method 362
Experimental Method 362
Survey Method 363
Clinical and Case Study Methods 364
Summary 365
Fields of Psychology 365
Methods of General Psychology 366
Development Psychology 366
Child Psychology 366
Social Psychology 366
Abnormal Psychology 367
Physiological Psychology 367
Comparative Psychology 367
Differential Psychology 367
Experimental Psychology 367
Methods of Applied Psychology 368
Educational Psychology 368
Industrial Psychology 368
Applied Social Psychology 368
Clinical Psychology 369
The Concept of Psyche 369
Spheres of Psyche 371
Conscious 372
Unconscious 373
Pre-conscious 375
Super-conscious 376
Psychodynamics 376
'ID' 377
'Ego' 377
'Super-ego' 378
Functional Powers 379
Mneme 379
Horme 379
Cohesion 380
Quotable Quotes 382
Psychology 382
The Psyche 382
Soul 384
East versus West 384
Miscellaneous 385
Extra-sensory Perception 386
The Potential Powers of Mind 411
Psychosynthesis 413
Concept of Mind in Vedopanisad 413
Concept of Mind in Samkhya 414
Concept of Mind in Yoga 415
Concept of Mind in Nyaya 416
Concept of Mind in Vaisesika 416
Concept of Mind in Mimamsa 417
Concept of Mind in Vedanta 418
Concept of Mind in Carvaka 419
Concept of Mind in Buddhism 419
Concept of Mind in Jainism 420
Concept of Mind in Ayurveda 421
Concept of Mind in Western Psychology 422
Importance of Mind 424
Anatomical Considerations 425
Origin of Mind 425
Mind as Matter 426
Dravyatva 426
Bhautikatva 427
Mind as an Instrument of Perception 428
Magnitude 430
Location of Mind 431
Channels for Mind 432
Physiological Considerations 432
Functions of Mind 432
Attributes of Mind 433
Types of Mind 435
Mental Activities 437
Levels of Consciousness 437
Vitiators of Mind 438
Propitiation of Mind 438
Stabilization of Mind 438
Eternity of Mind 438
Dissolution of Mind 440
Index 441
Bibliography 449

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