Embryology in Ayurveda (Textual Concepts with Recent Advances)

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Item Code: NAD181
Publisher: Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office
Author: Prof. D.G.Thatte & Dr. Bhuvesh Gupta
Edition: 2011
ISBN: 9788170803584
Pages: 320 (54 Color Illustrations)
Cover: Paperback
Other Details 8.9 inch X 5.6 inch
Weight 650 gm
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Book Description
Back of the Book

The present book is the most exploring book on the human anatomy from ayurvedic point of view while correlating the same with the modern knowledge acquired over the period of time. The book is one of the most delightful treats for an inquisitive mind wishing to understand the anatomy of the human body with the deep rooted knowledge as described of the human body with the deep rooted knowledge as described in Ayurvedic texts by great scholars of all times including sushurta Samhita Charak Samhita, Ashtang Hridya and others. This book is an earnest attempt to explore the knowledge to its deepest origin based on the principle of “believe in what you see” or in other words how Ayurvedic Scientists look into the body, what they conceived, Perceived and observed. The author has critically taken note of all the descriptions and after correlating the same with his own experienced acquired over five decades of his association with Ayurveda and has tried to present the most impartial and acceptable view regarding the mysteries of human body.

The whole book has been prepared on the basis of different disciplines of human anatomy such as Garbh Sharir, Sira, Sira Dhammi Sharir. Srotas Sharir, Asthi Shrir, Marma Sharir, Peshi Shrir, Indriya Sharir, Tantrika Sharir, etc. This chapterwise description is again important for graduate and postgraduate level scholars of Ayurveda. From the examination point of view the book covers the syllabus approved by the Central Council of Indian Medicine , Delhi and a number of other Universities and Colleges imparting the education in the faculty of Ayurveda.

Attempt has been made to provide a systematic stream of knowledge which may be able to develop scientific intent in the minds of the readers.

The author feels that with the changing global scenario and transformation of the world into ‘global village’, it becomes imperative to come up with an authorartive text on Ayurveda, which may be able to provide opportunity to those coming from non-Hindi speaking regions of India as well as from abroad.

Understanding of human anatomy is the very basis for initiating as study into any healthcare system. Ayurveda is no exception. However there has been an earnest requirement for providing a good Ayurvedic text book on human Anatomy with pictorial presentation. The present book fills the void.



The creator of ‘Loka’ God Brahma created first of all ayurveda followed by other creations,’ and then passed on the knowledge to various Gods, which was then transferred to mortals. Thus ãyurveda descended from its celestial to terrestrial stage for benefit of humanity. Every sentient has intrinsic desire not only to live long healthy life but also to have good progoney possessing best qualities. The man ever since knew the method to communicate or dessiminate knowledge started transcripting it with the available tools for the benefit of next generation. First written record i.e. Vedas have described various aspects pertaining to health and diseae, including procreation most important for continuation of races. Healthy plant comes with healthy seed, soil, season water so is the human being. The health is cyclic i.e. healthy seed —> healthy embryo/foetus —> healthy child —>healthy adult —> healthy old age, in other words the knowledge of basics i.e. seed and embryo is imperative for healthy society. In vedic literature ãyurveda is maximum in magico religious form and references pertaining to seed and embryo etc. are scattered almost in entire texts. To provide nourishment to the foetus ausadhi (drugs), SinIvãli, Saraswat, Indra, Varuna and Mwinis etc. are worshipped’. Nourishment of the foetus through nãbhi nãdi (umbilical cord) considered as poaka, prãnadhraka and nourisher to sustain life is seen2. The ulva (vernix caseosa) offers protection to the foetus and jarãyu (chorion and amnion) gives a shining appearance or adorns it3. Though similar description about various aspects of embryo/foetus are referred in Vedas and Kalpa sütras etc. yet systemic or month wise growth and development of foetus is lacking but for Garbhopanisad. The statments, that fertilized egg becomes budbuda (blastocyst) in seven and pinda (collapsing stage of blastocyst) in fifteen days; and development of prhavatha in fifth month (spinal cord - the abnormalities like Spinabifidã etc. can not be diagnosed unequivocally before this period) are appreciable4 Ayurvedic classics present different subjects of Ayurveda in most systemetized way, them under eight specialized branches, wherein entire subject of obstetrics, gynaecology, and paediatrics is described under the heading of Kaumarabhrtya. Tremendous advances witnessed in twentieth century have changed the face of scientific world, medical field being no exception. Though ãyurvedic classics have described various subjects in great details, yet, their explanations in modern terminology are necessiated by inquisitive attitude of present day students more so foriegn students. Arena of subjects has widened creating new vistas of specialities. Embryology a part of obstetric/anatomy in past is now becomming speciality, which is having a drastic change due to recent under-standing of genetics. In tune with the demand of teachers and taught alike, Prof. D. G. Thatte a prolific writer, good administrator, conscientious academician, above all inquisitive devoted scholar wrote a book on Human embryology (Manava bhrüiia vijñana), probably the first book on the subject thirtyseven years back, which remained a landmark in the subject till today. Though in ãyurvedic classics bija, bija-bhaga and bijabhagavayava terms denoting respectively ovum/sperm, chromosome and gene are described, yet need scientific understanding in light of present day’s advances. To accomplish this goal Prof. Thatte has written this new book entitled ‘Embryology in Ayurveda’, incorporating concepts mentioned in ayurvedic classics, recapitulating textual references vis-a-vis their explanation with latest know-ledge as-well-as illustrations. I am sure that modern embryologist and ãyurvedists both will be highly benefited with this book. Rather it would be a boon to them and a milestone in the field of embryology. I pray goddess Saraswati to bestow upon Prof. D. G. Thatte vision, wisdom, will-power, energy and health with good longevity to serve her for many more years to come.

About the Authors


Prof. D.G.Thatte

Prof. D.G.Thatte, Founder/Director of All India Sharir Research Institute has tremendous experience in the field of Ayurveda teaching, research and writing books. Prof. Thatte is one of the luminaries of Ayurveda. Born in a Maharashthan family with an academic intent, Prof. Thatte from the very beginning was interested in Ayurveda and1 Indian Medicine. Prof. Thatte opted for teaching carrier putting aside all the lucrative offers. During his illustrious carrier as a teacher and administrator Prof. Thatte has been honoured with over dozens of Awards and Fellowships including Dr. Birbal Sahani Scientific Award, State Award, Ayurveda Siromani Award, Ratna Sadsya- fellow of National AyurvedaAcademy, New Delhi, Life Time Achievement Award, National Integrated Association, Aligarah, Ayurveda Martand from Pune. Prof. Thatte has also been honoured by the title of “Icon in Ayurveda” by Prof. A.P.J: Kalam Ex. President of India, at Ayurvedic College, Khurja. Recently in March 2011, he was honoured by faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Lifting the lamp till mid night, even after attaining the age of octogenarian, he is still working hard for developing All India Sharir Research Institute, Lucknow as Center of Exellence in Sharir. Need not say Prof. Thatte is “Monk of Ayurveda”.

Dr. Bhuvesh Gupta

Dr.Bhuvesh Gupta is one of the versatile scholar of Sharir Rachana. He obtained his bachelor’s degree and post graduate degree in Ayurveda from Lucknow University, Lucknow in the year 2008. After obtaining M.D. degree in Sharir Rachana he was appointed as Lecturer in Sharir Rachana Department in Sri Sai Ayurvedic Medical College, Aligarah, (U.P.). His scholarly performance got him selected by Union Public Service Commission, New Dethi for the coveted post of Medical officer in Central Government Health Scheme (C.G.H.S.), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India. Presently he is working as Incharge Ayurvedic unit Lucknow in C.G.H.S.He has presented many valuable research papers in Sharir in different scientific seminars and workshops organised by Ayurvedic Institutions of the country, which have been published in national journals of Ayurveda. His academic taste is still alive which keeps him inspired kwcreative contributions in Ayurveda. Dr. Gupta’s continued aociation with Prof. Thatte is the outcome of the present aribution i.e. Embryology in Ayurveda. Many more contributions are awaited from him.


Authors of this book ‘Embryology in Ayurveda’ have great sense of satisfaction in finallydocumenting ‘the script. Long back in 1975 Prof. Thätte chooscd. to write a second book of his carrier titled ‘Manav Bhruna Vigyan’. He was inspired for this job by Late Prof. Raghuveer Prasad Trivedi of Hathrasa. The proposal was supported by Late Dr. Mukundi Lal Dwivedi, Ex. Director of Ayurveda U.P. and Vice Chancelor, Gujrat Ayurveda University, Jamnagar. The book was written in Hindi language and was published by Ayurveda & Tibbi Academy, Govt. of U.P. After gaining more than fifty years of experience in teaching the subject of embryology to Ayurvedic scholars, Prof. Thatte felt that there are many gaps in the presentation of embryology while teaching Bhruna Vigyan in present scenario of developed medical science. Prof. Thatte picked up one of his most talented and devoted disciple Dr. Bhuvesh Gupta (M.D. Ay.), presently *orking as Medical Officer, Incharge Ayurvedic Unit, C, GH.S. Lucknow. Though Dr. Bhuvesh Gupta r sat as a class room disciple of Prof. Thatte, but actually got lessons of Sharir at higher level from iflf. Suresh Chandra presently working as incipal, Govt. Ayurveda College, Bareily who himself is a disciple of Prof. Thatte. Therefore Prof. Thatte feels obliged to Prof. Suresh Chandra for inspiring Dr. Gupta’s to associate with Prof. Thatte in the development of All India Sharir Research Institute, Lucknow. Dr. Bhuvesh Gupta’s association with Prof. Thatte proved beneficial for advancing and keeping pace with latest and current researches in the subject of embryology. It is only wish of the God Balaji Tirupati which made scientific zygote of Prof. Thatte and Dr. Gupta which prepared this most valuable gift to the Ayurvedic world. Both the authors while writing this acknowledgement feels oblidged to their mentors and parents for their moral support. Both the Authors are also grateful to their life partners Dr. (Mrs.) Vimleshwari and Dr.(Mrs.) Anshuma Gupta (M.S. Shalya) for their continued moral support while documenting this book. Authors also wish to acknowledge pains and sincerity of M/s Anurag Photostat for giving this book a model shape. It is expected that Ayurvedie research and educational Institutes will make good use of this book for rehabilitating the authencity of Ayurvedic versions concerning embryology.



S.NO Title Page No
  (a)Prakriti, Vikriti and Purusha 5
  (b)Similarities and Dissimilarities of Prakriti And Purusha 13
  (c)Srishti Utapatti (development of universe) 14
  (a)Garbha 20
  (b)Garbhavakranti 24
  (c)Role of Vayu and KQrma Swabhava 32
  (d)Formation of Manushya Beeja (Human Genome) 36
  (a)Role of MatrU Bhava 42
  (b)Role of Pitrzj Bhava 43
  (c)Role of Atmaj Bhava 43
  (d)Role of Satmyaj Bhava 46
  (e)Role of Rasaj Bhava 47
  (f)Role of Satvaj Bhava 48
  (a)Ritu 51
  (b)Kshetra 54
  (c) Ambu 56
  (d)Beej 57
  (e) Criteria of Shuddha Shukra (Ideal semen and sperm) 62
  (f)Anatomy of Shukra (Sperm) 63
  (g)Anatomy of Vikrit Shukranu (Abnormal sperm) 64
  (h)Criteria for Ashuddha Shukra (Unhealthy or impure semen) 64
  (i)Criteria of Shuddha Artava (Healthy menstrual blood) 66
  (j)Anatomy of Shonit or Dimb (ovum) - Antah Pushpa 67
  (j)Criteria of Ashuddha Artava (Unhealthy menstrual blood) 68
  (a)Akashiya components 76
  (b)Vayaviya components 76
  (c)Agneya components 77
  (d)Jaliya components 78
  (e)Parthiv components 78
  (f)General aspects of development 81
  (g)Growth processes in reference to Mahabhuta and Tridosh 83
  (h)Garbh Poshana (Nutrition of the embryo) 85
  (i)Special Role of Tridosha and Panhrnahabhuta 86
  (j)Antra (gut) 87
  (j)Ashaya (hollow viscera) 88
  (k)Jihva (tongue) 88
  (l)Srotas (tubular structures) and Peshi (muscle) 88
  (m)Twacha (skin) 89
  (n)Kala (membrane) 89
  (o)Netra & Netra Varma 90
  (p)Twacha Varna (skin colour) 93
  (q)Vrikka (two kidneys) 94
  (r)Vrishan (testes) 94
  (s)Hridaya (heart) 94
  (t)Yakrit (liver), Phuphus (lung) and Unduk (caecum) 94
  (a) Preferred Sex of Child 100
  (b) Foetal sex determination 104
  (a)Masanumasik garbha vriddhi 108
  (b)First month- Kalalavastha 109
  (c)Gastrulation 113
  (d)Endodermal layer 113
  (e)Mesodermal layer 113
  (f)Ectodermal layer 114
  (g)Week wise development of Kalal in first month 114
  (h)Early embryonic stages of development 115
  (i)Implantation 116
  (j)Ectopic implantation 117
  (k)Extraembryonic Supporting and nourishing structures 118
  (l)Ulva (amnion) 118
  (m)Garbhodak (amniotic fluid) 118
  (n)Peetak kosha (yolk sac) 119
  (o)Nabhi nadi (umbilical cord) 120
  (p)Anomalies of Nabhi nadi (umbilical cord) 120
  (q)Apara (placenta) formation 121
  (r)Shape of the Apara (placenta) 124
  (s)Matraj apara (maternal placenta) 124
  (t)Garbhaj apara (foetal placenta) 124
  (u)Functions of the apara (placenta) 125
  (v)Apara Vikriti 125
  (w)Jarayu 126
  (x)Jarayu Dosha (Chorionic Anomalies) 128
  (y)Apara poshika (Allantois) 128
  (z)Garbha Rasa Samvahan (Foetal Circulation) 129
  (aa)Garbh Matrtz Paratanrata (Embryonic dependence on mother) 135
  (ab)General factors for foetal growth, differentiation and specjaljsat ion 137
  (ac)Second month - Ghanavastha 139
  (ad)Third month - Panch Pindikavastha 143
  (ae)Fourth month – Douhrjdavastha (vyaktangavastha) 149
  (af)Fifth month - Mana Prabuddhavastha 153
  (ag)Sixth month- Prabuddhavastha and Snayu, Sira, Romadi Vyaktavastha 157
  (ah)Seventh month - Sarvang Praryang Vyaktavastha 159
  (ai)Eighth month- Oja Sancharanavastha 160
  (aj)Ninth and tenth month – Prasavavastha. 163
  (a) Concept of Beej, Babhaga and Babhagavayav (Chromosomes and Genes) 170
  (b)Components of Deha Parmanu 176
  (c)What is gene.. 177
  (d)Mutatioh 178
  (e)Theory of Atulya Gotra and Tulya Gotra (Sam gotra) 180
  (a)Etiological factors of Garbhaj Vilcriti (Congenital defects) 185
  (b)Foetal anomalies’ 190
  (c)Yamal Garbha 196
  (d)Sushruta’s Observations regarding development of Perverted Sex 199
  (e)Anasthi Garbh (Boneless Embryo) 202
  (f)Ashta Nindaniya Purush (Eight undesired & unnatural body constitutions) 203
  (g)Jati Smar 207
  (a)Anomalies of Annavaha Srotas 216
  – Jihva (Tongue) 216
  – Anna Nalika (Oesophagus) 216
  (b)Amashava (Stomach) 216
  -Right sided Amashaya (Stomach).. 216
  -Jathar Nirgam Alcunchan (Pyloric Stenosis) 217
  (c)NabhigatAflfr Vriddhj (Umbilical Hernia) 217
  (d) Meckel’s diverticulum 217
  (e)Duodenum 217
  (f)Antra Puchha or Krimyashaya (wormiform appendix) 217
  (g)Anomalous Positjon of Antra Puchha 218
  (h)Abnormal Guda (Anus) 219
  -Adhidril guda (imperforate anus) 219
  -Bhagandar (Anal fistuIa) 219
  (i)Abnormal Kloma (Gall Bladder) 219
  (j)Abnormal Agnyashaya (Pancreas) 220
  (k)Abnormalities of Unduk (Caecum) 220
  (a)Development of Nasa and Para Nasa Vivar (Nose and Paranasal Sinuses) 223
  (b)Development of Swar Yantra (Laxynx), Shwas Pranali (Trachea) and Phuphs (Lungs) 223
  (c)Development of Hridaya (Heart) 224
  (d)Development of SA Node and Chetna in heart 225
  (e)Develpment of Hardiki Dhamanj (Coronary arteries) 226
  (f)Development of Dhamanj (Arteries) 226
  (g)Development of Lasika Tantra (Lymphatic system) 226
  (h)Anomalies of Pranvaha and Rasavaha Srotas 227
  (i)Anomalies of Phuphg (Lung) 227
  (j)Shwas Pranali (Trachea) 227
  (k)Transposition of Koshthanga (Viscera) 228
  (l)Defects of Hridaya Kapat (Valvular defects) 228
  (m)Defects of Maha Dhamani Chap (Arch of AOrta) 229
  (a)Development of Mastishka (Brain) and Sushumna (Spinal Cord) 232
  (b)Development of Panch Gyanendriya (Peripheral Sensory organs) 234
  (c)Development of Chakshu Indriyadhishthan (Eyes) 235
  (d)Development of Karnendriyadhishthan (Ear) 236
  (e)Development of Ghranendriyadhishthan. (Nose) 237
  (f)Development of Rasnendriyadhishthan (Tongue) 237
  (g)Development of Sprashnendriyadhishthan or Twak (Skin) 238
  (h)Anomalies of Tantrika Tantra 239
  -Jala Shirsha (Hydrocephalus) 239
  -Sushumna Anta Vibhajan (Spina Bifida) 240
  -Sheersh Heenta (Anencephaly) 240
  -Mastishkavaran Vriddhi (Meniñgocele): 240
  -Laghu Sheersha (Microcephalus) 240
  (i)Developmental Anomalies of Jihva (Tongue) 241
  -Guru Jihva (Macroglossia) 241
  -Laghu Jihva (Microglossia) 241
  -Sarpil Jihva (Bifid or Trifid Tongue) 241
  (j)Developmental Anomalies of Nasika (Nose) 241
  (k)Developmetal Anomalies of the Netra (Eye) 241
  (l)Developmental Anomalies of Twacha (Skin) 242
  (m)Developmental Anomalies of Karna (Ear) 242
  (n)Development of Karmendriya 243
  (o)Development of Hasta (Upper Limb) and Pada (Lower limb) 243
  (p)Anomalies of Upper and Lower limbs 244
  -Bhujaheen (amelus) 244
  -Ardhabhujak (Hemimelus) 244
  -Urdhwqbhujaheen (Phocomelus) 244
  -Sanyukta Sakthi (Sympodia) 244
  -Vidar or Nakhar Panja (Lobster’s claw) 244
  -Bahu Anguliya (Polydactyly) 244
  -Sanyukta Anguliya (Syndactyly) 244
  -Sukshmanguli (Brachydactyly) 245
  -Mudgar Pad (Talipes equinovorus) 245
  Development of Vrishan (Testes)  
  Development of Beef Granthi (Ovary)  
  Development of Artavavaha Srotas (Organs female reproductive systems)  
  -Poorva Madhya Vrikka Vahini (Paramesonephric duct / Mullerian duct)  
  -Bartholin Granthi  
  Development of Shukravaha Srotas (Male Reproductive Organs)  
  -Ashthila Granthi or Pourush grant hi (Prostate gland)  
  -Kand Mutrapath granthi (Bulbo-.urethral glands or Glands of Cowper)  
  -Shukra Prapika (Seminal vesicles)  
  Development of Bahya Purush Janananga (Male genital organs)  
  Development of Janan Gulika (Genital tubercie) and Medhra or Shephas (Phallus or Penis)  
  Anomalies of Artavavaha Srotas (Female reproductive organs)  
  Anomalies of Shukravaha Srotas (Male reproductive organs)  
  -Anavtarita Vrishana (Undscended testes)  
  -Ectopia Testes  
  -Inversion of testes  
  (a)Development of Poorva Vrikka (Pronephros) 255
  (b)Development of Madhya Vrikka (Mesonephros) 255
  (c)Development of Sthayee Vrikka (Metanephros or permanent kidney) 256
  (d)Vrikkavarohan (Ascent of kidney) 257
  (e)Development of Mutrashaya (Urinary bladder) 257
  (f)Development of Mutra Praseka (Male urethra) 258
  (g)Development of Stree Mutra Marga or Prasek (Female urethra) 258
  (h)Anomalies of Mutravaha Srotas 258
  - Vrikka Heenata (Renal agensis) 258
  -Shronigat Vrikka (Pelvic Kidney) 258
  -Fused Kidney 258
  -Polycystic Kidney 258
  -Hydronepheric kidney 258
  (i)Anomalies of Gavini (Ureter) 259
  -Dwi Gonika (Double Ureteric Pelvis) 259
  -Dwibhajit Gavini (Bifid Ureter) 259
  -Bahir Gavini Chhidra (Ectopic ureteric orifice) 259
  -Pascha Mahasira Gavini (Retrocaval Ureter) 259
  (j)Development of Purishavaha Srotas 259
  (a)Development of Yakrit (Liver) 261
  (b)Development of Agnyashaya (Pancreas) 262
  (c)Development of Pleeha (Spleen) 263
  (d)Development ófRakta and Rakta Vahini (Blood and blood vessels) 263
  Definition Of Asthi Prasu (Osteoblast), Asthi Koshika (Osteocyte) and Asthi Sushir (Osteoclast) 271
  Development of Dant (Teeth) 272
  -Dugdha Dant (Deciduous teeth)  
  -Sthayee Darn’ (Permanent teeth)  
  Anomalies of Asthivaha Srotas 273
  -Non union of vertebral arches  
  -Greeva Parshuka (Cervical rib)  
  -Urosthi Chhidra (Sternal foramen)  
  Development of Majjavaha Sroto.s 274
  Development of Medovaha Srotas 274
  Development of Talu (Palate) 277
  -Kathin Talu (Hard Palate)  
  -Mridu Talu (Soft Palate)  
  Development of Klo.ma (pharynx) 277
  Anomalies of Udakvaha Srotas Viehhedit talu-oshth (cleft palate and lip) 278
  Development of Varna of Twacha (Skin Color) 280
  Twak Vasa Granthi (Sebaceous gland) 282
  Sweda Granthi (Sweat glands) 282
  Development of Stanyashaya (Mammary gland) 283
  Development of Nakh (Nails) 283
  Development of Kesh and Lorna (Hair) 283
  Anomalies of Swedavaha Srotas 284
  Anomalies of Stanyashaya 284
  Index (Shabdanukramanika) 287
List of Colour Plates
Plate No Contents Beetween Page No
  Chapter 3  
3.1 Derivatives of Matrji bhava 41-42
3.2 Derivatives of Pitrij Bhava 42-43
  Chapter 4  
4.1 Diagram Showing Ritu, Kshetra, Ambu and Beej 50-51
4.2 Prakriti Formation (ShuKra Shonita Sanyoga Prakriya) 58-59
4.3 Structure of Shukranu (sperm) 62-63
4.4 Diagram showing Vikrit Shukranu (abnormal sperm) 63-64
4.5 Diagram showing Primary Antah Pushpa (primary ooeyte) 66-67
7.1 Shukra Shonit Samyoga (zygote formation) 109-110
7.2 A. Primary Budbudavastha, B.Development of Hridaya, C. Communication of extra embryonic and intra embryonic membrane D. Apara koshika-atlanto enteric diverticulum . E. Shir (head) and Puchha (caudal end) of Garbh. F. Development of Nabhi Nadi (multiplicat 114-115
7.3 Prishtha Bhag of Eighteen days embryo 114-115
7.4 Role of Vayu in Vibhajan 115-116
7.5 Kalalavastha and Budbudavastha 115-116
7. 6 Extraembryonic supporting and nourishing Structures 117-118
7.7 Garbhaj Apara (foetal placenta) and Matraj Apara (maternal placenta) 123-124
7. 8 Types of Sammukhi Apara (placenta previa) 125-126
7.9 Drava sphotika (hydatidiform mole) 127-128
7.10 Garbhastha Rakta Samvahan 133-134
7.11 Development of Garbh and Developing Apara (placenta) the end of 8th week 141-142
7.12 Diagram showing Nine weeks foetus 146-147
7.13 Diagram showing Twelve week foetus 147-148
7.14 Eighteen week foetus with Apara and Nabhi Nadi 153-154
7.15 Diagram showing 23 week foetus 157-158
7.16 Seventh month foetus with Nabhi Nadi 159-160
  Chapter 8  
8.1 Bijabhaga and Bijabhagavayav (Chromosomes and Genes) 169-170
8.2 Koshika (cell), D.N.A. and Bijabhaga (pair of chromosomes) 177-178
  Chapter 9  
9.1 A. Kooshmand (Amorphous foetus) 192-193
  B. Soochi Mukhi (microstomas)  
9.2 Yamal Garbh, Ek Dimbi Yamal and Dwi Dimbi Yamal 195-196
9.3 A. Dwi Sharir Ek Shir Rakshasa 197-198
  B. Ek Sharir, Dwi Shir Rakshasa  
9.4 A. Sanyukta Shir (craniopagus) 197-198
  B. Uraha Sanyogi (thoracopagus)  
9.5 A. Sanyukta Uraha Patraka (xiphopagus) 197-198
  B. Sanyukta Nabhika (omphalosite)  
9. 6 A. Shiro- vaksha Sanyukta Rakshasa 197-198
  B. Parashrayi Rakshasa  
  Chapter 11  
  Development of Poorva Antra, Madhya Antra and Pascha Antra (hind gut) 213-214
  Chapter 13  
13.1 A. Diagram showing right side of the developing Mastishka (brain) 231-232
  B. Diagram showing developing Mastishka (brain) at 10-11 mm embryonic length  
13.2 A. Diagram showing developing: MastLhka (brain) 13-14 mm embryonic length 232-233
  B. Diagram showing Garbh Shir (head> in 6th week  
13.3 Development of Chakshu Indriya (eye) in different stages 235-236
13.4 Development of Karnendriya Adhishthan 235-236
13.5 Jala Shirsha (hydrocephalus) 238-239
13.6 Sheershaheenta (anencephaly) 239-240
13.7 Janm Jat Nabhi Bahisaran (Omphalocele) 239-240.
13.8 A. Mastishkavaran Avam Sushumna Rajju Bahi Saran 239-240
  B. Menigohydroencephalocele  
13.9 Development of the limb buds in human embryo 242-243
13.10 A. Bhujaheen in Urdhwa and Adho Shakha (amelus) 243-244
  B. Ardhbhujak (hemimelus in arms) and two Sakth iheen (amelus)  
13.11 A. Urdhwa bhujaheen (phocomelus in upper limb)and Sanyukta sandhi in Adho Shakha (sympodia in legs) 243-244
  B. Vidar or Nakhar Panja in Hasta (lobester’s claw)  
13.12 A. Bahuanguliya (Polydactyly) 244-245
  B. Sanyuktanguliya (Syndactly)  
13.13 Mudgar Paad (Telepes equinoverous) 244-245
  Chapter 14  
14.1 A. Garbh (embryo)- 5 to 7 weeks Undifferentiated stage 247-248
  B. Stri Garbh (female embryo)- 8 to 9 weeks  
  C. Developmental details of Artavavaha Srotas  
14.2 Shukravaha Srotas at Pasch Urdhva Tala of Mutrashaya and Purush Mutra Jananga 249-250
14.3 A. Diagram showing development of Artava and Shukravaha stage 250-251
  B. Diagram showing development of Organs of Artavavaha Srotas  
  C. Diagram showing development of Organs of Shukravaha Srotas  
14.4 A. Janan Gulika (genital tubercie) Indifferentiated stage 250-251
  B. Guda (anus)  
  C. Development of organs of Shukravaha Srotas and Artavavaha Srotas  
14.5 A. Dwi Shringi Garbhashaya (bicomuate uterus) 251-252
  B. Dwi bhagi Garbhashaya (bifid uterus)  
14.6 Anavatarit Vrishana 252-253
  (undescended testis)  
  Chapter 19  
19.1 Vichhedit talu-oshth (cleft palate and lip) 277-278
  Chapter 20  
20.1 Stanyashaya (mammary gland) 282-283


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