"God created Ayurveda before he created the living beings", so goes the saying (Ka.Sa.). It is but natural that the resources be made available for the user in advance as is the case of formation of mother's milk before the child takes birth. The invariable relationship between 'Nimitta' and 'Naimittika' is eternal and it is this phenomenon which inherently characterizes and facilitates the process of creation to be a whole and at all times. This phenomenon which is commonly known as 'Cause and Effect relation' constitutes as one of the fundamental principles of Ayurveda and is expressed as 'Karya Karana Siddhanta ',
In the frame work of 'Karya Karana Siddhanta' the seers of Ayurveda could visualize and analyze the emergence of the manifest from the un-manifest with the former as an evolving expression of the latter and characterized by commonality (Samanya) as well as peculiarity (Visesha) at the same time but never losing its holistic nature in the process.
The understanding of commonality facilitates comprehending of nature as a whole along with its web of interrelationships. On the other hand, proper understanding of peculiarities enables to endeavor for the preservation and maintenance in unison with 'mother-nature' within the limitations imposed by her. The former approach, the main aim of which is to comprehend the ultimate truth with a holistic frame of mind, primarily characterizes 'Philosophy'. The main purpose of the latter approach is to keep advancing in understanding the unlimited manifestations of the whole and is usually called 'Science'. That the interrelation between these two is inseparable and invariable is irrefutable. In the history of mankind, however, there were times when Philosophy as well as Science lost track of that interrelationship. It was particularly striking in occidental history. Somehow, the path has been retraced and the 'New Science' gathered such a momentum that the scientific world is so enthused and hopeful as to believe that science will ultimately find the answer in the form of a unified theory, bridging the so far unknown gap between the fragmented outlook (indicative of peculiarity) and the one fundamental thing, 'the whole' (indicative of commonality).
On the other hand the oriental wisdom, even though it did not lose sight of the eternal relationship, has consistently shown a lean towards the 'holistic' subserving it with the fragmental knowledge. This tendency is understandable given that the priority was metaphysical and the physical was mainly the means to the former. But, in taking care of the means, however, there never has been any neglect or callousness. In one way, rather, the importance of such care and attention was well laid. The adage of Mahakavi Sri Kalidasa "Sariram adyam Khalu Dharmasadhanam" is very much consistent with the dictum of Charaka.
The importance of the well-maintained means, i.e. 'the perfect health of the body and mind' was so much emphasized that Ayurveda (the science of life) is accorded higher consideration than the Vedas which not only constitute the knowledge essential to attain the ultimate truth in metaphysical realm but also constitute the source of Ayurveda.
Against this eternal scientific philosophy and philosophical science the 'Trisutra and Triskandha' (Hetu, Linga and Oushadha) are thoroughly conceptualized and firmly established in Ayurveda and by Ayurveda. Within this broad premise the concepts and principles on Ahara and Vihara and on Oushadha constitute the minor premise but both are essential to keep 'Rogas' at bay and to ensure preservation and promotion of 'Swasthya' (Arogya).
In the course of human mode of living, however, the need for keeping diseases away gave way to an urgent need of removing diseases that occurred. To cater to such increasing need, Ayurvedic scholars in different times wrote books with prescriptions (Yogas) suitable to the times. Virndamadhava, Chikitsakalika, Yogaratnakara, Bhaishajyaratnavali, to mention a few, belong to that class.
Acharyas of Ayurveda have recognized the value of the identification and usage of different herbs and animal substances made by forest dwellers and also carried out various experiments on those herbs and substances in human beings from the perception of clinical pharmacology. The observations deduced from various scientific evaluations have been recorded in the form of treatises viz. Charaka Samhita, Susruta Samhita, Ashtanga Sangraha etc. Therapeutic efficacy of large number of herbs and documentation of various disease conditions mentioned in these works clearly indicate the existence of very big hospitals in those times with more number of Out Patient and In-Patient departments belonging to various specialties of human health care system. King Ashoka has established various specialty wise hospitals for rendering better health care to the patient population. In due course of time medical professionals also started preferring the works related to different specialties. Vaidyas started preferring hand books on the specialized subjects instead of general books like Samhitas. Madhavanidana should be considered as the first work in this direction. Vrinda should be considered as the first scientist who has attempted to compile single and simple herbal recipes in the management of various diseases in a most tangible language and even a mediocre physician can easily adopt those formulations in his day to day clinical practice with a great success. Vrinda (9th century) for the first time described a new disease namely Snayuka and a new drug Parasikayavani with its indication in Krimirog a, Chakradutta (11th century) has incorporated several Rasoushadhis in the management of various diseases. It also contains new pharmaceutical preparations namely Parpati designed by Chakrapanidutta and even in today's clinical practice Parpatikalpana occupies an important place in the management of Grahaniroga. Vangasena (l2th century) has for the first time described the disease Somaroga with its management and reported Sleepadahara property (anti-filarial action) of Sakhota.
Sarangadhara Samhita (13th century) has included for the first time Nadipariksha as one of the diagnostic tools and incorporated the description of Snayuka under Krimiroga. Chikitsakalika written by Tisatacharya (10th century) also contains many a number of clinically efficacious formulations. Bhavamishra (1 6th century) has introduced a new drug named Dwipantaravacha in Phirangiroga (Syphilis), a disease which was reported for the first time by him. Lolambarajeeyam (1625 A.D.) work of post Bhavaprakasa period consists of various formulations expressed in poetic style attracted the attention of Vaidyas with literary taste. Yogatarangani of Trimallabhatta (l650A.D.) is another notable compilation of useful formulations. Yogaratnakara (17th Century) is a well planned compilation about Herbal and Herbo-Mineral formulations. In this work a new pediatric disease namely Utphullika was described. The credit of reporting the utility of Bhumyamalaki in the management of Kamala and Prameha goes to the author of Yogaratnakara. Bhaishajyaratnavali (18th century) is the voluminous collection of formulations useful in therapeutics.
A careful review of the Ayurvedic works compiled during medieval India clearly indicates that the subject was dealt under two headings.
Formulations according to different varieties of pharmaceutical processes (Kalpanusara Yogasangraha).
Disease oriented classification of formulations (Roganusara Yogasangraha).
The present work Rajamartanda which is also known as Yogasarasangraha or Nanavidhayogasangraha was written by King Bhoja (11 th Century) which belongs to the second category of compilation i.e. Disease oriented classification of formulations iRog anusara Yogasangraha). The enumeration of Yogas in 34 chapters started with Sirorogadhikara and the work was completed with the mention of Pasurogadhikara (veterinary medicine). The indication of Asthisamharika in Asthibhagna and Vataroga was first reported by Bhoja. In total 250 herbs, 20 minerals and 48 numbers of animal substances were incorporated in different formulations. It is also noted that the main diseases are classified into 33 chapters and included 166 signs or symptoms along with simple herbal recipes. A separate chapter consisting of herbal recipes useful in veterinary medicine is also included in the last chapter of the book. Acharya Yadavji Trikamji has published this work in 1924. The present English translation is carried out based on Yadavji's edited Rajamartanda. As this book contains easily adoptable and equally efficacious herbal and herbo-mineral formulations in different clinical conditions, the students as well as practitioners can utilize the given information in the current clinical practice. The review so far made about the compilations on Ayurvedic formulations indicates Rajamartanda written during 11 th century created such an impact on the authors of later period to carefully adopt the Bhoja's style of lucid expression about therapeutic formulations.
We are highly beholden to the most versatile scholar of Ayurveda, Prof. M. Veerabhadram, Principal (Retd.) Dr. A.L. Govt. Ayurvedic College, Warangal for his ablest guidence during the translation of this work and kindly consented for writing the foreword.
Our heartfelt thanks are due to an erudite scholar of Sanskrit Sri Upadrashta Venkata Krishnaiah, Vijayawada for his ablest guidance. We wish to acknowledge our heartfelt thanks to Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi for publishing this work.
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