This study is an attempt to address this suggestion and addresses schism and its applicability in the Buddhist Studies arena; it analyses the meaning of sect and schism from a comparative perspective. It further examines the social, political, and geographical circumstances of ancient India, which actually influenced and contributed to the first and later splits in the Samgha community. The present work also observes that there were personal conflicts among the disciples of the Buddha, which later emerged as confrontations and caused splitting. Additionally, it also examines and finds that them were different groups of bhikkhus within the Buddhist Samgha who were under the tutelage and leadership of a certain prominent disciple of the Buddha. These were proto-sectarian elements and separate fraternities (nikaya); the royal patronage of these proto-sectarian fraternities caused the formation of various sects. Royal patronage helped these small groups spread to various geographic localities at home and abroad. Ultimately, after comparing and examining the issues, this dissertation concludes that the root of split was embedded in early Buddhism.
The author raid Buddhism and Hindi language at the University of Sri Lanka; migrated to the States, then attended University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA), California State University-Long Beach (CSULB), San Jose State University and University of the West, Rosemead, California; and holds the degrees of BA, MA, ML1S, PHD, and a Diploma-in-Buddhist Studies. He has attended numerous conferences, seminars, workshops, in Europe, Asia and in the USA. He studied Pali, Sanskrit, Bengali, Japanese, German, and French languages. He is the Chief Incumbent and President of the Bangla-America Buddhist Fellowship (Sambodhi Vihara) and lives in Long Beach, California, USA.
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