The Rationale Behind Indian Rituals and Beliefs

The Rationale Behind Indian Rituals and Beliefs

Item Code: IDK040
Author: B. K. Chaturvedi & Pt. Gopal Sharma
Publisher: Indica Publishers, Delhi
Edition: 2006
ISBN: 8177272160
Pages: 196 (Black & White Illus:11)
Cover: Paperback
Other Details 9.5" X 7.0"
Weight 380 gm
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Back of the Book

What is the significance of the cast-mark called Tilak, marked with a typical red-coloured powder with bits of rice sprinkled on it? Why the monosyllable sound 'OM' or 'AUM' is accorded so much importance? Why the figures 11, 21, 51, 101 etc. are chosen while giving some monetary gift to anyone in India? What is the reason behind adding one to the round figure while making a donation or gifting some rupees as a gift to someone, particularly on auspicious occasion? Do we celebrate Diwali to commemorate Lord Rama's return to Ayodhya or it has a more fundamental reason concerning human nature behind it? Why do we celebrate Dussera and why it is also called Vijayadashmi? What is a difference between a Vrata or Upavaas? Why the sleeping posture having the feet pointing due south is prohibited? Why is so much importance laid on tallying the horoscope of the boy and girl before their marriage in the traditional Indian families? What is the real meaning of performing Pooja? Does Pooja mean only saying your prayers? What is the origin of the commonly used honorific suffix 'Ji'? Why India was known as 'Bharat Varsha'?

There are many such questions, which must have been troubling an awakened Indian's mind. It is for the first time that they have been answered logically and scientifically in this unique book of its kind!

About the Author

Pt. Gopal Sharma Born in a renowned family of vedic scholars & spiritual healers, Vaastu Engineer Pt. Gopal Sharma is a luminary in many fields.

Pt. Gopal Sharma was initiated into spiritualism by late Niranjan Phithatheshwar Acharya Mahamandleshwar Yatinder Swami Krishnanand Giriji Maharaj in 1968. During next five years of study in Delhi College of Engineering, he developed keen interest in various facets of Vedanta, Graphology, Palmistry and Astrology. It was sharpened by deep study, research work & through the blessings of great sages & saints during his extensive touring in various parts of the world.

He has been doing research & experiments on the basic principles of Vaastu for the use of common men and propagating this exhaustive art and ancient science of buildings exhibited in original ancient texts by:

§ Organising/contributing to various seminars and symposiums in various parts of the world.

§ Regularly publishing useful information about these holistic subjects in various newspapers and magazines.

§ Delivering lectures and distributing write-ups in various get-together of architects, builders/developers, industrialists and also in the conferences organized by different NGO's like Rotary club, Lion's club etc.

§ Giving spiritual counseling, Astro, Vaastu, Pyramidology & Feng-Shui consultancy to the various segments of society.

He is an eminent technical/management & financial consultant for many large industrial/business houses. He is currently specializing in advanced research on various aspects of Energy-Flow; being an effective combination of Bio-electro-magnetism, Indian-Geomancy, Chinese-Vaastu/Feng-Shui, and Pyramidology.

Besides Governor of All India Federation of Astrologer's societies (regd.), Delhi, Pt. Gopal Shrama, B.E. is the founder president of Institute of Vaastu & Joyful Living. For years he continues to serve humanity; being the Chief Patron of Indian Astrologer Human Welfare Association & President of Parampara, a premier NGO of the country. He has also been felicitated with several medals and awards for painfully and selflessly promoting this edifice science to the masses.

Through the Head Office of the Institute at PITAMPURA & branch offices at Hyderabad, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) & New Jersey (USA) Pt. Gopal Sharma is presently adding peace, prosperity & happiness in the lives of people by consultancy courses of Astrology, Palmistry, Vaastu/Feng-Shui, Pyramidology, Reiki & Meditation by correspondence & regular/part time classes. Pt. Gopal Sharma was officially consulted by the Government of U.P. for planning the entire TRONICA CITY; the prestigious 1600 acre residential cum industrial complex; which proved a phenomenal success.

He has to his credit more than 40 of best selling books in Hindi, English, German & French. Based on his published material he has been recently awarded the DOCTORATE IN VAASTU SCIENCE by the Open University at Sri Lanka.

B.K. Chaturvedi, born in a village Holipura (Agra, UP) on August 3, 1945, had his education in Allahabad (M.Sc), Bangalore (Computer Programming) and New Delhi (Management Studies). Having served for a couple of years in HMT, he is now a freelance author, journalist, translator and poet living in New Delhi for about two decades. He has many original articles/Poems/books published in both Hindi and English to his credit. Prominent among the published translated works (in English) are 'KAMAYANI' (from Hindi), 'PARCHHAIYAN' (from Urdu) and 'SRIMAD BHAGWAT GITA' (from Sanskrit). Involved in Press-Coverage for a renowned News Agency, the often writes for Radio and TV and is keenly interested in international affairs.


It needs to be clarified at the very outset that this work is neither intended to be sort of compendium of the faith and rituals prevalent in India nor a 'Crutuque of pure reason' as far as these practices are concerned. It is only a humble endeavour to essay a logical answer to the questions that we Indian often ask ourselves and particularly those that our NRI brothers often face from their curious young generation. Reared up on the staple diet of computer logic based wisdom, they often assail their parents with uncomfortable questions like the significance of a 'Tilak' or the logic behind the saffron coloured robes of the Saadhus. At times we Indian are also struck with the world that is becoming increasingly globalized. Why, even the inter-cast marriages still constitute a phenomenon that is yet to receive the willing sanction of the traditional families? Why is it that this is the only culture that remembers its dead more feeling-fully than its living beings? Why the best is always believed to have occurred in the past and why the incarnations seemingly take precedence over the original gods with the passage of time? Is cremation a more scientific and clear process to dispose off the dead or their burial? Why do the planetary influences dominate over human action as far as one's course of destiny is concerned? Does tallying of horoscopes have any sense at all?

All these questions have been tackled at the layman's level and answered in a simple to understand, easy language. In essaying their answer the basic criterion has remained logic. The presumption starts from the premises that no faith or custom can survive long if it is not based on logic either of the collective convenience or the general pragmatic considerations. In order to assert the point frequent comparisons have been made with the customs, rituals prevalent in other faiths. Of course the religious disparities have also been frequently alluded to; the idea is to explain why a particular ritual is undergoing a transition. Religious stories, mythological legends and even the metaphysical concepts have been copiously used in to drive home the point. At time the argument is made on the basis of pure mathematical logic.

It is chiefly because without logic a practice cannot last for millennia together. After all, what is the essence of Indian culture? Do the terms like civilization and culture have the same connotations as they are understood elsewhere? Who is the final authority to decide or device a code of conduct? What is the theory behind incarnation and how it is that the 'caste-system' despite its innate discriminative preferences has managed to survive in a culture when an alien culture and rule had dominated for about a millennia? Riven by as many cults as it claims to have deities in, how come this religio-cultural stream keeps on flowing undaunted by the various attempts to build dams and bridges on its course? Despite its catholic and non-dogmatic character how it continues to retain its identity? What are its those fundamental bases which refuse to alter and help it retain the identity. What is the reason that its pantheism is spreading its area of influence even when some of the forms of the deities appear most unsystematically formed or even deformed? How is it that no attempt has ever been made to bring them to symmetry? Is it because their forms-particularly that of Lord Ganesh- is a symbolical depiction of various inherent arguments, which appear still logical even in the modern context? Why is it that the recal citrant planets are paid greater attention than shown to the secular rulers- this despite the fact that the growing scientific discoveries are proving the very belief to be absurd? Why the apparent superstitious practices are gaining precedence over the scientific reasoning? Is it because these practices, festivals and rituals are based on a sub-terraneous stream of reasoning that a few can see? Take for example, Diwali celebration. Is it really based on the belief that it is celebrated to commemorate this race's ideal hero- Ram's returns to his native place after defeating the demoniac forces and rescuing his wife from them? Or is it based on the fundamental nature of man- to do best to ward off darkness! But them, why a particular night is chosen for it, when there were eleven more months available in a year to celebrate this occasion on? Does the 'Tilak' represent an apparent caste-mark or it reveals a truth that many may find even obscenic, let alone logical. But the truth cannot be denied. No matter Tantra-Shashtra may otherwise have been a generally derided method of blossoming the hidden powers of the body, the 'Tilak' very much represents its one fundamental symbol of auspiciousness.

1.Among all the Hindu deities, why Lord Ganesh is the first to be adored?21
2.Why? What is so special about the elephant?22
3.Why elephant is considered to be so auspicious?22
4.In the above explanation it is seemingly suggested that the entire form of Lord Ganesh is symbolical! Please elaborate on it.23
5.Why Lord Ganesh is worshipped with Goddess Lakshmi only at Diwali?34
6.If Lord Genesh's entire form is symbolical, does it mean that his familial bonds also have only this representation?35
7.Why Goddess Lakshmi, the deity presiding over all riches and affluence, has been associated with Vishnu?36
8.Does the logic given above also hold true with reference to other two super Gods viz., Shiv and Brahma?37
9.It is surprising that among the three Super Gods, Brahma enjoys the least significance! Why?38
10.Is the argument given above valid enough to justify Lord Vishnu's extreme importance in the general Hindu psyche?39
11.What is an avatar or incarnation?39
12.It is generally said that an avatar descends on the earth with specified 'Kalas' (phases of powers). What does it mean?40
13.Why did Lord Rama and Lord Krishna descend on to the earth as incarnation with different potencies? How the need of the timeis determined and who determines it?41
14.Does the theory of incarnation appear logical? Why is it that only the Hindu faith believes in it?42
15.How many avatars have taken place by now?43
16.What distinguishes on avatar from the other great men, sages and seers?43
17.It appears as if the theory of incarnation almost gives a clue to the theory of evolution. Is it true?44
18.Why do we celebrate the birthdays of these avatars-like the Krishna Janmashthami or the Ram Navmi by keeping fasts? Shouldn't they be celebrated with a lot more happiness since their advent signified the end of the distress for the devout? What is the reationale behind keeping fasts on these happy occasions? 44
19.Whatever had these avatars done might have been relevant to their age. Why must they be worshipped now? Is it not more relevant to learn whatever they taught by their teaching than by their life?45
20.Why alone Vishnu among all the Hindu deities is empowered to incarnate himself on the earth? Why not other gods?46
21.It is generally believed that plant tulsi is very deer to Lord Vishnu and his no prasadam is deemed complete unless it contains a few leaves of tulsi (basil). Is it only a faith or there is some scientific logic behind this preference for tulsi?47
22.Do the Christina also accord basil this high honour only due to its these qualities?48
23.Is the cow also accorded high status in the Hindu faith because of its practical value?48
24.Is usefulness the sole criterion for some trees and animals receiving greater regard from the devout Hindus?49
25.Why the Ganges Water (or Ganga-Jala) is adored almost like nectar? Does it really have some useful properties?49
26.Is it true that the Ganga-Jala doesn't decompose and remains pure for many years?51
27.What is the reason behind the traditional Hindus' preference cremating their dead along the bank of only the river Ganges?52
28.Why even all the Hindu post-mortem rituals have the predominance of the Ganga water?52
29.Please elaborate on the term Kashi-Karvat.53
30.Is the water of Ganga good for irrigation as well?53
31.Why does the Ganges shift its course so frequently? The Yamuna flows quiet steadily despite it being a smaller river than the Ganges. Why this mighty river is so 'fickle-minded'?54
32.Does it mean that the Ganga originally flowed elsewhere in the world and it was brought to its present route by human effort?55
33.Is it true that the Aryans migrated to India from Central Asia and that they were not the original dwellers of this land?57
34.Can you cite any common customary or religious practice to prove the Aryans having a common or one and the same place of origin?57
35.Please elaborate on this common practice among the Aryans: the worship of fire58
36.Desire the alleged common practice, one practice that differentiates the Aryans in India from their counterparts in other regions, in quite a stark way, is the disposal of the dead. In fact, only the Hindus cremate them while the rest of the people-nearly all, bury their dead. Why?58
37.When this process of disposing the dead-burning or cremating them- is so hygienic and clean, why have the other races not adopted it?60
38.What is the reason behind fire acquiring such an exalted status among all the rituals prevalent in India? Is there any scientific explanation behind it?61
39.Please elaborate on this point to explain fire's added importance in all post-mortem ceremonies in India.61
40.What is the significance of the Shraddha Ceremony? What is the rationale behind celebrating the death-day of one's ancestors or even beloved kith and kin?62
41.What is the reason behind this basic difference of approach between the orient and accident?65
42.Is their any logic behind these self-cleansing rituals that are so much emphasized in the Hindu sacred texts?66
43.Feeding the bits of food to the fire to test the presence of toxins in them appears pragmatically logical. But what is the significance of feeding these bits even to birds(crows) and quadruples(cow) etc.?67
44.Why this faith- the Hindu faith- is called the Sanatan Dharma? What is Sanatan (perennial) about it?67
45.How the Sanatan Came to be known as the Hindu faith?68
46.What is the most distinctly identifying feature of this faith? Or, what are its tenets that lie at its very foundation? 69
47.Why this Sanatan Dharma insists on the devout having the Shikha and Sootra (the small tail of hair at the crown of the head and the sacred thread respectively)? Is there any scientific reason behind this insistence?72
48.Who is a 'brahmachari'? Does it mean that all celibates are brahmacharis?75
49.As it is mentioned in the earlier explanations that a Shoodra is he, who has no inherent talent or power. Could there be any such persons? And even if there be one, why should he be denied any better status in society only if he is endowed less by God?75
50.What is the difference between various sects of Hinduism or like between a Vaishnava and a Shaiva?76
51.What is the rational behind the ancients choosing the hooked cross or Swastika as the most auspicious symbol?77
52.What is the significance of the Hindus having their foreheads marked with a typical vermilion or red-power line with bits or rice sprinkled on it? It is called 'Tilak' and marked on their foreheads either before their going for a big job or after having before their going for a big job or after having accomplished a big mission successfully. Why this typical choice of the colour of that mark and what do the rice grains symbolize in it?78
53.What is the basic difference between the Tantra-Shashtra and the Mantra-Shashtra?79
54.What is the difference between a Mantra and a Vedic Mantra?80
55.The monosyllable sound 'Om or Aum' is accorded much importance in this Hindu faith. Please elaborate on the reasons behind this term enjoying such a great importance. 80
56.Why the figures of 11,21,31,51,101 etc. are chosen while giving some monetary tribute or gift to anyone? In other words why one(1) is added to the round figure while making a donation or gifting some rupees to someone, particularly on auspicious occasions?82
57.What is the reasoning behind the very popular and much acclaimed Hindu concept: "Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam."?84
58.What according to this faith, the Hinduism, is the basic difference between culture and civilization? Often these terms are seemingly used in synonymous manner. Please enlighten.85
59.Why is it that some of the Hindu deities are shown perennially old but most of them appear ever young?85
60.Why unlike almost all other religious faiths, the Sanatan Dharma gives its gods a definite form as well? Is there any logic behind it?86
61.What is the difference between 'Shuchita' (loosely, piety) and 'Swachhata' (purity or cleanliness)? These terms are repeatedly used in the sacred texts of the Hindus but they seem to give no clarity of meaning.87
62.Although the Hinduism gives much emphasis to Jootha (something used or something that has been defiled by the touch of one's mouth) while there is no such concept in other cultures. Why is it so?87
63.What is meant by 'Braahm Muhurta'?88
64.The sacred Hindu texts insist on the leaving one's bed and getting up from sleep at this hour precisely. Is there any scientific reason behind it?88
65.Why it is also ordained that the first thing that a man should see as he gets up in the morning is his hand, preferably the active hand?89
66.It is advised by the sacred texts that there are some times when one should keep quiet. Why? Is there any scientific reason behind it?90
67.It is indeed surprising that this practice is in sharp contrast with the western norm where the most important meetings etc. generally take place during banquets or lunch and dinner sessions. They are also humans and they should also keep quiet during eating, shouldn't they? Why is this sharp contrast? Can it be explained logically?90
68.While the Ayurveda says that drinking water during the meal should be avoided, other schools of medicine don't have such insistence. Which of them should be adhered to for keeping good health? 91
69.Why is it that, it is always the oil massage that is recommended but not any massage with Ghee despite this clarified butter, otherwise considered better in everyway?92
70..what is a 'Mal-Maas', also known as 'Adhika-Maas' or 'Purushottam-Maas'? Since this 'Mal-Maas' occurred recently between 18th Sept. to 17th Oct. 2001, it has generated quite a curiosity. Is there any provision for the 'Kshaya-Maas'?92
71.Please elaborate on the lunar months and lunar calendar. Why is it that all the festival-dates are decided by this calendar?93
72.The terms explained above for the bright and dark fortnights, viz. 'Sudi' and 'Badi' appear to be acronyms. Do the acronyms also occurs in Sanskrit?95
73.Each festival of India has a tale connected with it. For example, it is claimed that we celebrate Diwali by lighting our houses to commemorate Lord Rama's return to Ayodhya. Is it correct? Please elaborate.95
74.What is the origin of the term Dussera or Dashahara? Does it signify the defeat of the ten-headed (Ravana)? Is it because of this reason it is called Vijayadashmi also? 98
75.How is 'Diwali' to be associated with the traders' class?100
76.How can it be said that the festival of 'Rakshabandhan' is basically linked with the priestly class or Brahmans?100
77.How 'Holi' came to be associated with the lowly castes or the Shoodras?101
78.What is the difference between a Vrata and an Upavaas? In common parlance they, both, appear rather synonymous. Are they so?102
79.There are many Vratas and Upavaas prescribed for the devouts during the fixed periods, such as 'Navaratra Vratas' Does this dictate have any relevance scientifically?103
80.There is much insistence among the Indians on evacuating one's bowels as early in the morning as possible whereas the foreigners face no such requirement. Even the modern medical books do not insist on it. Why?104
81.Why it is claimed by the Indian-medical books that one should never take bath after having one's meals? They recommend having food only after bath. Why?104
82.The old Indian school claims that having food sitting on the ground with the food resting on a raised level is the best posture for having one's food. It is against having food sitting on a chair facing the table. Does this dictate has any scientific background?105
83.Why the Hindus prefer doing al auspicious acts while facing east or north and all inauspicious rituals facing south?105
84.Do the Muslims always worship with their face facing west due to this kind of or a similar reason?106
85.While discussing the preference of the direction, is there any truth in the claim that the river Ganga becomes more 'merit awarding' at the places on its course when it takes a northward turn? 106
86.Why is it that the 4th lunar day (or Chaturthi day) is generally held as the most auspicious for Lord Ganesh's worship?107
87.Even when Lord Ganesh before her marriage with Lord Shankar. How can this contradiction be explained?108
88.Why the moon gets more worship from the Muslims than the sun? In fact they have no respect for this brightest luminary. Why is it so?109
89.Is there any scientific sense in the Hindu belief that one should never sleep with one's feet pointing toward south as this posture dissipates one's vital energy?109
90.Why it is prohibited to chew the leaf of tulsi by teeth when the leaves are said to be good for our physical system?110
91.Why do the Hindu married women mark their middle parting hair line with Sindoor to signify their marriedhood?110
92.Despite Sindoor being used in applying the mark in the middle line over a married woman's head to signify her happy marriedhood, how come it also began to be applied on the roubust icon of Lord Hanuman who is described to be an eternal cachelor having no truck with women?111
93.Why do the devout Hindus take a little water in their palm when they ceremonially make a strong resolve or Sankalpa?112
94.Why is it that the Hindu sacred texts insist on every person offering water-oblation or 'Arghya' to the sun early in the morning or near about the sunrise? Is it a practice started with any pragmatic or medical consideration?112
95.It is frequently mentioned in the Hindu sacred books that the sun moves in a chariot driven by the seven horses whereas the fact is that the sun, like any other heavenly body is driven by gravitational pull exerted by the other bodies. How these two diametrically opposite descriptions can be reconciled?114
96.The Hindu mythological texts aver that the whole earth rests upon a fabled serpent called Shesha-Naga but the scientific explanation is different. Can the whole planet be balanced on the hood or hoods of a mighty serpent no matter how colossal it be?114
97.What is the great significance of the number '108' in Hindu numerology? Why is it deemed to be such a pious number?115
98.Why is it that devouts are commanded to offer the Bhog or Prasad to Lord before their partaking of any food?116
99.It has also been observed that the devouts also offer a few bits of food to birds and animals before having their food. Is it also because of that noble gesture elaborated in the answer to the previous question?116
100.There is much emphasis on performing Yogya everyday in the Hindu sacred texts. Does the performance of a Yagya only mean doing a Havan and feeding the fire with Ghee or it has some other import also? 118
101.Why a wife is always allotted the seat on the left of her husband in all the auspicious ceremonies among the Hindus? She is also called Vama or vamangini. Why? 119
102.It is surprising that in the olden times-even till a century back, going to foreign land entailed a punishment and the visitor had to atone for it. Now there is so much craze to visit foreign countries. How did this transformation take place?119
103.It is a popular belief that the Hindus pantheism consists of 330 million deities. Is it an exaggeration or we do have our so many deities?121
104.It is surprising that these gods are not even referred to now. In any case, please tell who were the Adityas, the Vasus, the Rudras and how and why the transition took place in such a way that they are not even referred to any more as the exalted gods?121
105.Who are the Sikkhs? Do they adhere to a separate faith which can be considered an offshoot of the Sanatan faith?122
106.Why is there so much opposition to Sagotra marriage in the Hindu texts? Is it only because the insistence of maintaining the purity of blood or there is some scientific reason as well?123
107.Why do the intercaste marriages appear to receive no willing sanction from the Hindu Sanatan Dharma?124
108.How does the social inconvenience factor emerge in the inter caste marriages?125
109.Why is so much importance laid on tallying the horoscope of the boy and the girl before their marriage in the traditional Indian families? Does this emphasis have any scientific backing?126
110.What is the basic aspect that is judged while tallying the horoscope of a potential wife and husband couple?126
111.Who is a Mangali and who is not a Mangali according to the Indian school of astrology?127
112.Why a widow in the Hindu Psyche is considered to be such a wretched existence?127
113.Why the Goddess of prosperity, Lakshmi is called Chanchala (fickleminded)?128
114.What is the real meaning of 'Narayana'? Is it the exclusive epithet of Vishnu or it can be used for other deities?128
115.Why even the traditional Hindus indulge in gambling on the Diwalinight despite gambling being otherwise described as a vice?129
116.What is the origin of the honorific suffix 'Ji', like in 'Ramji' etc.?129
117.Why is it that in a Hindu nuptial ceremony, the bride and groom are required to make seven perambulations round the holy fire? What is the significance of this number '7'?130
118.Why is it that the most auspicious time-called Muhurta-for any Hindu marriage generally occurs after the sunset? Day time marriage is very rare in this community. Is there any valid reason behind this fixed schedule or it is just a practice for convenience?131
119.It appears most of the Indian families life is too much guided through astrology. But the rationalists claim that astrology is not an exact science. What is the truth?132
120.Can you briefly give the rationale behind the astrological belief?132
121.What is a 'house' in astrology? How the placement of planets in it cast their effect upon human life? Please explain.135
122.What is an asterism or constellation or as they call in Sanskrit, Nakshatra?140
123.It appears that astrology lies very deep in our psyche. But what appears surprising that many mythological legends have also been woven in astronomical facts. Why is it so?142
124.It is also that an evil planet's influence can be mitigated by wearing certain gems and observing certain fasts or vows. How can the course of destiny be altered? Meaning, how can it be logical to claim that planetary impact can be altered? Either it is there or it is not there. How can you regulate its effect by means of certain gems or fasts?142
125.How is it ascertained that it is the Ruby gem that the adverse sun in the horoscope is to be propitiated by? Is there any clue to it? In other words, does the method appear logical?143
126.Please elaborate on the characteristic qualities of these planets. What is their intrinsic nature? How they behave?144
127.Is their any formal ritual to propitiate the planets so that their adverse effect gets minimized? It is generally believed that Saturn can only be subdued by Lord Hanuman's grace. Is it true?152
128.Why there is so much insistence upon performing Pooja among the Hindus? Is this Pooja different from the normal prayers that are ordained in other faiths as well? Does this 'Pooja' has any wider connotations than a mere worship?158
129.This explanation is rather amazing that the Hindu texts are full of details of the holy sages and seers doing nothing physically whatever but remaining ever engrossed in Pooja. Please explain.159
130.The Gita emphasizes that one should work without keeping an eye on the result. Can it be ever possible to do so? The motivating factor ever seems to be missing in such a pursuits. Please clarify.160
131.Despite the fact that Lord Krishna is described to be indulging in many rather 'unseemly acts', he is still the most adored incarnation of Lord Vishnu. Why still he is adored as the Complete Incarnation?160
132When an avatar of Vishnu occurs on the earth, does the Lord's seat in his permanent abode 'Vaikuntha' become vacant? In other words how can both exist simultaneously at two places?162
133Although Lord Krishna is called the Complete Incarnation, he is not adored as the Ideal-hero as Lord Rama is. Why Lord Ram is referred to as Maryada Purushottam (Man Par-excellence) by the Hindu sacred texts?163
134The Hindu sacred texts are full of claims about merit one receives by one's visiting the four Dhamas (the four basic citadels) and one's taking dip in the holy rivers. They have appointed days, which accrue special Punya or religious merit to the visitors and bathers. What is the logic behind it?165
135.The ancient Time-Division concept is quite confusing. Please elaborate on it to reveal the each Yuga(eon) and its equivalent years in a modern parlance.168
136.Why do the Hindus touch feet of the elderly persons to express their regard?171
137.There is a day in this community particularly in the north India where only Basa or 'stale-cold food' is eaten. Is it not against the standard medical advice?172
138.Why blowing a conch-shell or Shankha is made mandatory on the auspicious occasions among the Hindus?172
139.Normally for the festivals etc., the Vikram Samvat is adhered to in north India but there is also a calendar (Samvat) called 'Aadi-Samuat' which is reckoned at the time of making some ritual resolutions (Sankalpa). What is it?172
140.Why the temple at Ujjain is called 'Mahakaal'? Does it have any concern with the Time-Reckoning method used all over ancient India?173
141.Why is it that at the time of performing auspicious ceremonies the males generally wear just one cloth called Dhoti and their upper body normally remains unclad? Is there any scientific reason behind it?173
142.It is a generally held belief among the Hindus that chanting the 'Sundar Kand' (of the 'Sriramacharita-manas') dispels all afflictions. But why is it called 'Sundar Knad'?173
143.There is a typical time among the Hindus which is called the Ashaucha-Kaal or in local parlance Sootak which is observed at the time of birth and death both. What does it mean? Is there any scientific relevance behind it?174
144.What is the real meaning of Yoga?174
145.Among the Hindus whose status is deemed superior: of the father or of the mother?174
146.Which is the seniority-reckoning factor among the Hindus?175
147.What is the literal meaning of Teertha?175
148.What does the term Varsha represent in the old name of India 'Bharat-Varsha'?175
149.Describe the extent of the Aryavarta.175
150.Is Saari a Sanskrit term meaning a piece of a cloth?176
151.In the olden times this part of the world was also called 'Jambu Dweep'. What was its extent?176
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