Text Book of Dravyaguna

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Item Code: IDI791
Publisher: Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashan
Author: Dr. K. Nishteswar
Edition: 2015
Pages: 682
Other Details 8.4" X 5.3
Weight 730 gm
Book Description


Dravyaguna is interpreted as clinical pharmacology since the most o the Ayurvedic drugs were initially evaluated only in human beings. Seers of Ayurveda have collected the information regarding the clinical usage of several herbs from cowherds, shepherds, tribals and other forest dwellers and they never felt the necessity of evaluating their activity in animals.

Dravyaguna encompasses the information of all other allied fields of pharmacology like:

Namarupa Vijnanam-Pharmacognosy (the science of identification of drugs).
Gunakarma Vijnanam-Pharmacodynamics (mechanism of drugs action) & Pharmacokinetics (study of absorption, distribution, metabolims and excretion of drugs)
Amayikaprayoga Vijnanam-Therapeutics (branch of medicine concerned with cure of disease or relief of symptoms).
Kalpana Vijnanam-Pharmacy (science of selection, preservation & compounding of drug)

The major object of teaching Dravyaguna to the medical students of Ayurveda is to provide a rational basis for choosing or using drugs skillfully to relieve ailments of the patient population. The modern pharmacology is traditionally associated with the study of drugs in different animals like dogs, monkeys, cats, rabbits, rats etc. Whereas the clinical pharmacology involves the study of various aspects of drug action and metabolism in humans, both in health and disease. The ultimate aim of pharmacological studies in animals is to find out a therapeutic agent suitable for clinical evalutation in man. The animal models (cat, rat etc.) cannot act as an ideal model of human being. The drug has to be carefully evaluated in human being for its safety and efficacy before it is accepted for therapeutic use.

Majority of the drugs that are currently used in modern medicine are synthetic where as the Ayurvedic therapeutics mainly employ plant-based medicines (oudbhija) along with metals & mineral (parthiva) and animal products (jagama drawya). Among the plant products, the important pharmacologically active principles (utkrishta guna-sampanna dravyamsha) are- (a) alkaloids (basic substances containing cyclic nitrogen) (b) glycosides (a combination of sugars with other organic structures) (c) glucosides (glycoside which yields glucose on acid hydrolysis) (d) oils (fixed or volatile) (e) resins (formed by oxidation of volatile) oils which are insoluble in water but soluble in alcohal) (f) gums (dispersible in water) (g) tannins (precipitate proteins from the cells and are non-nitrogenous).

Scientists of modern pharmacy generally argue that plant based medicines should be processed in the medium of alcohal as the majority of active principles (mainly alkaloids) are made available and according to them water extracts of plants are useless as they are devoid of maximum alkaloid content. The review of various bheshaja-kalpanas (pharmaceutical processes), namely kwatha, phanta, hima, taila, ghrita, arishta except asava-kalpana clearly indicates that water was suggested as the medium of extraction. Some of the scholars of Ayurveda following the concept of modern pharmaceutical scientists suggest to prefer kanjikam (contains self generated alcohal) as the medium for extracting the active portion of the drugs. But a careful review of different formulations indicates that kanjikam was not mentioned for majority of formulations. To achieve the maximum therapeutic action it is always preferable to administer the swarasa (fresh juice) or kalka (paste) or churna (powder) of fresh herb or dried herb. The human gut, which is highly sophisticated, and also the selective chemical laboratory can synthesize the required portion o the active principle and makes in available to various bodily organs and tissues. Ayurvedic pharmacology delineates five important principles namely rasa, guna, virya, vipaka and prabhava (Rasapanchaka) which are responsible for any drug action. Many times the terms 'action' and 'effects' of a drug are being used as synonyms. However, it is useful to term the initial consequences of drug-cell interactions as the action (karma) of the drug, the remaining events that follow are called drug effects (phala). In practice, no drug produces only a single effect but has spectrum of effects or actions. Further, a drug may be selective in one respect but non-selective in another. With this view only the most of the Ayurvedic Nighantus attributed a spectrum of actions and therapeutic indications to the majority of drugs. Most of the actions of drugs are attributed to the potent gunas which are given virya status. Most of the action of drugs are attributed to the potent gunas which are given virya status. Ayurvedic classics firmly established the relationship between the various pharmacological actions and the principles of drug action like rasa, vipaka and guna/virya. In my view rasa, which is identified, by nipata (contact with the tongue) and vipaka by nishtha karma (final action) serve as indices of guna at the tongue level and at the stage of biotransformation (alteration of drug within living organism) respectively. After absorption, drugs could undergo three possible fates, namely, that could be metabolized by enzymes (dhatwagni paka), they could change into other substances without intervention of enzymes (it happens in the case of vyavayi drugs) or they could be excreted unchanged and in the case of Samana pratyayarabdha dravyas. In the case of Samana pratyayarabdha dravyas through rasa, it becomes easy to draw the profiles of other principles of drug action and in the case of vichitra pratyayarabdha dravyas the pharmacological principles barring rasa (which is perceivable) are identified by inference basing on pharmacological action/therapeutic (karma & phala). The drugs metabolized by enzymes (vipaka) result in their activation, inactivation or modification. Vipaka alone engenders virya (activated drug energy) and it alone-

(i) activates the gunas like ushna to become ushnatara/ushnatama or
(ii) inactivates the action of gunas like sheeta which is unable to produce vata vriddhi (as in the case of ksheera (milk) (iii) modifies gunas originally attributed to rasa eg. Sheeta virya or madhura rasa becomes ushna virya after vipaka (such drugs are categorized as vichitra pratyayarabdha dravyas).

It is generally observed that most of the Ayurvedic scholars are inclined to interpret virya of a dravya as the active principle. Acharya Priyavrat Sharma has disagreed with this concept and rightly suggested that active principle is the adhisthana of virya, Sushruta alone initiated a debate to discuss the relative importance of all the principles of drug action and finally concluded that dravya is the only prime one among all the principles. If the active principle or active drug molecule (drayva) is attributed with drug action, it can also be safely interpreted that rasa (taste) serves as one of the indices to identify pharmacological behaviour of active principle and vipaka indicates the metabolic process to synthesize the active drug molecules and virya indicates the release of energy from the active drug molecule (active principle).

Drayvaguna in some respects as a bridge between basis medical sciences on one hand and clinical medicine on the other. An attempt is made in this book to give all the relevant details of the entire Dravyaguna subject in accordance with CCIM curriculum and students will get all the necessary information by reading this book. Students should not 'cram' this book to get through the examination successfully but I expect them to learn the basic pharmacology of drugs in common clinical use and their rational application in therapeutics. The CCIM syllabus in the subject of Dravyaguna consists of two papers-first paper contains the fundamental principles of Dravyaguna and second paper deals with the details of 365 herbs and the subject of modern pharmacology in brief. I with to acknowledge the help taken form the works of great scholars of Dravyguna late Acharya Yadavji Trikamji, late Acharya Bapalal Vaidya, late C. Dwarakanath, Acharya Priyavrata Sharma and Achrya K. C. Chunekar, which have rendered important guidelines in the preparation of this hand book. My heartfelt thanks are due to Sri K. Arunee Kumar, Lecturer in Botany, P. R. Govt. College, Kakinada for his ablest guidance in all my academic pursuits. I specially thank Mr. Naveen Gupta, Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashan for taking up the task of publication.


First Paper  
Part - A
Introduction 1
Dravya 5
Vargikarana 9
Guna Vijnana 18
Rasa Vijnana 29
Vipaka 45
Virya 53
Prabhava 68
Part - B
And Paraspari-Ka Sambandha 73
Karma 76
Modern Pharma-Cological Actions 91
Gana 96
Dravya Samgra-Sana And Sam-Rakshana 103
Dravya Shodhana 118
Bhesaja Prayoga Vijnana 123
History Of Dravyaguna 139
Second Paper
Part - A (I)
Vatsanabha 151
Ativisa 152
Guduci 153
Patha 155
Daruharidra 156
Ahiphena 158
Varuna 159
Tuvaraka 160
Nagakesara 161
Sala 162
Bala 163
Nagabala 165
Salmali 167
Goksura 168
Cangeri 170
Nimbuka 171
Bilva 172
Guggulu 173
Tejohva 176
Nimba 177
Jyoismati 179
Karkaasrngi 180
Bhallataka 182
Sigru 184
Palasa 186
Aparajita 188
Madhuyasti 189
Yavasa 191
Salaparni 192
Prsniparni 194
Karanja 195
Latakaranja 197
Kapikacchu 199
Sarapunkha 201
Bakuci 203
Kancanara 205
Asoka 207
Sirisa 209
Aragwadha 211
Khadira 213
Haritaki 215
Vibhitaka 217
Amalaki 219
Lavanga 221
Jambu 222
Dadima 224
Dhataki 226
Indravaruni 227
Kusmanda 229
Mandukaparni 231
Patola 233
Hingu 234
Satapuspa 235
Misreya 236
Dhanyaka 237
Ajamoda 239
Yavani 240
Jiraka 242
Krsnajiraka 244
Manjistha 245
Madanaphala 247
Gandha-Prasarini 249
Jatamamsi 250
Bhrngaraja 252
Puskaramula 253
Kustha 254
Citraka 256
Vidanga 258
Lodhra 259
Saptaparna 260
Kutaja 261
Sarpagandha 263
Karavira 264
Arka 266
Sariva 268
Kupilu 270
Kiratatikta 272
Sankhapuspi 274
Trivrt 275
Kantakari 276
Brhati 278
Aswagandha 279
Dhattura 281
Parasika Yavani 282
Katuki 283
Brahmi 285
Syonaka 287
Patala 289
Vasa 291
Nirgundi 293
Agnimantha 295
Bharngi 297
Gambhari 298
Tulasi 300
Dronapuspi 302
Punarnava 303
Apamarga 305
Marica 306
Pippali 307
Jatiphala 309
Twak 311
Karpura 312
Aguru 313
Candana 314
Eranda 316
Danti 318
Arjuna 320
Udumbara 322
Bhanga 323
Devadaru 325
Talisapatra 327
Haridra 328
Ardraka 330
Ela 332
Rasona 334
Kumari 336
Satavari 338
Vaca 340
Musta 342
Usira 344
Pippalimula 345
Palandu 346
Part - A (II)
Mamira 349
Nirvisa 350
Upakuncika 351
Kandira 352
Cavya 353
Campaka 354
Sitaphala 355
Kasthadaru 356
Patalagarudi 357
Giri Parpata 358
Kamala (Sacred Lotus) 359
Kumuda (Water Lily) 361
Satyanasi 362
Makhanna 363
Parpataka 364
Sarsapa 365
Rajika 366
Candrasura 367
Khubakala 368
Todari 369
Mulaka 370
Tilaparni 371
Himsra 372
Vyaghranakhi 373
Karira 374
Banaphsa 375
Vikankata 376
Punnaga 377
Surapunnaga 378
Tamala 379
Sarja 380
Vrksamla 381
Aswakarna 382
Latakasturi 383
Parisa 384
Khatmi 385
Karpasa 386
Mucakunda 387
Pisaca Karpasa 388
Avartani 389
Parusaka 390
Gangeruki 391
Gudasarkara 392
Dhanwana 393
Atasi 394
Cancu 395
Karmaranga 396
Bijapura 397
Suddava 398
Haramala 399
Amlavetasa 400
Aralu 401
Ingudi 402
Bola 403
Sallaki 404
Kunduru (Sallaki) 405
Mamsarohini 406
Badara 407
Unnava 408
Draksa 409
Asthisam-Haraka 410
Aristaka 411
Kosamra 412
Amra 413
Tintidika 415
Priyala 416
Ankota 417
Rumimastagi 418
Gunja 419
Agastya 420
Jayanti 421
Nili 422
Asmantaka 423
Goraksa 424
Mudgaparni 425
Masaparni 426
Bijaka 427
Simsapa 428
Paribhadra 429
Virataru 430
Amlika 431
Sami 432
Patranga 433
Carkramarda 434
Kasamarda 435
Methika 436
Raktacandana 437
Vidari 438
Caksusya 439
Kulattha 440
Tinisa 441
Irimeda 442
Markandika 443
Avartaki 444
Babbulla 445
Lajjalu 446
Taruni 447
Vatada 448
Padmaka 449
Pasanabheda 450
Parnabija 451
Silhaka 452
Dhava 453
Tilaparna 454
Hijjala 455
Madayantika 456
Srngataka 457
Saptacakra 458
Erandakarkati 459
Trapusa 460
Katutumbi (Iksvaku) 461
Kosataki 462
Jimutaka 463
Dhamargava 464
Bimbi 465
Karavellaka 466
Garjara 467
Coraka 468
Nadihingu 469
Kadamba 470
Haridra 471
Tagara 472
Damanaka 473
Cauhara 474
Sahadevi 475
Mundi 476
Akarakarabha 477
Aranyajiraka 478
Kukundara 479
Jhandu 480
Ayapana 481
Dugdhapheni 482
Chikkika 483
Kasani 484
Rasna 485
Madhuka 486
Bakula 487
Parijata 488
Jati 489
Yuthika 490
Tinduka 491
Pilu 492
Karamarda 493
Jivanti 494
Mesasrngi 495
Murva 496
Kataka 497
Trayamana 498
Slesmataka 499
Gojihwa 500
Adhahpuspi 501
Vrddhadaruka 502
Krsnabija 503
Akhuparni 504
Amaravalli 505
Kakamaci 506
Katuvira 507
Tamraparna 508
Hrtpatri 509
Rohitaka 510
Tila 511
Saireyaka 512
Kokilaksa 513
Kalamegha 514
Utangana 515
Bhandira 516
Priyangu 517
Putiha 518
Jupha 519
Parnayavani 520
Asvagola 521
Goraksagunja 522
Cukrika (Cukra) 523
Pitamuli 524
Iswari 525
Kitamari 526
Sugandha-Vastuka 527
Kankola 528
Patraka (Tejapatra) 529
Medasaka 530
Bandaka 531
Snuhi 532
Kampillaka 533
Putrajivaka 534
Bhumyama-Laki 535
Swarnaksiri 536
Kankustha 537
Jayapala 538
Nagadanti 539
Vata 540
Aswattha 541
Plaksa 542
Tuda 543
Kakodumbara 544
Cirabilwa 545
Panasa 546
Aksota 547
Kaphala 548
Mayaphala 549
Bhurjapatra 550
Soma 551
Sarala 552
Hapusa 553
Sati 554
Tavaksira 555
Amragandhi Haridra 556
Nagadamani 557
Mahabhari Vaca 558
Kebuka 559
Kadali 560
Ananasa 561
Sudarsana 562
Kunkuma 563
Talamuli 564
Varahikanda 565
Vanapalandu 566
Dwipantara Vaca 567
Usava 568
Langali 569
Suranjana 570
Musali 571
Narikela 572
Puga 573
Tala 574
Kharjura 575
Raktaniryasa 576
Ketaki 577
Surana 578
Manakanda 579
Kumbhika 580
Kaseruka 581
Vamsa 582
Kusa 583
Sara 584
Kasa 585
Nala 586
Durva 587
Rohisa 588
Hamsaraja 589
Mayurasikha 590
Saileya 591
Saivala 592
Chatraka 593
Sanapuspi 594
Suci 595
Dugdhika 596
Part - B (I)
Angarasa 599
Agnijara 600
Kasturi 601
Gorocana 602
Pravala 603
Puti (Khattasi) 604
Mukta 605
Sankha 606
Sambuka 607
Sukti 608
Varatika 609
Mrgasrnga (Stag's Horn) 610
Part - B (II)
Iksu Varga 611
Dugdha Varga 613
Mutra Varga 615
Taila Varga 616
Madya Varga 617
Madhu Varga 619
Vari Varga 621
Mamsa Varga 623
Sukadhanya Varga 624
Simbidhanya Varga 625
Lavana Varga 627
Aharopayogi Varga 628
Part - B (III)
Guduci 629
Manjistha 632
Kutaja 634
Dhattura 636
Vasa 639
Pippali 641
Arjuna 643
Sariba 644
Aswagandha 645
Satavari 647
Part - B (IV)
Modern Pharmacology 649
Index of Latin Names of Dravyas 660

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