been great passion to me all along my life. I remember to the best of my memory
many a great concerts of eminent personalities right
from my childhood, thanks to my revered parents who have imbibed the music
culture and heritage to us at an early stage. I have learnt some kritis of
Saint Tyagaraja taught by my mother even while travelling to and from attending
Aradhana Festivals of Saint Tyaga Brahma at Tiruvaiyyaru. At the same time
Percussion instruments have also attracted my attention, and soon I found
myself at the feet of great mridanga vidwans, learning mridangam. This, I
suppose, is also one of the factors that have influenced me in choosing the
present topic of research.
I used to
accompany on mridangam in concerts and regularly so at home on every major puja
occasions like Vinayaka Cavithi, etc; which also had given me an opportunity to
learn art of understanding the subtle nuances in the compositions of various
vaggeyakaras. My revered father has always asserted, that the most effective
way of accompanying would be, as the saint composer has put it, ‘Sogasuga
Mridanga Talamu’, Mr. George Santayana has rightly said ‘Music is mathematics
made audible’, the urge for research in this direction has taken a definite
shape during my postgraduate study at New Delhi, Prof. T.R. Subrahmanyam along
with my revered father have suggested very aptly the title to my research
study. Though it quenched my thirst, the quest has just begun.
knowledge several comprehensive studies have already been attempted covering
the musical, philosophical and literary aspects in the compositions of the
Trinity. Hence I became bold to choose the current aspect as my topic of
I wish to
use this opportunity of a ‘Preface’ to acknowledge my indebtedness and
gratitude to my teachers, friends and acquaintances, who have directly and
indirectly helped me and made this work possible. It is both a duty and for me
to place on record my sincere thanks to all of them.
with, I invoke the blessings of my grand-parents; My paternal grand-father the
late Sangita kalanidhi, Padmas’ri Dr. Dwaram Venketaswamy Naidu garu, whose
name is etched in golden letters on the annals of Karnatak Music of this
century, and my maternal grand- father the late Vidwan Gummuluri Satyanarayana
Pantulu, a great Sanskrit scholar, generous patron and philanthropist. It is my
conviction that the merit I must have acquired over a series of ‘Janmas’ in the
past has enabled me to be their grand-son. I like to believe that from the
celestial regions above, they have been indulgently watching my progress and
blessing me. It is my good forture that my father, Sangitakalaprapoorna,
Gandharvavidyabhusana, Prof. Dwaram Bhavanarayana Rao, and my mother, Vidushi
Smt. Venkata Varadamma, have been my teachers of music. They have been as much
involved in my esearch as lam myself. I bow down to them in gratitude.
very difficult fot me to express in words my gratitude to my research guide
Sangita Vidwan (Dr.) Sri G. Mohan Rao garu, Head of the Department, Vocal
Music, S.V. College of music and Dance, Tirupati. He is a unique Personality
and a rare combination of the intellectual, aesthetic, philosophical and
spiritual. Few are steeped in Indian tradition and culture like him. As my
research suprevisor, he has been meticulous, searching and penetrating in his
questions as well as insights, impatient of superficial views and adhoc
judgements. He taught me Research - Methodology, Chapter Alignment and gone
through each and every aspect showing great care and affection for me. He has
been more than an academic guide to me. Association with him has enabled me to
grow inwardly. To him I can only say in all humility, ‘Thank You’ for what I
have received. I’m also thankful to the members of my Guide’s family, Smt. G.
Mohan Rao garu, Chy. Kum. Lavanya
and Chy. Kum. Vasavi.
had the opportunity to learn from a number of great and distinguished vidwans
from time to who have enable me to grow and develop as a student of both
Karnatic and Hindustani style of Indian classical music. To Sangitacarya J.V.
Subba Rao, Sangita Vidwan Sri Pernrnaraju Surya Rao, Sang Ita mahamahopadhvava,
Sri T.R. Subrahmanyam, Sangitakalanidhi Sri Nedunuri Krishnamurti, the late
Sangltakalanidhi Sri D.K. Jayaraman and others from whom I have valuable insights
into music, I pay my humble tribute of thanks.
Department of Music Dr. Gauri Rarna Mohan (Coordinator) and other Teaching
Faculty deserve my thanks for their sympathy, cooperation and encouragment.
Librarians of Andhara university, S.P.M. Viswavidyalam, Sn Venkateswara
University, S.V.U. Oriental Institute, Rashtriya Sanskrit vidyapeetha,
Tirupati, Govt. Oriental Research Institute(Chennai), Madras University
Library(Chennai), and Central University, Hyderabad, readily made available to
me several books, and periodicals required for my studies. I remember their
invaluable help with gratitude.
greatly indebted to (late) Sri Perala lakshamana Rao, Smt. & Dr. V.
Chandrasekharam. Smt. & Sri K.T. Sastry, Smt. &Sri Dr. G. Iswara
Prasad, Smt. & Sri G.M.B. Prasad and Smt. & Sri G.R.K. Prasad and their
families for sustaining me with their moral support.
intentionally waited till to express my gratitude to the members of my family.
They have been at the back of everyone of my efforts, always
encouraging and supporting. To all of them Smt. Dwaram (Nemani) V.J. Lakshmi
& Sri Nemani Venkataramana, Smt. Dwaram (Silamsetty) Padmasree and Sri
Silamsetty Prabhakar (USA) Sri Dwaram A.V. Swami and Smt. Dwaram (Battula)
Manisree, and my betterhalf Smt. Dwaram (Kandula) Nagamani, and Chy. Sunil
Selamsetty, Chy. Anil Kaivalya, Chy. Bhavana Dwaram, Chy. Tej Bhavan Silamsetty
Chy. Sai Dwaram and Chy. Varada Narayani Priya Bhavana
Dwaram. I convey loving thanks. My respects are also to my uncle (late) Sri
Dwaram Satya Narayana garu, who had always encouraged me both in my
professional and personal matters.
the staff of the Adyar Students Xerox, especially. Mr. Murali, Smt. lalitha,
Ms. I. Saraswati (Ammulu), Mr. Ramesh, Mr. Diwakar, and the Managing Directors,
Sri Umapati & Sri Dinakar- who did their best for bringing the thesis in
It is appropriate to end this preface expressing with
a humble and devout gratitude to God for the many blessings He has showered . on me. I have known from
experience that not even a blade of grass can stir without His ‘sankalpa’.
pleases all is a simple statement of fact universally accepted. The pleasure is
experienced by not only human beings, but also believed to influence all
ceratures in this universe. Further, music possesses the power to influence
even inanimate things. The foilowing Popular aphorism
pasurvetti vetti ganarasam phanih’
that the child, the animal and the serpent enjoy music. It may be interpreted,
in other words, that music is enjoyed by the ignorant, the brute and even
poisonous. Both Indian, and European support, if not confirm the afore-said
Jantra gatramula ralgaragincu
vimala gandharavambu vidyamadi ...
meaning, our music is
such that it melts even stones. This speaks of the supernatural power of music
even on the inanimate things.
poetic, historical etc; since ancient times to date, abounds in references to
the greatness and supreme powers of music.
music is regarded as a from of God.
sabda murti dharaisyeti
and music which are forms of sadba (nada) are the forms of God. Nada (sound) is
the very body of God. God is ‘nadatanu’
anisam Sankaram namami’ says Tyagaraja.
Sadasivah’,meaning Lord Siva is in the centre of the
Nada tanum tamuddhura jagatgitam mude sankaram’
of Nada is worship of God. According to the ancient musicologists, Nada is of
two varieties, namely Ahata and Anahata. Ahata nada is music that could be
heard and practised by the common man whereas Anahata Nada is that sound which risis[saints] can hear and practise. That is to say sound
that within the audibility of human eara is Ahata Nada; and that sound which is
beyond the capacity of the human ear to hear is Anahata Nada. Thus, it is that
Ahata Nada could be heard and cultivated is widely known as Sangita.
the Song, Vocal and Instrumental, and Dance - all the three have been said to
Vadaym tatha Nrityam trayam Sangitamucyate’
course of evolution, Music in India has been evolved as a separate and
individual branch of fine art, with its theory and practice, and, yet continues
to be an important constitient of Dance.
It is a
universally accepted fact that Rhythm is the basis for all natural phenomena
and that all world-processes follow the Law of Rhythm. And thus the ultimate
basis of everything is vibration. Vibration in its turn involves the idea of
time, space and movement. And Rhythm is only ordered movement in time and
space. We thus see the basic value and significance of Rhythm. Ordered movement
in any kind of phenomena is the fundamental basis. We thus realise the basic
value of Rhythm: Laya, vibration, ordered movement. There may be all Kinds of
movement, but only ordered, disciplined, well planned movement can fit in with
the basic laws of Nature.
of the evolution of music in India as both Science and Art makes it very
interesting and absorbing. A great deal of scientific approach and always with
an eye and ear for ‘ranjakatva’, ‘pleasing effect’ has gone into making Indian
music and its’ systems what it is today unique, great and outstanding-among all
the systems of music the world over.
Many a reference to music are
found in the ancient Puranic lore. Music in India has its beginning in the
Vedic period. It is said to have been derived from Sama Veda and grasped by
Brahma, the God of Creation.
importance of laya in Indian music
exposition of lay a in ancient treatises on music
application and explanation of tala dasa pranas
aspects of laya in musical compositions
variety of lay a patterns in the compositions of sri tyagaraja
treatment of rhythmical aspects in sri muttuswami diksitar’s compositions
flair for rhythmical exercises·in the compositions of sri syama sastri
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