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Books > Language and Literature > Saktivada: Theory of Expressive Power of Words (Set of Two Volumes) (A Old and Rare Book)
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Saktivada: Theory of Expressive Power of Words (Set of Two Volumes) (A Old and Rare Book)
Saktivada: Theory of Expressive Power of Words (Set of Two Volumes) (A Old and Rare Book)
Description

About the Book

 

Theory of expressive power of words ‘Saktivada’, by Gadadhara Bhattacarya, is the most fundamental work of Navya-nyaya logic on the theories of word (pada), word-meaning (padartha), and word-relation or signification (padavrtti). It is exclusively devoted to the establishment of Gadadhara’s original theories that word in general conveys individual as qualified by generic property and form (visista); and for conveying such qualified individual, word needs to be comprehended as having word-relation such as expressive power (Sakti).

 

The present edition of Gadadhara’s Saktivada, which is being published in two volumes, contains introduction, original Sanskrit text, and first ever English translation with notes by Dr. V.P. Bhatta. Gadadhara, as he belongs to the concluding era of Navya- nyaya-renaisance, has used very complicated and highly technical Navya-nyaya style in the composition of the Saktivada, and in order to guide the readers understand the difficult arguments in the text, Dr. Bhatta has provided an exhaustive introduction discussing all the important topics, often in comparison to modern linguistic theories, and translated the text with explanatory notes. The present edition will prove, thus, to be of immense value to the scholars of both Navya-nyaya and linguistics.

 

About the Author

 

The author of this work. Dr. V.P. Bhatta, received traditional and formal education Vidvat, Maharaja’s Sanskrit College, Mysore, 1969, Vidyavaridhi, Sampurnananda-Sanskrit University, Banaras, 197:”, M.A. and Ph. D. U.C. Berkeley, Calif., U.S.A., L974-1980), and is presently working as an Assistant Editor, Sanskrit Dictionary, Deccan College, Pune. While his Epistemology, Logic and Grammar and English translation (with introduction and notes) of the Bhavanaviveka have been published, he is presently engaged in the ambitious projeet of the Critical enlarged edition of the Vyutpattivada with English translation and notes.

 

Preface (Volume-I)

 

Words (Sabda or pada) are used to convey word-meanings, and hence are means of verbal communication or reality-reflective functions. Thus, as F. Kovacs ([97 I) states, word or language, as a system of signs, is a communicative function, i.e. is a means to make inter-subjective the subjective body of the knowledge,..... accumulated in consequence of the reflection of reality on a social scale; and also is a reality-reflective function, i.e, .Is a means” at the same time the result, of the formation of concepts, of thought.

 

However, for language or words to convey their meanings, they must possess certain significations or relations (functions) with the meanings. as words cannot convey meanings that are not signified or related. Thus, De Saussure (l9l6) has proposed his sign theory that language or word, as a liuguistic sign, is the signifier (signifiant), and meaning is signified (signifie). Also, A. Gardiner (1922), like Frege (L960) later, while distinguishing sense (thought or reference) from thing-meant (objective reality or referent), has emphasized the importance of the relation between word and meaning in conveying meaning.

 

Indian epistemologists, especially the grammarians, the Mimam-sakas, and the Naiyayikas, too, while distinguishing sense or re- ference (knowledge) (padarthajnana) from thing-meant, or objective reality (referent) (padartha), have recognized the fact that words convey word-meanings means they are communicative and reality-reflective functions, and for words to become communicative ox: reality-reflective functions, they must possess certain significations or word relations (functions) with word-meanings. Thus, they have proposed that words (pada) function as communicative or reality-reflective functions (means) by possessing word-relations (Sabdarthasambaddha) or word-functions (padavrtti) with word-meanings. Also, they have proposed that word-relations or functions may be either established (siddha), or eternal (nitya), or conventional (samayika).

 

In ancient India, epistemologists, who were primarily concerned with the analysis of means of valid knowledge (pramana) and object of valid knowledge (prameya), showed a keen interest in the analysis of words and their meanings. Thus, Patanjali, Sabara, and Vatsyayana, the great Bhasyakaras, devoted large sections of their works to the analysis of word as a means of knowledge and word-meanings as the result obtained from the communicative function of words. However, in mediaeval India, epistemologists such as Nagesa, Khandadeva, Jagadisa, Gadadhara etc., have written a number of independent works such as Laghumanjusa, Bhiittarahasya, Sabdasaktiprakasika, Saktivada etc., to establish Vyakarana, Mimamsa and Navya-nyaya theories of words, word- meanings and word-relations.

 

Although a number of modern scholars, Prof. D. H. H. Ingalls, Karl Potter, B.K. Matilal, K. Kunjunni Raja, P. T. Raja, P.C. Chakravarti etc. to name just a few have explained and systematically established Indian theories of word and meaning in general, many of the basic Sanskrit texts on the Navya-nyaya concepts of word and meaning and word-relations (padavrttti) remain untranslated into any of the modern languages, and hence unknown, inaccessible to modern scholars and linguists.

 

Theory of expressive power of words, ‘Saktivada’, by Gadadhara, is the most fundamental work on the Navya-nyaya theories of word and meaning and word-relations (word-functions), While the Vyutpattivada, by the same author, has effectively dealt with the Navya-nyaya theory of sentence and its meaning, the Saktivada is exclusively devoted to the analysis of the Navya-nyaya-theories of word and meaning and word-relations. It establishes the fundamental Navya-nyaya-theories that while words in general convey individuals as qualified by generic property and form (jatyakrti-visista) through expressive power (sakti), words of exception such as pronouns etc., have expressive power in the sense of the individuals, which are adventitiously qualified by the state of being the delimiting properties of the objectness of the objects present in the mind of the speaker (budhivisayatavacchedakatvopalak sita) etc. by refuting the Mimamsakas’ and at times even the Pracya logicians’ theories of the same. Also, it establishes the Navya-nyaya theory that expressive power (Sakti), which is the primary significative function of words (Sanketa), could be generalized as the desire/convention of any trustworthy speaker, may he be God, or modern scholar, like Panini, by dropping the qualification ‘being uttered by God’ (isvariyatva) in the definition of expressive power.

 

The purpose of this work, therefore, is to illustrate Gadadhara’s theories of word, word-meaning and word-relation as established in his Saktivada. And this purpose is proposed to be achieved firstly by discussing and analysing Gadadhara’s theories of word, word-meaning, and word-relation vis a vis Indian and modern linguistic theories of the same; and secondly by providing a complete English translation of the Saktivada for the first time. However, since the Saktivada represents the most advanced and highly sophisticated Navya-nyaya text, the language, style, and techniques used in the text are very complicated; and hence often unintelligible to the common reader. Thus, to facilitate the reader, translation of each passage is closely followed by explanatory, often exhaustive, notes that try to elucidate both Navya-nyaya concepts and techniques.

 

I have followed the text of Saktivada, edited by Gosvami Damodara Sastri (Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series, Benares, 1929), for my translation. In preparing Explanatory notes, I have mainly relied upon the help of Vivrti, the commentry composed by Pt. Harinatha Tarkasiddhanta, although I have very often-consulted other commentaries such an Manjusa by Krshna Bhatta, Vivrti by Madhava Bhattacharya, and Viuodini by Gosvami Damodara Sastri.

 

I would like to thank my teachers, Dr. N. S. Ramanujatatachary a, K.S. Vidyapeetha, Tirupati, Prof. N.S. Ramabhadracharya, and A. Venkannacharya, Maharaja Sanskrit College, Mysore, and Pt. T.S. Shrinivas Sastri, Deccan College, Pune, who have taught me Nyaya and explained many of the intricacies of Navya-nyaya. Also, I would like to thank all my friends and colleagues, who have provided many valuable suggestions, and my family members, who have constantly encouraged and morally supported me throughout, the preparation of this work.

 

Finally, I would like to thank Mr. Shamlal Malhotra of Eastern Book Linkers, who has brought out this work very nicely.

 

Contents (Volume-I)

 

i.

Indian Theory of Word (Sabda or Pada)

1

ii.

A Semantical Analysis and Classification of Words

11

iii.

Word-Function or Word-relation (Padavrtti) and Primary Signification (Sanketa)

26

iv.

Gadadhara on Primary Signification or Expressive Power (Sakti)

37

v.

Secondary Signification : Laksana

53

vi.

Gadadhara on Secondary Signification: Indicative Power (Laksana)

70

vii.

Theory of Suggestive Power (Vyanjana)

80

viii.

Speaker’s Intention (Tatparya)

94

ix.

Word-meanings (Sabdartha or Padartha)

106

x.

Gadadhara on Word-meaning (Padartha)

120

xi.

Expressive Power of Words with Special Reference to ‘Sky’ (Akasa)

145

xii.

Expressive Power of the Word ‘Milch Cow’ (Dhenu)

151

xiii.

Explanation of Non-Polysemous Nature of the Word ‘Puspavantau’

156

xiv.

Nature of Expressive Power and Expressed Meanings of Pronouns

168

xv.

Expressive Power of First and Second Person Pronouns

179

xvi.

Expressive Power and Meaning of the Quantifier ‘All’ (Sarva)

194

xvii.

Expressive Power of Interrogative Pronoun

208

xviii.

Expressive Power of Relative and Corelative Pronouns

216

xix.

Theory of Demonstratives

222

xx.

Theory of Reflexive Pronoun

224

 

Samanya Kanda (Section Dealing with Word-Relations in General)

 

 

(Complete English Translation with Notes)

232

 

Sanskrit Text of Saktivada (Samanya Kanda)

344

 

Bibliography

356

 

Index

361

 

Preface (Volume-II)

 

It is a great pleasure and privilege to present the second volume of ‘Theory of Expressive Power of Words’ ‘Saktivada’ of Gadadhara Bhattacarya to the scholars and the students of Indian Philosophy, especially of Navya-nyaya and Linguistics. While the first volume comprised of General Introduction to the Saktivada and the translations with notes of the Samanyakanda, the second volume comprises of the translations with notes of the Visesakanda and the Parisistakanda ; and thus completes the work.

 

The Saktivada constitutes one of the most significant contributions of Gadadhara to the field of Indian Philosophy, and Linguistics; especially to Semantics. While Gadadhara covered the field of Indian Logic by his commentaries viz., the Tattva-cintamani-vyakhya, the TattvacintiimaJ;1i-didhiti-Prakiisikii, and the Tattvacintamany-aloka-Tika, he has composed independent works such a sthe Saktivada, and the Vyutpattivada etc. on the topics such as words (word-relations) and sentence-meaning. And the Saktivada essentially deals with the nature and analysis of word-relations.

 

Importance of the study of the Saktivada cannot be stressed too adequately from the view point of the Navya-nyaya Logic and Indian Linguistics. Gangesa in the Sabdakhanda of the Tattvacintamani, which consists of a section on sakti, had introduced the concept of expressive power of words (Sakti) as a word-relation or word-function (vrtti) necessary to be assumed in the sense of the accomplished entities isiddhdrtha) by refuting the same in the sense of the knowledge of the entity related to an effect (karyanvitajnana). However, Gadadhara, in his independent work, the Saktivada, has analysed word-relation or word-function (vrtti) as of two types: viz. primary signification (sanketa) and secondary signification (laksana), and then devided primary signification further into conventional expressive power (Sakti) and technical expressive power (paribhasa).

 

A very important contribution of Gadadhara to the Indian semantics is that in the Samanyakanda and the Parisistakanda of the Saktivada, he has established expressive power of ordinary words in generic property (Jati), form (akrti) and individual (vyakti) by refuting the Mimasakas’ theory of expressive power of words in merely generic property. However, truely even more important contribution is his linguistic approach to the analysis of expressive powers of special words while using the Navya-nyaya methodology of analysis. Thus, in the Visesakanda of the Saktivada, he has analysed expressive powers of special words such as ‘sky’ (akasa), “milch cow; (dhenu), and pronouns (sarvanaman) etc. and brought out the linguistic peculiarity of the expressive powers of special words. Thus, for instance, in the case of pronouns, Gadadhara has explained expressive power in the sense of the entities such as the pot etc. that are generalized or adventitiously qualified by the state of being the delimiting properties of the objectness of the objects present in the mind of the speaker (buddhivisayata-vacchedaka-rupavacchinna). Thus, the study of the Saktivada is a must for the understanding of the Navya-nyaya and the Indian Linguistics.

 

Now, a word regarding the methodology adopted in the translations and the notes of the Visesa and the Parisista kandas of the Saktivada may be in order. As in the earlier case of the Samanya kanda, the translations of the Visesa and the Parisista kandas are arranged paragraph by paragraph by using the text of the Saktivada edited by Gosvami Damodara Sastri, C.S.S. Banaras, and the translation of each paragraph is followed up by the explonatory notes immediately. While providing the notes, .however, the commentary of Vivrti by Harinatha Tarka Siddhanta is closely followed although the opinions of other commentaries such as the Manjusa by Krsna Bhatta and the Vinodini by Gosvami Damodara Sastri are taken into consideration at many a places.

 

I have received many valuable suggestions and corrections from many of my friends and colleagues in the Dept. of Sanskrit Dictionary. Deccan College, Pune, and I would like to thank all of them sincerely. Also, I would fail in my duty if I do not remember the moral support and the constant encouragement I have received from my family members, especially from my wife Sarveshvari and son Giridhara. I am greatly indebted to both of them. Finally, I would like to thank Mr. Shamlal Malhotra and his sons for nicely printing and bringing out this volume.

 

Contents (Volume-II)

 

i.

Preface

vii

ii

English Translation : Visesa Kanda

1

 

(Section dealing with word-relations in Particular)

 

iii

Parisista Kanda

270

 

(Supplementary Section)

 

 

Sanskrit Text

 

iv.

 

367

v.

 

397

vi.

Index

409

 

Saktivada: Theory of Expressive Power of Words (Set of Two Volumes) (A Old and Rare Book)

Item Code:
NAH240
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
1995
Language:
English
Size:
8.5 inch X 5.5 inch
Pages:
802
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 1.0 kg
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About the Book

 

Theory of expressive power of words ‘Saktivada’, by Gadadhara Bhattacarya, is the most fundamental work of Navya-nyaya logic on the theories of word (pada), word-meaning (padartha), and word-relation or signification (padavrtti). It is exclusively devoted to the establishment of Gadadhara’s original theories that word in general conveys individual as qualified by generic property and form (visista); and for conveying such qualified individual, word needs to be comprehended as having word-relation such as expressive power (Sakti).

 

The present edition of Gadadhara’s Saktivada, which is being published in two volumes, contains introduction, original Sanskrit text, and first ever English translation with notes by Dr. V.P. Bhatta. Gadadhara, as he belongs to the concluding era of Navya- nyaya-renaisance, has used very complicated and highly technical Navya-nyaya style in the composition of the Saktivada, and in order to guide the readers understand the difficult arguments in the text, Dr. Bhatta has provided an exhaustive introduction discussing all the important topics, often in comparison to modern linguistic theories, and translated the text with explanatory notes. The present edition will prove, thus, to be of immense value to the scholars of both Navya-nyaya and linguistics.

 

About the Author

 

The author of this work. Dr. V.P. Bhatta, received traditional and formal education Vidvat, Maharaja’s Sanskrit College, Mysore, 1969, Vidyavaridhi, Sampurnananda-Sanskrit University, Banaras, 197:”, M.A. and Ph. D. U.C. Berkeley, Calif., U.S.A., L974-1980), and is presently working as an Assistant Editor, Sanskrit Dictionary, Deccan College, Pune. While his Epistemology, Logic and Grammar and English translation (with introduction and notes) of the Bhavanaviveka have been published, he is presently engaged in the ambitious projeet of the Critical enlarged edition of the Vyutpattivada with English translation and notes.

 

Preface (Volume-I)

 

Words (Sabda or pada) are used to convey word-meanings, and hence are means of verbal communication or reality-reflective functions. Thus, as F. Kovacs ([97 I) states, word or language, as a system of signs, is a communicative function, i.e. is a means to make inter-subjective the subjective body of the knowledge,..... accumulated in consequence of the reflection of reality on a social scale; and also is a reality-reflective function, i.e, .Is a means” at the same time the result, of the formation of concepts, of thought.

 

However, for language or words to convey their meanings, they must possess certain significations or relations (functions) with the meanings. as words cannot convey meanings that are not signified or related. Thus, De Saussure (l9l6) has proposed his sign theory that language or word, as a liuguistic sign, is the signifier (signifiant), and meaning is signified (signifie). Also, A. Gardiner (1922), like Frege (L960) later, while distinguishing sense (thought or reference) from thing-meant (objective reality or referent), has emphasized the importance of the relation between word and meaning in conveying meaning.

 

Indian epistemologists, especially the grammarians, the Mimam-sakas, and the Naiyayikas, too, while distinguishing sense or re- ference (knowledge) (padarthajnana) from thing-meant, or objective reality (referent) (padartha), have recognized the fact that words convey word-meanings means they are communicative and reality-reflective functions, and for words to become communicative ox: reality-reflective functions, they must possess certain significations or word relations (functions) with word-meanings. Thus, they have proposed that words (pada) function as communicative or reality-reflective functions (means) by possessing word-relations (Sabdarthasambaddha) or word-functions (padavrtti) with word-meanings. Also, they have proposed that word-relations or functions may be either established (siddha), or eternal (nitya), or conventional (samayika).

 

In ancient India, epistemologists, who were primarily concerned with the analysis of means of valid knowledge (pramana) and object of valid knowledge (prameya), showed a keen interest in the analysis of words and their meanings. Thus, Patanjali, Sabara, and Vatsyayana, the great Bhasyakaras, devoted large sections of their works to the analysis of word as a means of knowledge and word-meanings as the result obtained from the communicative function of words. However, in mediaeval India, epistemologists such as Nagesa, Khandadeva, Jagadisa, Gadadhara etc., have written a number of independent works such as Laghumanjusa, Bhiittarahasya, Sabdasaktiprakasika, Saktivada etc., to establish Vyakarana, Mimamsa and Navya-nyaya theories of words, word- meanings and word-relations.

 

Although a number of modern scholars, Prof. D. H. H. Ingalls, Karl Potter, B.K. Matilal, K. Kunjunni Raja, P. T. Raja, P.C. Chakravarti etc. to name just a few have explained and systematically established Indian theories of word and meaning in general, many of the basic Sanskrit texts on the Navya-nyaya concepts of word and meaning and word-relations (padavrttti) remain untranslated into any of the modern languages, and hence unknown, inaccessible to modern scholars and linguists.

 

Theory of expressive power of words, ‘Saktivada’, by Gadadhara, is the most fundamental work on the Navya-nyaya theories of word and meaning and word-relations (word-functions), While the Vyutpattivada, by the same author, has effectively dealt with the Navya-nyaya theory of sentence and its meaning, the Saktivada is exclusively devoted to the analysis of the Navya-nyaya-theories of word and meaning and word-relations. It establishes the fundamental Navya-nyaya-theories that while words in general convey individuals as qualified by generic property and form (jatyakrti-visista) through expressive power (sakti), words of exception such as pronouns etc., have expressive power in the sense of the individuals, which are adventitiously qualified by the state of being the delimiting properties of the objectness of the objects present in the mind of the speaker (budhivisayatavacchedakatvopalak sita) etc. by refuting the Mimamsakas’ and at times even the Pracya logicians’ theories of the same. Also, it establishes the Navya-nyaya theory that expressive power (Sakti), which is the primary significative function of words (Sanketa), could be generalized as the desire/convention of any trustworthy speaker, may he be God, or modern scholar, like Panini, by dropping the qualification ‘being uttered by God’ (isvariyatva) in the definition of expressive power.

 

The purpose of this work, therefore, is to illustrate Gadadhara’s theories of word, word-meaning and word-relation as established in his Saktivada. And this purpose is proposed to be achieved firstly by discussing and analysing Gadadhara’s theories of word, word-meaning, and word-relation vis a vis Indian and modern linguistic theories of the same; and secondly by providing a complete English translation of the Saktivada for the first time. However, since the Saktivada represents the most advanced and highly sophisticated Navya-nyaya text, the language, style, and techniques used in the text are very complicated; and hence often unintelligible to the common reader. Thus, to facilitate the reader, translation of each passage is closely followed by explanatory, often exhaustive, notes that try to elucidate both Navya-nyaya concepts and techniques.

 

I have followed the text of Saktivada, edited by Gosvami Damodara Sastri (Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series, Benares, 1929), for my translation. In preparing Explanatory notes, I have mainly relied upon the help of Vivrti, the commentry composed by Pt. Harinatha Tarkasiddhanta, although I have very often-consulted other commentaries such an Manjusa by Krshna Bhatta, Vivrti by Madhava Bhattacharya, and Viuodini by Gosvami Damodara Sastri.

 

I would like to thank my teachers, Dr. N. S. Ramanujatatachary a, K.S. Vidyapeetha, Tirupati, Prof. N.S. Ramabhadracharya, and A. Venkannacharya, Maharaja Sanskrit College, Mysore, and Pt. T.S. Shrinivas Sastri, Deccan College, Pune, who have taught me Nyaya and explained many of the intricacies of Navya-nyaya. Also, I would like to thank all my friends and colleagues, who have provided many valuable suggestions, and my family members, who have constantly encouraged and morally supported me throughout, the preparation of this work.

 

Finally, I would like to thank Mr. Shamlal Malhotra of Eastern Book Linkers, who has brought out this work very nicely.

 

Contents (Volume-I)

 

i.

Indian Theory of Word (Sabda or Pada)

1

ii.

A Semantical Analysis and Classification of Words

11

iii.

Word-Function or Word-relation (Padavrtti) and Primary Signification (Sanketa)

26

iv.

Gadadhara on Primary Signification or Expressive Power (Sakti)

37

v.

Secondary Signification : Laksana

53

vi.

Gadadhara on Secondary Signification: Indicative Power (Laksana)

70

vii.

Theory of Suggestive Power (Vyanjana)

80

viii.

Speaker’s Intention (Tatparya)

94

ix.

Word-meanings (Sabdartha or Padartha)

106

x.

Gadadhara on Word-meaning (Padartha)

120

xi.

Expressive Power of Words with Special Reference to ‘Sky’ (Akasa)

145

xii.

Expressive Power of the Word ‘Milch Cow’ (Dhenu)

151

xiii.

Explanation of Non-Polysemous Nature of the Word ‘Puspavantau’

156

xiv.

Nature of Expressive Power and Expressed Meanings of Pronouns

168

xv.

Expressive Power of First and Second Person Pronouns

179

xvi.

Expressive Power and Meaning of the Quantifier ‘All’ (Sarva)

194

xvii.

Expressive Power of Interrogative Pronoun

208

xviii.

Expressive Power of Relative and Corelative Pronouns

216

xix.

Theory of Demonstratives

222

xx.

Theory of Reflexive Pronoun

224

 

Samanya Kanda (Section Dealing with Word-Relations in General)

 

 

(Complete English Translation with Notes)

232

 

Sanskrit Text of Saktivada (Samanya Kanda)

344

 

Bibliography

356

 

Index

361

 

Preface (Volume-II)

 

It is a great pleasure and privilege to present the second volume of ‘Theory of Expressive Power of Words’ ‘Saktivada’ of Gadadhara Bhattacarya to the scholars and the students of Indian Philosophy, especially of Navya-nyaya and Linguistics. While the first volume comprised of General Introduction to the Saktivada and the translations with notes of the Samanyakanda, the second volume comprises of the translations with notes of the Visesakanda and the Parisistakanda ; and thus completes the work.

 

The Saktivada constitutes one of the most significant contributions of Gadadhara to the field of Indian Philosophy, and Linguistics; especially to Semantics. While Gadadhara covered the field of Indian Logic by his commentaries viz., the Tattva-cintamani-vyakhya, the TattvacintiimaJ;1i-didhiti-Prakiisikii, and the Tattvacintamany-aloka-Tika, he has composed independent works such a sthe Saktivada, and the Vyutpattivada etc. on the topics such as words (word-relations) and sentence-meaning. And the Saktivada essentially deals with the nature and analysis of word-relations.

 

Importance of the study of the Saktivada cannot be stressed too adequately from the view point of the Navya-nyaya Logic and Indian Linguistics. Gangesa in the Sabdakhanda of the Tattvacintamani, which consists of a section on sakti, had introduced the concept of expressive power of words (Sakti) as a word-relation or word-function (vrtti) necessary to be assumed in the sense of the accomplished entities isiddhdrtha) by refuting the same in the sense of the knowledge of the entity related to an effect (karyanvitajnana). However, Gadadhara, in his independent work, the Saktivada, has analysed word-relation or word-function (vrtti) as of two types: viz. primary signification (sanketa) and secondary signification (laksana), and then devided primary signification further into conventional expressive power (Sakti) and technical expressive power (paribhasa).

 

A very important contribution of Gadadhara to the Indian semantics is that in the Samanyakanda and the Parisistakanda of the Saktivada, he has established expressive power of ordinary words in generic property (Jati), form (akrti) and individual (vyakti) by refuting the Mimasakas’ theory of expressive power of words in merely generic property. However, truely even more important contribution is his linguistic approach to the analysis of expressive powers of special words while using the Navya-nyaya methodology of analysis. Thus, in the Visesakanda of the Saktivada, he has analysed expressive powers of special words such as ‘sky’ (akasa), “milch cow; (dhenu), and pronouns (sarvanaman) etc. and brought out the linguistic peculiarity of the expressive powers of special words. Thus, for instance, in the case of pronouns, Gadadhara has explained expressive power in the sense of the entities such as the pot etc. that are generalized or adventitiously qualified by the state of being the delimiting properties of the objectness of the objects present in the mind of the speaker (buddhivisayata-vacchedaka-rupavacchinna). Thus, the study of the Saktivada is a must for the understanding of the Navya-nyaya and the Indian Linguistics.

 

Now, a word regarding the methodology adopted in the translations and the notes of the Visesa and the Parisista kandas of the Saktivada may be in order. As in the earlier case of the Samanya kanda, the translations of the Visesa and the Parisista kandas are arranged paragraph by paragraph by using the text of the Saktivada edited by Gosvami Damodara Sastri, C.S.S. Banaras, and the translation of each paragraph is followed up by the explonatory notes immediately. While providing the notes, .however, the commentary of Vivrti by Harinatha Tarka Siddhanta is closely followed although the opinions of other commentaries such as the Manjusa by Krsna Bhatta and the Vinodini by Gosvami Damodara Sastri are taken into consideration at many a places.

 

I have received many valuable suggestions and corrections from many of my friends and colleagues in the Dept. of Sanskrit Dictionary. Deccan College, Pune, and I would like to thank all of them sincerely. Also, I would fail in my duty if I do not remember the moral support and the constant encouragement I have received from my family members, especially from my wife Sarveshvari and son Giridhara. I am greatly indebted to both of them. Finally, I would like to thank Mr. Shamlal Malhotra and his sons for nicely printing and bringing out this volume.

 

Contents (Volume-II)

 

i.

Preface

vii

ii

English Translation : Visesa Kanda

1

 

(Section dealing with word-relations in Particular)

 

iii

Parisista Kanda

270

 

(Supplementary Section)

 

 

Sanskrit Text

 

iv.

 

367

v.

 

397

vi.

Index

409

 

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