Studies in the Aranyakas (Set of 6 Books)

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Item Code: HAX279
Author: Various Authors
Publisher: Various Publishers
Language: English, Hindi and Sanskrit
Edition: 2022
ISBN: 9788193487792, 9788178542348, 9788121200943
Pages: 1711
Other Details 10.0 inch X 7.3
Weight 2.69 kg
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Book Description
Studies in the Aranyakas (Set of 6 Books)
Mysticism and Symbolism
- In Aitareya and Taittiriya
Aranyakas (An Old
and Rare Book)
Quotations from the Aranyakas
Symbolism in the Aranyakas
and Their Impact on the
Upanisads (An Old
and Rare Book)
The Aranyaka-s
(A Critical Study)
The Studies in The Aranyakas
Pathway To Aranyakas

Quotations from the Aranyakas
**Contents and Sample Pages**

The Aranyaka-s (A Critical Study)

It gives me pleasure to announce the publication of this book "THE ARANYAKA-S (A CRITICAL STUDY)" by Dr. Indu Deshpande. Dr. Indu Deshpande has dedicated her work to her guide the Late Dr. R. N. Dandekar. Dr. R. N. Dandekar has substantially contributed towards the development of the Vaidika Samshodhana Mandala (Adarsha Sanskrit Shodha Samstha). We sincerely thank Dr. Indu Deshpande for allowing us to publish her work which was completed under the supervision of Dr. R. N. Dandekar. This year being the birth—centena1y year of Dr. R. N. Dandekar, we pay our homage by publishing this work.

We are really thankful to following institutions and persons for extending their help in bringing out this work.

Dr. Saroja Bhate for sparing time to write a foreword for this book.
The Rashtriya Sanskrit Samsthan, New Delhi for substantially funding for the publication of this work.
The authorities of the University of Pune, for granting the permission for publication of this work.
Mr. Sudhakar Sathe and Mr. Mukund Dongre for the donations. Mr. Mukund Dongre donated in memory of his wife Mrs. Vidya Dongre, former librarian of Vaidika Samshodhana Mandala.

We could not but express our humble gratitude towards H.H. Shri S.A.R.P.V. Chaturvedi Swami of Sri Ramanuja Mission Trust, Chennai for sponsoring the paper for the printing of this book.

We accept it as the blessings from Swamiji.

Ms. Ketaki Gokhale for carefully and perfectly doing the computerized type setting of this work.

Ms. Vaijanti Dhole-Patil and Ms. Surekha Wagle of Step in Services, Pune for printing the work in time.



The Vedic literature owes its importance to the fact that it represents, as a whole, one of the oldest documents of the history of human civilization. The significant role played by the Vedas on the one Land and the Upanisads on the other in providing fundamental source material to trace the development of key-concepts of Indian scientific thought has been, time and again, emphasized by historians of philosophy. The Aranyaka-s has been, however, relegated to insignificance, perhaps because of their finite quantity and their nature as appendices to the Brahmana texts. Their importance of valuable documents of history of development of scientific thought in India is not less than other texts. It is, therefore, qualifying to see a book totally devoted to the study of Aranyaka-s in all aspects. Dr. Indu Deshpande, the author, deserves special compliments for focusing on this neglected part of Vedic literature and bringing to light, perhaps for the first time, hidden pearls of thought linking ritualism with spiritualism.

The book presents a compact study of all Aranyaka-s with reference to their conducts, namely, rituals, philosophy, legends and mythology and finally, social life reflected in them. One gets a clear idea after reading the book that the 1-irapyaka-s hold themselves closure to the Upanisads which follow them, though they appear as appendages to the Brahmanas. They do carry forward the Brahmanic mission of explaining the ritual of sacrifices. However the seers of the Aranyaka-s are seen often engaged in stressing the efficacy of inner and mental sacrifice. The thought process of these seers is directed towards spiritualism away from materialism. The book contains many references to the texts of the Aranyaka-s where symbolic sacrifice is advocated. At one place, all activities of everyday life of a human being are compared to different parts of sacrifice and thereby the message is conveyed that leading a life of good conduct based on values itself is a sacrifice. These texts bear witness to the sublime heights of meditation on human life by the composers of these texts much before the Upanisadic thinkers soared into the realm of identity between Brahman and Atman. These texts also mark a perfect blend of jnana and karman, the two ways to reach the highest reality.

Another interesting fact about the Aranyaka-s revealed to us in this book is that they sponsor Sun-worship, perhaps for the first time. The author has established it with ample evidence.

The texts of the Aranyaka-s thus provide enough material to trace the development of mysticism and symbolism through the process of "inwardisation".

I strongly believe that the book provides valuable study material on i¢Iraq1yaka—s and hints at direction for further research in Vedic studies. Once again I congratulate the author for her seminal contribution.



An attempt is made in this book to present a more or less complete analytical and critical study of the four Aranyaka-s, namely, the AA the SanA the TA, and the Brhadaranyaka. As will be pointed out in the sequel, a lot of valuable work has already been done on the Aranyaka-s, but a comprehensive study of the Aranyaka-s as a whole was still wanting. It is hoped that the present book will till in, at least to some extent, the lacuna pertaining to this important branch of Vedic literature.

By way of an introduction to the central theme of the book, the first chapter begins by presenting a brief survey of the Vedic literature and then goes on to deal with such topics as the place of the Aranyaka-s in the Vedic literature and the importance of the study of the Aranyaka-s. This is followed by a detailed note on the Aranyaka-s, which includes a discussion about the name " Aranyaka", the Ar. texts which are known and which are available, the Vedic schools, the Asramas, and similar other subjects. It also includes a broad analysis of the contents of the Ar. texts. The Introductory chapter concludes with a note on the work already done on the Aranyaka-s.

The second chapter of the thesis is devoted t to the description of the ritual as it occurs in the Aranyaka-s. While emphasis is naturally put on the two main aspects of the Ar. ritual, namely, the Mahavrata and the Pravargya, the minor rituals like the Arunaketuka-cayana, the Kusmanda-homa, the Brahmayajna, etc, are also treated in some detail with a view to finding out whether the ritual of the Ar. differs in any significant way from the ritual of the Brahmanas.

The Aranyaka-s are often represented as marking the transition between the mechanical sacerdotalism of the Brahmanas and the esoteric spiritualism of the Upanisads. Whether or not this is so can be ascertained by a critical study of the philosophical concepts in the Aranyaka-s. This is what is attempted in the third chapter.

The fourth chapter occupies itself with the legends and mythology of the Aranyaka-s, while the fifth and concluding chapter briefly sets forth the general cultural and socio-historical back ground of the Aranyaka-s.




  Preface I-II
  Acknowledgements III-VI
  Foreword V-VII
  Abbreviations VII-VIII
  Prologue 1-44
Chapter I Introduction  
Chapter II Rituals in the Aranyaka-s  
  Section A – The Mahavrata 45-106
  Section B – The Pravargya 107-190
  Section C – Minor Ritualistic items 191-266
Chapter III Philosophical Concepts in the Aranyaka-s 267-312
Chapter IV Legends and Mythology in the Aranyaka-s 313-336
Chapter V Glimpses of Social life as reflected in the Aranyaka-s 3367-348
Chapter VI Some Features of the Literary style of the Aranyaka-s 349-360
  Epilogue 361-372
  Bibliography 373-378


Sample Pages


The Aranyaka is less studied subject. In fact neglected one to certain extent. It occupies certain position in the history of Vedic literature as well as in the history of Vedic philosophy. However in both of these areas it is just described as the transit period and that is all. To describe in the terms of marks or pages, it is given only 10/15 marks treatment or 8/10; ages treatment.

Normally the scholars maintain that the certain works are called Aranyaka, because they deal with particular topics such as philosophy, mystic explanations, symbolic representation of the ritual etc. i.e. the topics normally not befitting to be discussed in the warm sweet home and hence are supposed to be studied away from the public places and hence in the forest. Therefore it is the content of assumed that the Aranyaka serves a link between Brahmana and Upanisad. How the Aranyaka-s do this, needs to be explained satisfactorily.

I find one more important aspect of the Aranyaka-s, which I call the inwardization of the ritual. This is the contribution of the Aranyaka-s to the history of Indian Philosophy. I have elaborately dealt with this topic in my article. Here I would like to present a few points.

(a) The yajna we find in the Brahmana is in gross form, depending on the external material. It is Aranyaka-s that visualized macro and micro aspect of the yajna. It should be specially noted that the Atharvaveda which is on the perifery of the Srauta yajna has no Aranyaka although the Atharvaveda Samhita has philosophical hymns and number of the Upanisad-s belonging to Atharvaveda is considerably higher. To me it seems that when there is less ritual there is no scope for the Inwardization of the ritual.

(b) The Idea of Philosophizing the Yajna is the novel one that gave new dimension to the concept of the Yajna i.e. a complex of intimately interrelated things functioning smoothly and yielding good results. To perceive the yajna differently is the contribution of the Aranyaka-s on which we find the philosophy of Karmayoga.

(c) The Aranyaka with the Strenght of the Meditative power Decontextualized the yajna from the fire alter, fire, oblation, chandas of mantra and extended scope of yajna upto adhyayama dana etc. cf Brahmayajna Bhutayajna Manusyayajna act serving and devayajna. The very concept that any act serving a noble cause can be yajnaized is the contribution of the Aranyaka-s which influenced the culture and philosophy of India.

(d) It is the Aranyaka-s that have proved that it was not running away form the ritual or being fed up of the ritual or as a replacement of a ritual that the philosophy of the Upanisad developed rather it is the deep heartfelt sincere association that resulted into the contemplation that naturally turned into the development of philosophy.

(e) The Aranyaka-s have provided the models fro meditation where there are a lots of equations and several interlinking patterns e.g. katha-Aranyaka established the functional relation among a dik a deity a metre and a season. The inevitable conclusion of this thought process is the realization that there thrives one and only one principle in all the things which was verbalized by the Upanisadic Seers.

(f) Thus envisaging the yajna internally has indirectly led to the philosophy of Advaita. So I am eager to know how the mimamasaka-s and the dvaitin-s have understood this issue. Same model is used by Adi Sankaracarya int eh Manasapuja.

Well I have told what I think about the Aranyaka. I sincerely thank those scholars who have honored our request to write on topics related to Aranyaka-s I hope this work would come out with multi dimesional study of the Aranyaka-s.

Our sincere thanks are due to Ms Aditi Pandit and Ms Ketki Gokhale who very sincerely and meticulously did the type setting of this complete work. we also thank Mr. Jaydeep Jadhav for the art work of designing the beautiful cover page for our publications. We also thank Ms Vaijanti Dhole Patil and Surekha wagle of Step in Services for neat and timely printing of this work.




  Preface i-vi
1 Yajnavalkya Gargi Discourse: An Analysis From Logical Point of view Shailaja Bapat 1-38
2 Maitrayani Aranyaka Bhagyashree Bhagwat 39-46
3 The nature and contents of the Kath Aranyaka a new Approach B.B. Chaubey 47-70
4 Aranyaka-s A Search for their Identity Sindhu S. Dange 71-106
5 Modern Scholars on Aranyaka-s Ranjana Date 107-120
6 Quotiations of Aitareya Aranyaka as interpreted by the commentators Lalite Deodhar 121-138
7 The Aranyaka-s Indu Deshpande 139-170
8 Pravargya Its Mythical Implications Parineeta Deshpande 171-192
9 The Exact Importance of the Aranyaka part of the Vedic Literature M.G. Dhadhale 193-200
10 The Aitareya Aranyaka An introduction Mugdha Gadgil 201-216
11 On the Concept of Abistaka in Taittiriya Aranyaka Manjusha Gokhale 217-232
12 Ancient Commentaries on the Aitarey Aranyaka Ujjwala Jha 233-256
13 Socio-Cultural Aspects Reflected in the Taittiriya Aranyaka Anagha Joshi 257-272
14 Yaje Ayaksi Yastahe Ca Taiitriya Aranyaka 1.11.4 An observation Prasad Joshi 273-284
15 Samkhayana Aranyaka A Unique Aranyaka Shailaji Katre 285-296
16 The Composition and authorship of the Aitareya Aranyaka Ambarish Khare 297-322
17 Suryamandala in Taittiriya Aranyaka I.7.1 Mandakini Kinjawadekar 323-334
18 Some Laukika Observation in the Taittiriya Aranyaka Madhavi Kolhatkar 335-348
19 On the Vrata-s of the Pravargya Vinaya Kshirsagar 349-364
20 Acarya-s Mentioned in the Aitareya Aranyaka Nirmala Kulkarni 365-392
21 Importance of The Aranyaka-s Gauri Mahulikar 393-414
22 Bhridaranyekasey Tatvgyanam Kachaney Mande 415-428
23 Bhridaranyeke Suchita Yaga Sanskashav Ravinder Ambadas Meley 429-454
24 Atererayarnaykopaneshat A.B. Nagansmpinge 455-466
25 Rsi-s int eh Taittiriya Aranyaka Madhavi Narsalay 467-488
26 The Contribution of Aranyaka-s to the Indian Philosophy Bhagyalata Pataskar 489-510
27 Linguistic Stylistic and Syntactic Peculiarities of the Aranyaka Hukam Chand Patyal 511-538
28 The Concept of Guru and Aranyaka-s Hemant Rajopadhye 539-548
29 A Glimpse on some harmful Rituals through the Aranyak-s P.C. Sahoo 549-560
30 The Vaisravanayajana in Taittiriya Aranyaka (1.31) Jayashree Sathe 561-572
31 Stylistic Study of the Aranyakas Jayanti Tripathy 573-612
32 Paingi Rahasya Brahmana Aranyaka Uma Vaidya 613-628
33 Contributors 629-634
Sample Pages

Symbolism in the Aranyakas and Their Impact on the Upanisads (An Old and Rare Book)
About the Book

India has a very rich tradition of cultural heritage, but most of it being in the garb of symbols is difficult to understand.

The Aranyakas, a class of Vedic Literature, are conspicuous for treating a part or whole of a sacrifice as a representation of some spiritual activity or as a symbol of the Sun. Samvatsara. Purusa or Brahman etc., thereby revolutionising the Brahmanic religion of sacrifice and bringing it back to its age-old right track of metaphysical spiritualism : Purusa evedam sarvam (Rv.X. 90.2) and ethics of duty for duty sake: Yajfiena Yajnamayajanta devah (R.V.I. 164.50; X.90.16).

This revolution infuses a new life into Indian Culture and makes it potent enough to serve for ever as a guiding star for the seeker of Truth.

The present work is primarily concerned in elaborating the process of the above mentioned revolution on scientific, historical and comparative lines. The author will deem herself successful in her attempt if this work succeeds in imparting an understanding of the spirit of the Aranyakas.

• The principal contents of the work are:  A Critical and historical study of symbolism.
• Derivational definition and classification of the AraJ.lyakas.
• A Critical and comparative study of symbols in the Aranyakas.
• Causes of symbolic interpretations of sacrifice in the Aranyakas.
• The impact of the symbolism of the Aranyakas on the upanisads.
• Conclulsion.
• Appendix-A few theories on symbolism. Bibliography.
• General index.

About the Author

Born in 1951, Dr. Usha Grover received her early education in Delhi. Threafter, she obtained her B.A. (Hons.) in 1971, M.A. in 1973, M.Phil. in 1981 and Ph.D. in 1986, all degrees from Delhi University. She has following academic works to her credit:

(i) "Samkara Bhasya on the Taittriya Upanisad (M.Phil. Dissertation unpublisheded.)

(ii) Symbolism in the Aranyakas and their impact on the Upanisads:- (Ph.D. thesis published).

(iii) "Justification of Divinization of the Sun in the Taittiriya Aranyaka", - (A Research Paper published).

(iv) Scope of Dharma-Sastras in the modern times with reference to caste- system:-(A research paper presented in a seminar under print).

(v) "Symbolic and Philosophical significance of Yajnopavita"- (A Research Paper under print).

She was on teaching assignment as a lecturer in Sanskrit in Miranda House College, University of Delhi in 1986.

She was awarded the U.G.C. Research Associateship in January, 1987. Since then she is working on - :Symbolism in the Satapatha Brahmana" .

Subsequently, she plans to undertake another wider project - :Symbolism in the Puranas" in order to explain their actual contribution to Indian culture.


During my early years at the College, when I was studying the history of Sanskrit Literature, I read that a cultural uphea, val of such immense magnitude took place at the time of the Aranyakas as completely changed the outlook of the following generations of Indians.

No deep study touching the inner core of their nature barring a few stray translations and casual studies at the superficial level has been carried out. Thus a deep feeling of curiosity and an acute desire to work upon them got rooted in me right from those days. I was eager to fathom and explore the exact nature of that upheaval, its causes and impact on future Indian life.

As the opportunity of independent research opened itself to me, my long cherished desire woke up once again. I decided to work for my Ph.D. degree on the topic: "A Critical Study of the Symbolism in the Aranyakas and their Impact on the Upanisads," The Research Degree Committee of the Department of Sanskrit, University of Delhi approved of the topic. I have devised my research work into eight chapters the outlines of which are clear from the table of contents.

I feel really proud of having worked under the supervision of Dr. Baldev Raj Sharma, who relishes in tackling the challenging problems, spares no pains in unfolding and interpreting the mystic lore enshrouded in the archaic language, outdated proverbs, unyielding parables, allegories and myths. I express my thankful gratitude for him for his kind guidance.

At this moment I cannot forget my parents who very affectionately infused in me the interest and respect for the cultural heritage of India.

I have a deep sense of respect and gratitude for my in-laws, as their loving and encouraging behaviour has obliged me a lot. I am also very grateful to my husband Mr. Lachhman Dass Grover as his loving and encouraging co-operation helped me in completing this work.

I have a deep' sense of reverence and incalculable obligations for the seers on whose works I studied. I deeply express my thanks for the Bhasyakaras, commentators, translators.

lexicographers, researchers and other scholars whose works equipped me to understand the Aranyakas in order to analyse them and to draw inferences from them.

I cannot forget the prompt help I received from the librarians and staff members of the Central Library of Delhi University. and the Rama Krishna Mission Library, New Delhi.

I am also thankful to Dr. S. K. Sharma who spent his valuable time in editing my book from language point of view. Finally I thank my printer Mr. Arora for his ready cooperation and excellent performance.

I will feel fully compensated if my this publication somehow succeeds in fulfilling the expectations of the readers in the field of the study of the Aranyakas.


About the Book
The entire Vedic Literature has, broadly speaking, four different and distinct stages of development over a period of thousands of years since the very pre-historic times. The Aranyakas or the Forest Texts constitute the third important class of literary work. Despite constituting a land mark and rather a turning point in the remarkably philosophic thought of the, Entire Vedic literature, the Aranyakas have, somehow, attracted a little thought of the Vedic scholars/researchers. Whatever research had been undertaken in this branch of Vedic literature, it has, Invariably, been perfunctory or at the most touched only on in significant aspect of the other wise, rich philosophic contents of the Hermit Texts. A significant feature of this book is that it under takes a comprehensive analysis of the most intricate spiritual mysteries of the universe. Such deep-seated intricacies of philosophy have been extricated from a plethora of ritualistic moss and characteristically archaic language of the texts under study. The Supreme-Being who transcends the duality of subject and object cannot, ipso facto be a field of clear definition and demonstration, but inspite of such Inherent limitations, the author has lucidly deciphered His essential characteristics including His omniscience/omnipresence, identity between the universal and individual souls, permeation of the latter even up to the ends of the hair in the human body etc. Even a cursory glance through the work reveals that these two principal Aranyakas are immensely rich in their metaphysical contents. The author has, rather boldly, brought out some of the then prevailing social superstitions like observing of odd omens, their ill-effects and pseudo-mysticism so much so that even the points of comparison and contrast between the two Aranyakas under study have also been meticulously, but briefly brought out. In short, the book presents a panoramic view of the Aryan culture Including social conceptions in that hoary past.

About the Author
Dr. U.D. DHAWAN (b. 1928), has been an officer of the Punjab Civil Service and retired from that in 1984 as Deputy Secretary to Government of Punjab, Chandigarh (India). Before Joining the service of the State Govern ment, he had acquired the degree of Master of Arts in Economics. He has a vast experience of various civil, revenue, executive and magisterial posts in different districts of undivided State of Punjab (India) and also at the headquarter of the State Govern ment. Despite such onerous adminis trative responsibilities, Dr. Dhawan's deep-seated lure to unravel the mysteries of the Absolute-Being induced him to the formal study of Sanskrit language which is a store house of metaphysical knowledge, Starting, abilities, with the study of this rich language, he passed M.A. In Sanskrit from the Punjab University, Chandigarh In 1977 and acquired the degree of 'Doctor of Philosophy' in Vedic literature from the same Alma Mater In 1981. After attaining these high academic qualifications, Dr Dhawan did not rest on his oars. The present literary work on 'Mysticism and Symbolism in Aitareya and Taittiriya Aranyakas' is the outcome of his post Doctorate academic pursuits. Besides, he has, so far, written as many as fourteen literary articles on Vedic subjects and Valmiki Ramayana. Seven of these have since been published in leading metaphysical Journals emanating from the Internationally known Vishveshvaranand Vedic Research Institute, Hoshiarpur (Punjab, India) and other places In fact, Dr. Dhawan is an ardent follower of Rgvedic verse (Ma-Shramism 8.4.7.) 'that we may never feel tired'. Study of Vedic philosophy is a life-long ambition with Dr. Dhawan and he is devotedly carrying on his research regarding propagation of knowledge of the single Godhead and realisation of the same as organized in Yajur Veda.

The word "Veda" means "the knowledge par excellence", that is, "the sacred, the religious knowledge". It does not mean one single literary work, but a whole great literature, which arose in the course of many centuries and was handed down from generation to generation by a galaxy of enlightened sages through verbal trans mission, till finally it was declared at some prehistoric period to be "devine revelation", on account of the supremely sublime nature of its contents. The belief in the "sacredness" of this literature arose as it were, spontaneously, and was seldom seriously disputed.

This book, by and large, constituted my thesis which culminated in the award of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy to me by the Punjab University, Chandigarh (India) in the year 1981. In fact, the thesis owed its origin and emergence to my revered guide and teacher, Dr. J.D. Vidyälankära, M.A., Ph.D. (London). presently Professor in the Department of Sanskrit, Pali and Prakrit, Maharshi Dayananda University, Rohtak, Haryana. Besides, very perseveringly and affectionately helping me in the prosecution of my studies for M.A. in Sanskrit during the years 1975-77, it was he, who induced me to the study of Vedic literature. It was once again he, who guided my deep-seated lure to unravel the mysteries of the Supernatural that the present voyage into almost unknown and unexplored sea of the ancient Aranyakas or the Hermit texts was undertaken in the first half of the year 1978. With God's grace, my insignificant (but persistent) efforts ultimately fructified in the consummation of this work. During all these three years or so, Dr. Vidyalankara always steered me clear of all the difficulties and very willingly, diligently and ably explained to me even the most intricate metaphysical and mystical intricacies of the Aitareya and Taittiriya Aranyakas which primarily constitute the basic subject-matter of this study. Ipso facto, my mind is overwhelmed with intense emotions in sheer thankfulness and gratitude towards Dr. Vidyalankara.

The Ṛgveda, Yajurveda (both of white and black schools) Samaveda and the Atharvaveda with their various branches consti tute the Vedic-samhitas. The traditional Indian Thought believes the Vedas to be "Apauruşeya" or "Revelation of God", but to the modern Indian mind, they are the outcome of spiritual experiences and inspirations of the great ancient seers who existed during various periods. The Vedas are not the outcome of a single omnis cient mind; but collection of divine inspirations of a galaxy of really merited seers; their heirs and followers over a period of centuries.

Book's Contents and Sample Pages

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