Dr. Manohar Laxman Gharote (B.21 May, 1931, Died 17th January 2005) M.A., M.ED. (Phy.Edn.), Ph.D. (Anthrop). D.Litt., D.S.M., D.B.P.
Former Assistant Director of Scientific Research, Dy. Director of Philosophico-Literary Research Department, Principal, G.S. College of Yoga and Cultural Synthesis, Kaivalyadhama, Lonavla. Written several books on Yoga, some of which are award winning, extensively travelled world over for giving the Yoga conferences and organizing Teachers’ Training Course in Yoga. He was consultant in Yoga for Yoga Organisations in Europe and Latin America. Founder Director, Lonavla Yoga Institute (India).
Dr. Srimanta Kumar Ganguly (B. 25th November, 1942) B.Sc., D.P.Ed., C.C.Y., M.P.E., D.Y.Ed., Ph.D. (Phy. Edn.)
Former Asst. Director of Scientific Research in Yoga and Principal, Gordhandas Saksaria College of Yoga and Cultural Synthesis at the Kaivalyadhama, author of 50 Popular and Research papers published in Yoga-Mimamsa and other Indian and Foreign Journals. He was the author of “Yogasanas Classes V-X A Teacher’s Guide” published by N.C.E.R.T. (1983) and co-authored “Teaching Methods for Yogic Practices” published by Kaivalyadhama (1988). Both the books were awarded with first prize in National Book Competition on Yoga. Author was invited to Czechoslovakia for research on Yoga, and Italy, Spain and S. Korea for Yoga teaching. He organized a number of Yoga camps for common people in India. He attended and presented research papers in 8 National and International conferences on Yoga. Dr. Ganguly worked for some years as Managing Editor of Yoga-Mimamsa (A Quarterly Journal), Kaivalyadhama, Lonavla. He was involved as resource person in syllabus committee of NCERT., K.V.S. and M.D.N.I.Y. and was award with Bharat Gaurav by IIFS, New Delhi. After serving continuously for 38 years at Kaivalyadhama, presently, teaching in honorary capacity in the above college since June ‘2002.
Swami Shivanandaji of Rishikesh (Uttaranchala) and Swami Kuvalayanandaji of Kaivalyadhama, Lonavla (Maharashtra), were two great names in the history of Yoga, especially, its systematic training to aspirants. The former started the Yoga-vedanta Forest University, and the latter, the very first College of Yoga and Cultural Synthesis. Both these pioneers started their work in the first half of the twentieth century, and with slow but steady progress, that work of systematic training in Yoga has now spread considerably in many parts of the world. Now, in the beginning of the twentyfirst century, many individuals and institutions are found to engage themselves in teaching Yoga by taking Yoga classes and by treating patients through yogic methods. These people are usually drawn from the basic disciplines of Physical Education, Ayurveda, or even modern medicine. By and large, they themselves are not very proficient in teaching methodology. They seem to look upon Yoga training as a profession or a performing art like, for example, photography, painting or carpentry. There is no harm in having this tendency, if one has honestly and devotion. But it is imperative that every Yoga teacher must be aware of the importance of knowing the teaching methods and principles well and their application to Yoga. For that purpose, this would be a very useful book. One’s performance as a Yoga teacher would be improved by studying this book.
The teaching of yogic practices is a new experience for students, teachers and beginning teachers alike. This book is intended to serve as a guide to lead from the unknown territory of teaching Yoga to the known territory of successful and efficient teaching of yogic practices. It is hoped that it will smoothen the path of the student-teacher or a new teacher of Yoga and afford a happier and more profitable learning experience on the part of the Yoga students.
Before one begins teaching Yoga it is necessary that the teacher is fully convinced about the contributions that various practices can make in the area of Education and for the well being of children and young people as well as adult students. The teacher should be fully aware of the unique benefits of the programme of yogic practices to the growth and development of individual students in relation to the other school programmes. Without realizing these preliminaries to teaching, the teacher will not be able to make available the rich and rewarding experiences of yogic practices to the participants. The teaching of a class must result in a happy and pleasant experience.
“Teaching Methodology of Yogic Practices” has been a curriculum subject for the students of the G.S. College of Yoga and Cultural Synthesis for many years. It is also becoming an essential subject in the training courses of Yoga teachers elsewhere. The authors have been long associated with the handling of this subject in the G.S. College of Yoga and Cultural Synthesis and this book is based on their personal experience of teaching students at many different levels of development.
We feel that there is such a dearth of literature on this subject that both experienced Yoga teachers and beginning will derive benefits in their field from this book.
Although we have been contemplating in bringing out this book for some time, it has only now become possible due to financial help from the Ministry of Human Resources Development, Govt. of India, New Delhi for which we are grateful.
Teaching is a specialized subject. In all teaching learning situation, it is very essential that a student as well as the teacher should know the techniques and art of teaching. There is no exception to yogic teaching also. More so, when one goes to teach Yoga practices, one should have a hand book like this as ready made material. Till date there was no teaching methodology book, except this, available in the field of Yoga practices. Therefore, it was necessary to publish this book which can guide students as well as the would be teachers in the field of Yoga.
The first edition of this book is almost sold as it has got a demand in different colleges and universities where Yoga is being taught. Looking to the need of the day, this book has been edited so far mistake are concerned and also a new material in the form of Index has been added to it. This will further facilitate the readers in locating immediately the topic that he wants to go through. This was then left earlier due to short of time. Moreover, the book has been given a new shape to look at.
Since it is a curriculum subject in Gordhandas Seksaria College of Yoga and Cultural Synthesis, it is hoped that students will get maximum benefit while going through this as a guide book.
Tradition of teaching has a long history of thousand years in India. The “Gurukulas” established by Rishis and Munis were abode of learning. It is a noble job and ideal profession but it requires a skill on the part of the teacher. No doubt teachers are born and not made, but certain skill and good methodology can change the whole teaching in a class room situation. Therefore, it is our effort to bring about a book on “Teaching methods for Yoga practices” for it has come into the realm of education. The role of a teacher is not merely teaching but effective teaching so that the students learn the lesson effectively. This new edition has got two important chapters added to it. One is utility of teaching aids with little addition into it and the second one is “How to put questions aids with little addition into it and the second one is “How to put questions in a classroom situation” to test the merit of the sadhaka (learner). Moreover, at the end, some selected “Model questions” are added to this edition from examination point of view for it is an examination subject in the Gordhandas Seksaria College of Yoga and Cultural Synthesis. The author believes that the Yoga teachers as well as the students will be benefited to understand and apply such point further for better presentation of the subject matter. It has also replaced its earlier black and white photographs for progressive way of teaching the selected yogic practices. In this context, helps were taken from Ms. Suchint Kaur Sodhi, Yoga Instructor and Miss. Surabhi Rattan, Shri Suman Dutta and Sri Ankan Kumar Sarkar our students. My thanks go to each of these people. I am indebted to Rev. Swami Maheshanandaji, Chairman and to Sri O.P. Tiwariji, Secretary, K.S.M.Y.M. Samiti for constant guidance and encouragement for the improvement of this book.
I end my preface with Swami Kuvalayanandaji’s saying based on his comment on Teacher in education. He said, “A teacher should have a motherly love for his students. One cannot with over students either through creating a personal awe and fear or through creating an aura of one’s knowledge and scholarly panache. Teachers should never insult and should never use abrasive words to such students in any ways. Such students should be treated more affectionately and should be encouraged. Give some more time to such students even after the usual school hours. A teacher perceives, instantly, through bodily cues as to whether a particular students has understood the subject matter. He should see to it that the subject matter being taught is thoroughly understood by such a student.
Every teacher should cognize his responsibility for value education and physical education along with formal education. Be it any subject, a teacher should emphasize on value inculcation and ethical values while planning out teaching of his subject matter. It would not be pertinent to leave the subject of Physical Education to the respective subject teacher only. As well, this subject should not be treated as merely a part of sports activities. In a class room situation, during a learning process, even the mode of sitting, standing and conducting oneself properly, can be encompassed within the ambit of physical education. From the view point of biological science all these aspects of human endeavours have an intimate relationship with health and hygience. With due cognizance to this fact, the class teacher concerned should guide students appropriately. A teacher will be able to perform his above mentioned duties only when he has a motherly love for his students.”
We have very little information about the ways and methods resorted to by the teachers in ancient times for teaching various subjects. However, according to Bhagwat Gita the methods of learning consisted of persistent questioning, showing reverence and doing physical work for the teacher. There were no fixed hours of teaching. There were no examinations and no certificates. Being with the teacher was the best way to learn. The relations between the teacher and the students were free and frank. Often there were arguments between the teacher and the student but this never led to any acrimony. Before any lesson began, the teacher and the student would both pray together that they might derive the best results. The idea was to study together, not to compete with each other. The teacher always knew more than the student but he did not claim that he knew everything. A good teacher always expected that his student should prove his superiority. All learning took place in the residential situation. All education was completely free. Most of the teaching was oral, so this required recitation and cultivation of a good memory. The student not only learned from the context of the lessons but through personal conduct, which was expected to be above reproach.
Teaching of a practical subject involved observation, demonstration and practice on the part of the student and correction of the faults, giving positive suggestions by the teacher. There was also much use of the trial and error method on the part of the student.
Teaching was not a profession but a mission to enlighten innocent young children entrusted to the care of teachers.
Most of the teaching was individualized using instructional method on a one-to-one basis or at the most in a small group.
Today the times have changed. Like other professions teaching has also become a profession. However, the teaching of Yoga differs from other forms of teaching. For the first time in history, Yoga has attracted the attention of enormous numbers of people all round the world and we find it necessary to devise different methods of instruction for class work in order to fulfill the needs of so many interested students. Hence we have evolved from our experience some methods of teaching yogic practices to train the maximum number of persons with minimum expenditure of time and effort.
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