The Book of Sanskrit: Being and Elementary Treatise on Grammar with Exercise (Set of 2 Volumes)
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The Book of Sanskrit: Being and Elementary Treatise on Grammar with Exercise (Set of 2 Volumes)

Item Code: NAL515
Author: Sir Ramkrishna Gopal Bhandarkar
Publisher: Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office
Language: Sanskrit and English
Edition: 2011
ISBN: VolI: 978817080048x
Pages: 733
Cover: Paperback
Other Details 7.0 inch X 5.0 inch
Weight 490 gm


The study of Sanskrit has but recently risen in the estimation of the educated natives of this presidency and of our educational authorities. The old Sanskrit college of Poona owed its existence and continuance rather to a spirit of conciliation and toleration in our rulers than to their conviction of the utility of Sanskrit as a branch of general education. The modern critical and progressive spirit was not brought to bear upon it. The old Sastris were allowed to carry all things in their own way. After about thirty years since its establishment the authorities began to exercise active interference until at length the college was abolished and a new system inaugurated, which to be complete and effective, enquires, in my humble opinion, a partial restoration f the old institution.

This newly awakened and more enlightened zeal in favour of Sanskrit cannot last, or produce extensive results, unless books are prepared to facilitate the general study of that language. I have heard students complain that they find Sanskrit more difficult than Latin, and many have actually left the study of their own classical tongue for that of its foreign rival. I do not know if this complain has a foundation in the structure of the two languages; but this, at least, I am sure of that Sanskrit would be considerably more easy than it is, if there were men educated in our English Colleges to teach it, and if books specially adapted for beginners were available. It was with the view of supplying in some measure, this latter desideratum that this little book was prepared about a year and a half ago.



  VERBS- Present tense  
I Singular Terminations 4
II Plural Terminations 6
III Dual Terminations 8
IV On the Present Tense generally 9
  General Result and Examination 11
V Nominative Case 14
VI Accusative Case 18
VII Instrumental Case 22
VIII Dative and ablative Cases 25
IX Genitive, locative and Vocative Cases 30
  General Results and Examination 34
  VERBS- Present Tense  
X Singular Number 37
XI Dual and plural Numbers 40
XII Passive and Impersonal Forms 43
  General Results and Examination 46
XIII Nominative and Accusative Cases 47
XIV Instrumental, Dative and Ablative Cases 50
XV Genitive, Locative and Vocative Cases 54
  General Results and Examination 58
  VERBS-Imperfect or First Preterite  
XVI Parasmaipada, Singular and Dual Numbers 59
XVII Paramaipada, Plural Number and Atmanepada, singular Number 61
XVIII Atmanepada, Dual and Plural Numbers 64
  General Result and examination 68
  NOUNS ending in other vowels, masculine, neuter and feminine  
XIX The first four cases of nouns ending in Masc and neut 68
XX The last four cases 74
  Examination 78
XXI Feminine nouns ending in I, U, UU, and RI 79
  Examination 85
  VERBS- Imperative Mood  
XXII Parasmaipada 85
XXIII Atmanepada 88
XXIV Some of the more important verbal derivatives 90
  Examination 95
  NOUNSEnding in Consonants  
  Examination 103
  Examination 111
XXVII S, VAS and IAS or AAS 111
  Examination 118
XXVIII Verbs- potential Mood 119
  Examination 124
XXIX Demonstrative, Relative and Interrogative 125
  Examination 131
XXX Of the 1st and 2nd Persons 132
XXXI ADS and IDM 136
  Examination 142
XXXII Selection, Poetical and Prose 142
  Appendix 147
  Glossary, Sanskrit and English 155
  Glossary, English and Sanskrit 191



This Second Book of Sanskrit has been prepared under instructions from Sir A. Grant, Director of Public Instruction. Its plan is nearly the same as that of the First Book, which the student is supposed to have read and mastered. Each lesson consists of four parts: - 1st Grammar: 2nd Sanskrit sentences for translation into English: 3rd English sentences for translation into Sanskrit – both intended to exercise the student in the rules of Grammar given at the top of the Lesson; and 4th a vocabulary.

This and First Book together contains as much Grammar as is needed for all practical purposes, perhaps more. I have adopted the terminology of the English terminology of the English Grammarians of Sanskrit but have strictly followed Panini, as explained by bhattoji Diksita in his siddhantakaumudi. Most of the rules are mere translations of the sutras. Besides the terms, guna, Vrddhi, and a few other, which have been adopted from Native Grammarians by nearly all European writers on the subject, I have found it necessary to appropriate two more viz, Set and anit. The prejudice against mere Native terms, in deference to which professor benfey seems in his smaller Grammar to have discarded even the words guna and Vrddhi, without substituting any other, is, in my humble opinion, very unreasonable, when it is difficult to frame new words to designate the things which they signify. It is very inconvenient to have to describe the same thing again and again whenever on has occasion to speak of its. It will at the same time be somewhat difficult for the learner to make out, when a thing is so described in a variety of cases, that it is the same. Words adapted to express a particular meaning are as necessary here as in other affairs of human life. What are amount of inconvenience would it, for instance entail, if whenever we had to speak of the human race, we were instead of being allowed to use the world man must not elevate an ordinary truism to the rank of a newly discovered truth.

The general rules of grammar, and such exceptions as are important, have been given in this book, those of the least render a book liable to the charge of inaccuracy. But it is unavoidable in an elementary work, and after all it will produce little or no practical inconvenience.

There is one point in Sanskrit Grammar, in my explanation of which I have departed from ordinary usage, though I think I do agree with Panini and his commentators. It is the sense to be attached to the so-called Aorist.



  Preface v
Lesson I Irregularities belonging to the 1st, 4th, 6th and 10th Conjugations 1
Lesson II Fifth and eighth Conjugations Present Tense 13
Lesson III Imperfect Tense 20
Lesson IV Imperative and Potential 24
Lesson V Ninth Conjugation- Present and Imperative 29
Lesson VI Imperfect and Potential 36
Lesson VII Second Conjugation- Present and Imperative 39
Lesson VIII Imperfect and Potential 50
Lesson IX Second Conjugation (continued) Present and Imperative 56
Lesson X Imperfect and Potential 67
Lesson XI Third Conjugation 71
Lesson XII Seventh Conjugation 81
Lesson XIII Perfect 88
Lesson XIV Perfect (continued) 99
Lesson XV Part-I First and Second Futures and Conditional 110
  Part II- Passive Forms 117
Lesson XVI Declensional Irregularities 121
Lesson XVII Numerals 138
Lesson XVIII Comparative and Superlative Degrees of Adjective 147
Lesson XIX Compounds- Dvandva and Tatpurusa 155
Lesson XX Bahuvrihi and Avyayibhava 164
Lesson XXI Causals 172
Lesson XXII Aorist- First, Second and Third Varities 178
Lesson XXIII Sixth and seventh Varities 189
Lesson XXIV Part I- Fourth and Fifth Varities 194
  Part II- Benedictive Mood 206
Lesson XXV Desideratives 208
Lesson XXVI Verbal Derivatives- Past, Perfect, Future and Potential Participles 215
  Glossary, Sanskrit into English 237
  Glossary, English into Sanskrit 246


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